Nissan 300ZX


Nissan 300ZX
Nissan 300ZX
RedZ32.jpg
Manufacturer Nissan
Also called Nissan Fairlady Z
Production 1983–2000 (1984–1996 in U.S)
Assembly Hiratsuka, Kanagawa, Japan
Predecessor Nissan 280ZX
Successor Nissan 350Z
Class Sports car/ Grand Tourer
Layout FR layout
Transmission 5-speed manual
4-speed automatic

300ZX is the name given, in much of the world, to the "Z31" and "Z32" generations of Nissan's Z sports car. Like all other versions of the Z-Car, it was sold in Japan as the Fairlady Z, regardless of model year.[1]

Sold on the Japanese market from 1983 through 2000 and in the United States from 1984 through 1996, the 300ZX name followed the numerical convention initiated with the 240Z, put forth by Yutaka Katayama, the one time president of Nissan Motors USA. The "X" designation had debuted with the previous generation Z car, the 280ZX, to signify the presence of luxury and comfort oriented features. The Z31 model of 1983 through 1989 was the more popular model, with over 100,000 more units sold than the Z32.

Both generations feature a 3.0 litre, V6 engine in either naturally aspirated or turbocharged form. Although both generations used engines from Nissan's VG family and have the same displacement, they are drastically different engines. Z31 cars are powered by the VG30E, a single overhead cam engine with a fairly simple design. Z32 generation models were powered by the VG30DE engine, an advancement on the previous design that featured double overhead camshafts, variable valve timing and individual throttle bodies for each bank of 3 cylinders. Additionally, Z31 Turbo models used a single, non-intercooled turbocharger, while Z32 generation cars featured twin, intercooled turbochargers.

In naturally aspirated form, output from the Z32 was 222 hp (166 kW) and 198 lb·ft (268 N·m) of torque, compared to 160-165 hp and 174 lb·ft (236 N·m) of torque from the Z31. Twin turbocharged Z32s produce 300 hp (220 kW) and 283 lb·ft (384 N·m) torque, while the single turbo Z31 produced 200-205 hp and 227 lb·ft (308 N·m) of torque. The Z31's single overhead cam engine has 13 head bolts per head, for a total of 26, where as the Z32's dual overhead cam engine only has 8 head bolts per head, for a total of 16.

Two Special Edition versions of the Z31 generation model were produced; a 50th Anniversary Edition celebrated the company's semi-centennial in 1984 and boasted additional luxury features, and a "Shiro Special", released 4 years later, boasted performance-oriented upgrades.[2][3][4] The Z32 was virtually entirely new at the time of its release, with nearly nothing being carried over from the Z31. One of the most significant and obvious changes was the redesigned body, which had a wider footprint, a rounder profile with fewer hard edges and a reduced drag coefficient of .31 compared to the Z31's .30. Twin Turbocharged Z32s also featured a then-new active rear wheel steering systems called "Super HICAS", which was actuated hydraulically until 1994 when Nissan switched to an electric actuator. Nissan designated the final 300 units earmarked for North American sale in 1996 as "Commemorative Edition" cars, although nothing new or exclusive to the model was actually present; In fact, 1996 model years vehicles did not feature Nissan's NVTC variable valve timing system, which had been present on all Z32 generation models prior to that point. Production continued in Japan until August 2000, with styling updates and the addition of HID headlamps in 1998.[5]

In racing trim, the 300ZX achieved several notable victories, including wins in the 1986 Trans Am series and 1994 24 Hours of Daytona. However, auto sports politics and a GTS-1 class win at the 24 Hours of Le Mans that same year[6] prompted the International Motor Sports Association to declare the twin turbo engine illegal for future competition.[7] The 300ZX also holds the E/BMS land speed record of 419.84 km/h (260.87 mph) from the 1991 Bonneville Speed Trial.[8]

The Z32 300ZX was the first car to be sold following the introduction of a 280-hp power ceiling imposed by JAMA that remained until 2004.[9]

The Z32 300ZX was praised by critics and journalists during its lifetime for its performance, styling, comfort and use of technology. Car and Driver placed the car on its Ten Best list for 7 consecutive years, meaning it made the list during every year of its availability in the United States, and Motor Trend awarded it as the 1990 Import Car of the Year.[citation needed]

The Nissan 350Z, officially the Z33 generation Z-Car, succeeded the 300ZX in 2003.

