Military district


Military district

Military districts are formations of a state's armed forces (often of the Army) which are responsible for a certain area of territory. They are often more responsible for administrative than operational matters, and in countries with conscript forces, often handle parts of the conscription cycle.

Navies have also used a similar model, with organizations such as the United States Naval Districts. A number of navies in South America used naval districts at various points in time.

Contents

China

Republic of China

There were 76 northern military districts or Military Regions (軍區), or War Areas, which were the largest formations of the National Revolutionary Army, under the National Military Council, chaired by Chiang Kai Shek during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. During the Second Sino-Japanese War the National Revolutionary Army eventually organized itself into twelve Military Regions.

People's Republic of China

Originally thirteen military regions were established in the 1950s, but the number was reduced to eleven in the late 1960s. The resulting eleven military regions - Shenyang, Beijing, Lanzhou, Xinjiang, Jinan, Nanjing, Fuzhou, Guangzhou (including Hainan Island), Wuhan, Chengdu, and Kunming - were reduced to seven by 1985-88. The active military districts now include Lanzhou, incorporating the former Ürümqi MR, Chengdu Military Region, incorporating the former Kunming MR, Nanjing, which includes the former Fuzhou MR, Beijing, and Shenyang. Finally Guangzhou and Jinan Military Regions both appear to include parts of the former Wuhan MR.

The military regions are divided into military districts, usually contiguous with provinces, and military sub-districts.

Germany

German Reich

During World War II Germany used the system of military districts (German: Wehrkreis) to relieve field commanders of as much administrative work as possible and to provide a regular flow of trained recruits and supplies to the Field Army. The method they adopted was to separate the Field Army (Oberbefehlshaber des Heeres) from the Home Command (Heimatkriegsgebiet) and to entrust the responsibilities of training, conscription, supply and equipment to that command.

The Commander of the Infantry Corps with the identical number also commanded the Wehrkreis in peacetime, but command of the Wehrkreis passed to his second-in command at the outbreak of war.

In peace time, the Wehrkreis was the home to the Infantry Corps of the same number and all subordinate units of that Corps.

Federal Republic of Germany

Today's German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr) have four military districts - Wehrbereichskommando as part of the Streitkräftebasis or Joint Service Support Command. The headquarters are in:

Indonesia

Kodam districts as of 2007

The Indonesia National Army (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia) used military districts, created by General Soedirman as a system called Wehrkreise, adapted from the German system during World War II. The system was later ratified in Surat Perintah Siasat No.1, signed by General Soedirman on November 1948.

The Wehrkreise was used in Indonesia as a means of circles of defense, or regional defense, to defend islands and provinces under Indonesian control. Each regional commander had full authority to begin operations with assets available in the district. Wehrkreise region commanders had command over the military, political, the economic, education, and local government structures and organisations.

Today the military districts are called KODAMs.

Poland

Initially, right after First World War, Poland had five military districts (1918–1921):

  • Poznań Military District (Poznański Okręg Wojskowy), HQ in Poznań
  • Kraków Military District (Krakowski Okręg Wojskowy), HQ in Kraków
  • Łódź Military District (Łódzki Okręg Wojskowy), HQ in Łódź
  • Warsaw Military District (Warszawski Okręg Wojskowy), HQ in Warszawa
  • Lublin Military District (Lubelski Okręg Wojskowy), HQ in Lublin.

In 1921, due to reorganization, the military districts were replaced with Dowództwo Okręgu Korpusu (DOK - Corps District Command). In the Second Polish Republic there were ten DOK's:

Each DOK consisted of four large units (three infantry divisions and one cavalry brigade).

For district arrangements after World War II see Polish Land Forces. The Kraków Military District disbanded in 1953. From 1999 Poland has been divided into two military districts, the Pomeranian Military District and the Silesian Military District.

Russia and the Soviet Union

Russian Empire

The Russian Empire's military district (Russian: вое́нный о́круг, voyenny okrug) was a territorial association of military units, formations, military schools, and various local military establishments. This territorial division type was utilized in Imperial Russia, USSR and is currently in use in Russian Federation.

Such territorial division provided convenient management of army units, their training and other activities regarding the country’s readiness to defend itself.

Soviet Union

In the USSR, the military districts continued to performe the same role they had done in the Russian Empire, with first six military districts (Yaroslavsky, Moskovsky, Orlovsky, Belomorsky, Uralsky, and Privolzhsky) were formed on 31 March 1918 during the Russian Civil War.

This increased to 17 military districts of the USSR at the beginning July 1940 shortly before the start of the Second World War, and were used to create combat Fronts after commencement of the German invasion of the USSR.

During the war the districts were further divided into geographic regions for logistic reasons, these being:[citation needed]

  • North and North Western districts
  • West and Central USSR districts
  • South and South Western districts
  • Siberian and Central Asian districts
  • Far Eastern districts

After the war, the number was increased to 33 to aid in demobilisation of forces, but by October 1946, they had been reduced to 21.[1]

By the end of the 1980s, immediately before the dissolution of the Soviet Union, there were sixteen military districts, within three to five main strategic Theatre groupings.

Russian Federation

A military district (Russian: вое́нный о́круг, voyenny okrug) in the Russian Federation operates under the command of the district headquarters, headed by the district commander, and is subordinated to the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.[citation needed] (Previously under Commander-in-Chief of the Ground Forces General Nikolai Kormiltsev, the military districts reported to the General Staff via the Russian Ground Forces staff.) It is a territorial association of military units, formations, military schools, and various local military establishments. This territorial division type was historically adopted, originally by Imperial Russia, to provide a more efficient management of army units, their training and other operations activities related to combat readiness.

