Joab


Joab

:"Yoav redirects here. For the musician, see Yoav (musician)."Joab(יוֹאָב "The LORD is father", Standard Hebrew Yoʾav, Tiberian Hebrew Yôʾāḇ) was the nephew of King David, the son of Zeruiah in the Bible. He was made the captain of David's army (2 Samuel 8:16; 20:23; 1 Chronicles 11:6; 18:15; 27:34). He had two brothers, Abishai and Asahel. Asahel was killed by Abner, for which Joab took revenge by treacherously murdering Abner (2 Samuel 2:13-32; 3:27). However, according to Josephus, in Antiquities, Book 7, Chapter 1, Joab had forgiven Abner for the death of his brother, Asahel. The reason being that Abner had slain Asahel honorably in combat after he had first warned Asahel and had no other choice but to kill him out of self defense. This battle was part of a civil war between David and Ishbosheth, the son of Saul. After this battle Abner switched to the side of David and granted him control over the tribe of Benjamin. This act put Abner in David's favor. The real reason that Joab killed Abner was that he became a threat to his rank of general. He, then, justifies it later by mentioning his brother.

After leading the assault on the fortress of Mount Zion, he was promoted to the rank of General (1 Chronicles 27:34). He led the army against Syria, Ammon, Moab and Edom. He also took part in David's murder of Uriah (2 Samuel 11:14-25).

Joab played a pivotal role as the commander of David's forces during Absalom's rebellion. Absalom, one of David's sons, rallied much of Israel in rebellion against David, who was forced to flee with only his most trusted men. However, David could not bring himself to harm his son, and ordered that none of his men should kill Absalom during the ensuing battle. However, when a man reported that Absalom had been found, alive, caught in a tree, Joab ordered his men to kill him (2 Samuel 18:1-33).

In addition to the murder of Absalom, Joab also murdered Abner son of Ner against David's wishes (2 Samuel 3). David later replaced him as commander of the army with his nephew, Amasa (2 Samuel 17:25; 19:13). Joab later killed Amasa (2 Samuel 20:8-13; 1 Kings 2:5).

On the brink of death, David told Solomon to have Joab killed citing Joab's past betrayals and the blood that he was guilty of, and for this Solomon ordered his death by the hand of Benaiah (1 Kings 2:29-34), who then replaced him as commander of the army. Joab was buried in 'the wilderness' (1 Kings 2:34). It is interesting to note that Joab fled to the Holy Temple and told Benaiah that he will die there. Benaiah, as ordered by King Solomon, kills Joab in the House of Yahweh.

David's ordered dispatching of Joab is one of the more puzzling episodes in biblical literature. A ruthless Machiavel, Joab was nonetheless a loyal subject of the king, and his killing Absalom was certainly motivated by a shrewd political pragmatism to resecure David's overthrown monarchy. It should be remembered that David ordered Joab to place Uriah the Hittite in harm's way, an order Joab followed without question. David demonstrates a certain moral selectivity in ordering Joab's death.

The name Yoav (Joab) may also be attributed to the district of Moav (Moab in Latin transcription),eastern bank of the Jordan, where Ruth the Moabite stemmed from.

Yoav is pronounced Yo+Av.

The name Joab, which is not often attested among Jews before the 20th Century, is a common male name in contmporary Israel - in line with the tendency of Zionism to look favorably upon strong warriors of Biblical times and later Jewish history.

ee also

Joab in Rabbinic Literature
Joab Sarong in Literature

References


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  • JOAB — (Heb. יוֹאָב; YHWH is father ), David s commander in chief; son of Zeruiah, one of David s sisters (I Chron. 2:16). Although Joab s kinship with David no doubt helped him to attain the high post of Israelite commander in chief, his bravery on the …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Joab — (hebräisch: ‏יוֹאָב‎ „JHWH ist Vater“) ist eine Person aus dem Tanach und dem Alten Testament der Bibel. Er war der Heerführer König Davids und dessen Neffe. In der Bibel wird von ihm in den Büchern 1. Samuel 26 bis 1. Könige 2 sowie in 1.… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • JOAB — (mort en JOAB 970 env.) Nom (en hébreu, Yo ab : «Yahvé est père») d’un général, véritable dictateur militaire, qui est l’une des grandes figures des débuts de la royauté israélite. Son histoire est liée à celle de David. À la mort de Saül, Joab… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Joab — es, en la Biblia, el capitán de David desde la batalla contra Isbaal, hijo de Saúl. Joab, cuyo nombre significa Yahveh es padre, aparece en el Libro de los reyes. Se trata del hombre de confianza de David, probablemente incluso emparentado con él …   Wikipedia Español

  • Joab — Joab, Schwestersohn u. Feldherr Davids, auf welchen er großen Einfluß hatte, u. welchen er mit seinem Sohn Absalom aussöhnte, er war kühn, rachsüchtig u. hinterlistig gegen seine Gegner Abner u. Amasa, welche er beide erstach, wie auch nachher… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Jōab — Jōab, Feldherr Davids, dessen Schwestersohn er war. Im Kampfe gegen Sauls Sohn Isboseth erringt er die ersten Erfolge, tötet meuchlings dessen Feldherrn Abner, erstürmt Jebus (s. d.) und die Hauptstadt der Ammoniter. Nach der Eroberung des Landes …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Joab — Joab, Sohn der Zeruja, der Stiefschwester Davids, seit der Erstürmung Zions Oberfeldherr Davids, besiegte die Ammoniter, Edomiter und Absalom; nach Davids Tode auf Befehl Salomos getötet, weil er sich dem rechtmäßigen Thronerben Adonia anschloß …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • JOAB — Zuri et Zarviae fil. Dux exercituum Davidis, strenuus et felix, Abnero et Amasâ perfide occisis, rerum gestarum gloriam obscuravit, Salomonis iussu vicissim occisus. 2. Reg. c. 2. v. 13. Pater abisai. 1. Sam. c. 26. v. 6. Fil. Saraiae. 1. Par. c …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Joab — [jō′ab΄] n. [LL(Ec) < Gr(Ec) Iōab < Heb yō ābh, lit., Yahweh is (his) father] Bible the commander of David s army: 2 Sam. 10:7 …   English World dictionary

  • Joab — /joh ab/, n. a commander of David s army and the slayer of Abner and Absalom. II Sam. 3:27; 18:14. * * * ▪ biblical figure flourished 1000 BC       in the Old Testament (2 Samuel), a Jewish military commander under King David, who was his mother… …   Universalium