Contents

Z31

Z31
White300ZX.jpg
Also called Nissan Z31
Production 1983–1989
number produced: 329,900
(for export: 294,516)
(for JDM: 35,384)[10]
Predecessor Nissan 280ZX
Body style

2-door coupe

2+2
Engine 2.0 L VG20ET V6 (200Z, 200ZG, 200ZS)
2.0 L RB20DET I6 (200ZR)
3.0 L VG30E V6 (300ZX)
3.0 L VG30ET V6(300ZX Turbo)
3.0 L VG30DE V6 (300ZR)
Transmission 5-Speed FS5W71C Manual Transmission
5-Speed FS5R90A Manual Transmission
5-Speed FS5R30A Manual Transmission
4-Speed E4N71B Automatic Transmission
Wheelbase 2320 mm (91.3 in) (SWB)
2520 mm (99.2 in) (LWB)
Length 4410 mm (173.7 in) (SWB)
4605 (181.3 in) (LWB)
Width 1725 mm (67.9 in)
Height 1260 mm (49.7 in)
Curb weight 2,888–3,027 lb (1,310–1,373 kg)
Designer Kazumasu Takagi[5]

The Z31 chassis designation was first introduced in 1983 as a 1984 Nissan/Datsun 300ZX (the hatch lid had both a Datsun badge and a Nissan badge) in the US only. The 300ZX, as its predecessors, was known as a Nissan in other parts of the world. This continued in the US until 1985 model year when Nissan standardized their brand name worldwide and dropped the Datsun badge. A note can be made that all publications for the Z31 chassis 300ZX and its predecessors were copyright Nissan North America. Designed by Kazumasu Takagi and his team of developers, the 300ZX improved aerodynamics and increased power when compared to its predecessor, the 280ZX. The newer Z-car had a drag coefficient of 0.30 and was powered by Japan's first mass-produced V6 engine instead of an I6. According to Nissan, "the V6 engine was supposed to re-create the spirit of the original Fairlady Z.[5]

This new V6 (2960 cc) Single overhead cam engine was available as a naturally aspirated VG30E or a turbocharged VG30ET producing 160 hp (119 kW) and 200 hp (150 kW) respectively. The engine was either a type A or type B sub-designation from 1984 to April 1987, while models from May 1987 to 1989 had a W sub-designation. The W-series engines featured redesigned water jackets for additional cooling, fully floating piston wrist pins, and more power—165 hp naturally aspirated and 205 hp (153 kW) turbocharged. The 1984 to 1987 turbo models featured a Garrett T3 turbocharger with a 7.8:1 compression ratio, whereas 1988 to 1989 models featured a low inertia T25 turbocharger with an increased 8.3:1 compression ratio. Finally, these engines were equipped with self-adjusting hydraulic valve lifters. The transmissions were a 5-speed manual or an optional 4-speed automatic (E4N71B for turbo models, L4N71B for naturally aspirated models). The automatic transmission on the turbo models did not have a lockup mechanism. All Z31's were equipped with a Nissan R200 rear differential, later year turbo models received an R200 limited-slip differential. There were three trim models available: SF, GL and GLL. The SF model was only available in Canada.

Similar to Chrysler's Electronic Voice Alert, the 1984-1986 Z31 GL and GLL models featured a voice warning system.

Japanese market

The 200Z, 200ZG, and 200ZS used the VG20ET engine while the 200ZR came with the RB20DET. The 300ZX could come with either the VG30E or VG30ET. The only factory Z31 variant to use the VG30DE engine was the 300ZR.[11]

European models

The European models made 241 hp (180 kW) [12] in turbo form due to a better camshaft profile, also known outside of Europe as the Nismo camshafts. Some models were also equipped without catalytic converters. All European turbocharged models received a different front lower spoiler as well, with 84-86 models being unique and 87-89 production having the same spoiler as the USDM 1988 "SS" model.

Australian models

All Australian model z31 300zx's were 2+2 targa top body. The cars sold in 1984 and '85 were all naturally aspirated with no catalytic converter, while the turbocharged version was the only model available from 1986 to 1988. There was only one trim level in Australia, with the digital dashboard and climate control being an optional upgrade package, and leather seats only available in the redesigned series 3 "Californian" models. The Australian model Z31's factory specified power output has not been confirmed to this date. The turbo models are rumoured to make the same 241 hp (180 kW) as the European model z31's, but the presence of the more aggressive camshafts has not been confirmed. The Australian factory service manual provides camshaft measurements which do not match any of the known USDM or EDM camshaft profiles, the FSM states the exhaust valve has an open duration of 252 degrees, but the specified opening and closing angles add up to 258 degrees.[13] All Australian magazine articles state the n/a models have 166 hp (124 kW), and the turbo models as 208 hp (155 kW).[14] The Australian 50th Anniversary Edition was more basic than the US version, the 50th AE was a normal n/a 300zx with the digital dash package, a black interior, black velour seats and a 50th AE badge on the exterior. The exterior badge was fixed to the cars by dealerships, so the position of the badge is not the same on all models. There was no Shiro Special in Australia, and no models featured the adjustable shock absorbers.