From 1992 to 2010, the Armed Forces maintained a diminishing number of former Soviet Armed Forces districts - Leningrad Military District, Moscow Military District, Volga-Urals Military District, North Caucasus Military District, Siberian Military District, Far East Military District.

In 2009-2010, these districts were reorganised into 4 Military Districts comprising regional Joint Strategic Commands:[2]

  • Western Military District with headquarters in Saint Petersburg
  • Southern Military District with headquarters in Rostov-on-Don
  • Central Military District with headquarters in Ekaterinburg
  • Eastern Military District with headquarters in Khabarovsk

United Kingdom

Structure Regional Forces

As part of the wider Structure of the British Army, three Divisions and London District act as regional commands within the UK, under the Commander, Regional Forces at HQ Land Forces. They are responsible for training subordinate formations and units under their command for operations in the UK, such as Military Aid to the Civil Community, as well as training units for overseas deployments. This task leads to them being described as Regenerative Divisions. These divisions would only be required to generate field formations in the event of a general war.

London District is responsible for the maintenance of capability for the defence of the capital and the provision of ceremonial units and garrisons for the Queen's Guard in London.

There are also military formations permanently located around the world, including in several of the British overseas territories:

United States historical military districts

U.S. mainland military administration districts and departments

These entities were sometimes the only governmental authority in the listed areas, although they often co-existed with civil governments in scarcely populated states and territories.

Central United States

  • Department of the Missouri (1861–1865) Missouri, Arkansas, Illinois, part of Kentucky, and later Kansas; re-configured in 1865 as part of the Division of the Missouri.
  • Division of the Missouri (1865–1891).
    • Department of Dakota (1866–1911) Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, and parts of Idaho, South Dakota and the Yellowstone portion of Wyoming.
    • Department of the Missouri (1865–1891) Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, Indian Territory,and Territory of Oklahoma.
    • Department of the Platte (1866–1898) Iowa, Nebraska, Colorado, Dakota Territory, Utah Territory, Wyoming (except Yellowstone), and a portion of Idaho.
    • Department of Texas (originally part of the Department of the Gulf) Texas after 1865.
  • Department of New Mexico (1861–1898) New Mexico Territory; previously part of the District of California and the Department of the West.

Pacific area

  • Pacific Division (1848–1853) lands won in the Mexican–American War; became the original Department of the Pacific in 1853.
    • Military Department 10 (1848–1851) California.
    • Military Department 11 (1848–1851) Oregon Territory.
  • Department of the Pacific (1853–1858; and 1861–1865); separated into the Department of California and the Department of Oregon in 1858.
    • District of California (1864–1865) California, Nevada Territory, Arizona Territory, and New Mexico Territory; Utah added 1858
    • District of Oregon (1853–1858; and 1864–1867) Washington Territory, Oregon Territory and Idaho Territory.
  • Department of California (1858–1861) the southern part of the Department of the Pacific: California, Nevada, and southern part of Oregon Territory; merged into the Department of the Pacific as the District of California.
  • Department of Oregon (1858–1861) the northern part of the Department of the Pacific: Washington Territory and Oregon Territory.
  • Military Division of the Pacific (1865–1891).
    • Department of Alaska (1868–1884) became the civilian-ruled District of Alaska.
    • Department of Arizona (1865–1891) Arizona Territory; included New Mexico Territory after 1885.
    • Department of the Columbia (1865–1891) Oregon, Washington Territory, part of Idaho Territory, and Alaska after 1870.
    • New Department of California (1865–1891) California, Nevada Territory, Arizona Territory, and part of New Mexico Territory.

The south

  • Department of the Gulf (1862–1865; created for the Civil War) Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, and Texas.
  • Trans-Mississippi (CSA) (1861–1865).

The west

Overseas regions primarily under U.S. military administration

Vietnam

Vietnam People's Army has 8 Military Regions:

  • High Command of Capital Hanoi: It is directly under the Ministry of Defense of Vietnam; tasked to organize, build, manage and command armed forces defending the capital. The headquarters is in Hanoi.
  • 1st Military Region (Vietnam People's Army): It is directly under the Ministry of Defense of Vietnam; tasked to protect against foreign invaders; and to organize, build, manage and command forces in northeastern Vietnam. The headquarters is in Thai Nguyen.
  • 2nd Military Region (Vietnam People's Army): It is directly under the Ministry of Defense of Vietnam; tasked to organize, build, manage and command armed forces defending northwestern Vietnam. The headquarters is in Viet Tri.
  • 3rd Military Region (Vietnam People's Army): It is directly under the Ministry of Defense of Vietnam; tasked to organize, build, manage and command armed forces defending the Red River Delta area. The headquarters is in Hai Phong.
  • 4th Military Region (Vietnam People's Army): It is directly under the Ministry of Defense of Vietnam; tasked to organize, build, manage and command armed forces defending north central Vietnam. The headquarters is in Vinh.
  • 5th Military Region (Vietnam People's Army): It is directly under the Ministry of Defense of Vietnam; tasked to organize, build, manage and command armed forces defending south central Vietnam, including the western highlands and south central coastal provinces. The headquarters is in Da Nang.
  • 7th Military Region (Vietnam People's Army): It is directly under the Ministry of Defense of Vietnam; tasked to organize, build, manage and command armed forces defending southeastern Vietnam. The headquarters is in Ho Chi Minh City.
  • 9th Military Region (Vietnam People's Army): It is directly under the Ministry of Defense of Vietnam; tasked to organize, build, manage and command armed forces defending the Mekong Delta. The headquarters is in Cần Thơ

See also

References

  1. ^ V.I. Feskov et al, The Soviet Army in the Period of the Cold War, Tomsk, 2004
  2. ^ http://www.mil.ru/848/1045/1272/1365/index.shtml
  • www.mil.ru for official Russian military district information

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