Chassis

The Z31 chassis was based on the 280ZX, but improved upon it. Although the newer chassis had the same wheelbase and MacPherson strut/semi-trailing arm independent suspension, it handled and accelerated better than the 280ZX it replaced. Turbocharged models, except for the Shiro Special edition, had an additional innovation: 3-way electronically adjustable shock absorbers.

Special Z31 releases

A 1984 50th Anniversary Edition 300ZX.

Nissan manufactured two special Z31 models. The 1984 300ZX 50th Anniversary Edition, released to celebrate Nissan's half-century, was a fully loaded turbocharged model with a Silver/Black color scheme. All 50th Anniversary Edition came equipped with a digital dash including MPG and compass readouts, in-car electronic adjustable shocks, Bodysonic speakers in the seats, cruise and radio controls in the steering wheel, mirrored t-tops, embroidered leather seats, embroidered floor mats, sixteen-inch (406 mm) aluminum wheels, rear fender flares, different front fenders, and 50th AE logo badges on the body. The only option available to the 50th Anniversary Edition was the choice between an automatic or a 5-speed manual transmission. 5,148 AE models were produced for the US market. Notably, 1984 also marks the last year of turbochargers cooled entirely by oil. 1985 turbo models are equipped with coolant passages to ensure turbo longevity. In 1988, the turbocharged Shiro Special debuted with pearl white paint, stiffer springs and matched shocks, heavy-duty anti-sway bars, a unique front air dam, paint matched wheels, Recaro seats with matching door panels, painted bumperettes, white painted doorhandles and a viscous, limited-slip differential. No other options were available for the Shiro, meaning all Shiros were identical. It was the fastest car out of Japan, capable of 153 mph (246 km/h) speeds, as tested by Motor Trend with the electronic speed limiter disabled.[2] A total of 1002 Shiro Special Z31s were produced, and only about 650 made it to the US market between January and March 1988.[3]

Style and evolution

The Z31 body was slightly restyled in 1986 with the addition of side skirts, fender flares, and sixteen inch (406 mm) wheels (all directly from the 1984 50th Anniversary Edition with the exception of the fender flares). Many black plastic trim pieces were also painted to match the body color, and the hood scoop was removed to provide a sleeker look. The car was given a final makeover in 1987 that included more aerodynamic bumpers, fog lamps within the front air dam, and 9004 bulb-based headlamps that replaced the outdated sealed beam headlights. The 300ZX-titled reflector in the rear was updated to a narrow set of tail lights running the entire width of the car and an LED third brake light on top of the rear hatch. The Z31 continued selling until 1989, more than any other Z-Car at the time. Over 70,000 units were sold in 1985 alone. Cars produced from 1984-1986 are referred to as "Zenki" models, while cars produced from 1987-1989 are known as "Kouki" models signifying the change in body styling.[4]

Z32

Z32
Nissan 300ZX
Also called Nissan Z32
Production 1989–2000 (1990–1996 in U.S)
number produced: 164,170
(for export: 99,286)
(for JDM: 64,884)[10]
Predecessor Nissan 300ZX (Z31)
Body style 2-door convertible
2-door coupe
Engine 3.0 L VG30DE V6
3.0 L VG30DETT V6
Transmission 5-Speed RS5R30A Manual Transmission
4-Speed RE4R01A Automatic Transmission
4-Speed RE4R03A Automatic Transmission
Wheelbase 2,450 mm (96.5 in) 2 seater[1]
2,570 mm (101.2 in) 2+2[1]
Length 4,305 mm (169.5 in) 2 seater[1]
4,520 mm (178.0 in) 2+2[1]
Width 1,790 mm (70.5 in) 2 seater[1]
1,800 mm (70.9 in) 2+2[1]
Height 1990-92: 49.2 in (1,250 mm)
1990-92 T-Roof Turbo & Convertible: 49.4 in (1,255 mm)
1993-98: 48.4 in (1,229 mm)
1993-98 T-Roof 2+2: 48.1 in (1,222 mm)
1993-95 Convertible: 49.5 in (1,257 mm)
1996-98 Slicktop: 48.3 in (1,227 mm)
1996-98 Convertible: 48.7 in (1,237 mm)
Curb weight 3,186 lb (1,445 kg) 2 seater non-turbo T-top
3,373 lb (1,530 kg) 2 seater twin-turbo T-top
3,310 lb (1,501 kg) 2 seater twin-turbo hard top
3,432 lb (1,557 kg) 2 seater convertible
3,313 lb (1,503 kg) 2+2 non-turbo T-top
3,602 lb (1,634 kg) 2+2 twin-turbo T-top
Designer Isao Sono & Toshio Yamashita

The only thing that remained unchanged from the previous generation 300ZX was the displacement of the 3-liter engine, now with dual overhead camshafts(DOHC), variable valve timing(VVT) and producing a rated 222 hp (166 kW) and 198 lb·ft (268 N·m) in naturally aspirated form. The big news for enthusiasts, however, was the turbo variant, now upgraded with twin Garrett turbochargers and dual intercoolers. This was good for 300 hp (224 kW) along with 283 lb·ft (384 N·m) of torque.[15] Performance varied from 0-60 times of 5.0-6.0 seconds depending on the source, and it had a governed top speed of 155 mph (249 km/h).

Upon its release, the new 300ZX became an instant hit, winning Motor Trend's "Import Car of the Year" in 1990 as well as "One of the Top Ten Performance Cars". Automobile Magazine honors the 300ZX/300ZX Turbo as its "Design of the Year" and adds it to their "All Stars" list. Road & Track names the 300ZX Turbo "One of the Ten Best Cars in the World", and Car and Driver adds it to their 10Best for the seven years in which it was in production in America. American Z-car sales reach the one million sales mark in the 1990 model year, making it the all-time best selling sports car.[16]

Nissan utilized the Cray-II supercomputer to completely design the new 300ZX with a form of CAD software.[17] This made the 300ZX one of the first production cars to be developed in a CAD program. In return, it featured a whole host of technological advancements. On the twin turbo models, four-wheel steering was available under the name Super HICAS (High Capacity Actively Controlled Steering). The twin turbochargers, intercoolers, and requisite plumbing left for a cramped engine bay.

Like previous generations Nissan offered a 2+2 model with the Z32. In 1993, a convertible version was introduced for the first time in the Z-car's history, as a response to aftermarket conversions. All 300ZXs now featured T-tops as standard, yet there were some rare hardtops produced as well.

The 300ZX was doomed to the same fate of many Japanese sports cars of the time. The mid-'90s trend toward SUVs and the rising Yen:Dollar ratio were both influential in ending North American 300ZX sales in 1996 at over 80,000 units sold (production for other markets continued until 2000). In 1990 the 300ZX was priced at about $30,000, but in its final year this price had increased to around $50,000. This left many people questioning its value, and despite a final Commemorative Edition for the final 300 units shipped to America (complete with decals and certificates of authenticity), the Z-Car was on hiatus. In Japan, however, the 300ZX lived until 2000 with a face-lift in 1998 including a new fascia, tail lights, head lights, rear spoiler, and a few other minor changes.

Style and evolution

The Z32 chassis would likewise undergo several changes throughout its US production run between 1989 and 1996. Among the milestone safety additions are the inclusion of standard driver and passenger-side airbags and true pillar-mount seat belts. The Z32's extended model year sales in 1990 reached 39,290 units.[18]

1991

  • Manual climate controls discontinued.
  • New electronic climate controls allowing control over air flow direction, but no more ambient temp gauge.
  • Nissan logo put on the front fascia (nose panel).
  • Driver's airbag now optional.
  • Air conditioner evaporator valve changed from aluminum to steel for better sound insulation.
  • Naturally Aspirated model's brake rotors changed to Turbo units. Previous NA rotors were 4 mm thinner.
  • CD player option added for both the TT and NA; it was previously only available in the NA.
  • Bose stereo head unit changed.
  • Brake master cylinder changed to new unit in February 1991.
  • Sales: 17,652 units.[18]

1992

  • Driver's airbag made standard.
  • Dashboard and door complementary material changed from fabric to suede.
  • Separate mirror heater switch eliminated (combined with rear defroster switch).
  • Power adjustable driver's seat standard on TT.
  • Sales: 6,708 units.[18]

1993

  • Turbo oil line insulation changed for better heat dissipation.
  • Convertible option added.
  • Brake caliper material changed from aluminum to iron, to help warpage/shimmy problems.
  • New style fuel injectors for the non-turbo, (except convertible), that are less prone to premature failure.
  • Upgraded Bose stereo made standard.
  • AIV system completely eliminated.
  • Non-turbo model, (except convertible), ECUs changed from 8-bit to 16-bit by Japan Electronic Control System Co..
  • Sales: 11,599 units.[18]

1994

  • Rear spoiler design changed to a taller, pedestal-type.
  • Seat belts redesigned; they were moved from door mounts to true pillar mounts.
  • SuperHICAS system changed to an electrically actuated unit.(previously power steering actuated).
  • New style fuel injectors for the convertible.
  • Passenger's side airbag introduced and made standard.
  • Keyless entry added.
  • Titanium keys discontinued in November 1994.
  • 'Reset' button removed from clock.
  • Off-white 'Pearl' color is dropped. Future 'Pearls' are more of a semi-metallic white.
  • Sales: 5,320 units.[18]

1995

  • New style fuel injectors for the twin-turbo
  • Front fascia became body coloured instead of gray strip.
  • Twin-turbo model ECUs changed from 8-bit to 16-bit (happened late in '94 model year)
  • Sales: 3,135 units.[18]

1996

  • Variable cam timing (NVTC) dropped.
  • OBD II electronics introduced.
  • Driver's seat back rest no longer included adjustable side bolsters.[18]
  • Sales: 2929 Units total, The last 300 of which are the "Commemorative Edition."[19]

Motorsports

In 1984 to 1985 showroom stock racing, the 300ZX captured wins on numerous occasions. The car scored a Trans Am win in 1986 at Lime Rock by Paul Newman for Bob Sharp Racing.[20] This would be the only Trans Am win by a 300ZX.[citation needed]

From 1985 to 1987, the Electramotive-developed GTP ZX-Turbo was raced in the IMSA GT Championship's GTP class and also the All Japan Sports Prototype Championship, badged as a Fairlady Z, using a Lola T810 chassis and a VG30ET engine. Following development through 1987, the car would become dominant in IMSA GT in 1988. Additional factory endorsement, combined with a new chassis, transmission and more reliable Goodyear tires contributed to the team's success. The SOHC VG30ET was making upwards of 1,000 hp (700 kW), with a power band that extended from 4000 to 9000 rpm on a single turbo.[21]

The Clayton Cunningham Racing 300ZX which won the 1994 24 Hours of Daytona.

From 1990 to 1995, Steve Millen drove the twin turbo 300ZX for Clayton Cunningham Racing. The car dominated the IMSA in its GTO, then later GTS categories due to its newly designed chassis and engine. Millen would rank as the #1 Factory Driver for Nissan for 7 years and earn two IMSA GTS Driving Championships and two IMSA GTS Manufacturer's Championships. Among enthusiasts and the team themselves, the biggest triumph for the race Z32 was the victory in the 24 Hours of Daytona. In the same year at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the 300ZX ranked first in the GTS-1 class and 5th overall. In an attempt to level the playing field in the GTS-1 class by reducing the allowable horsepower, the IMSA declared the twin turbo VG engine ineligible.[7] The 1995 GTS 300ZX car would debut with the V8 Nissan VH engine at Daytona[22] and would place first in the GTS-1 class at the 12 Hours of Sebring and Mosehead Grand Prix in Halifax.[23]

The JUN-BLITZ Bonneville Z32 holds the E/BMS class land speed record of 260.87 mph (419.84 km/h) set at the 1995 Bonneville Speed Trial. The vehicle was built as a partnership between JUN Auto and BLITZ. This record remains unbroken. In 1990 JUN's first Z32 went 210.78 mph (339.2 kph) at their Yatabe test course and hit 231.78 mph (373 km/h) after some tuning at Bonneville.[8]

Awards and recognition

  • 1990: The 1990 300-ZX Turbo is named Motor Trend's "Import Car of the Year". Motor Trend also names it, "One of the Top Ten Performance Cars". Automobile Magazine honours the 300-ZX/300ZX Turbo as its "Design of the Year", and names the 300ZX Turbo to its "All Stars" list. Road & Track names the 300ZX Turbo "One of the Ten Best Cars in the World". Car and Driver names the 300ZX Turbo "One of the 10 Best Cars".
  • 1991: The 300ZX Turbo is named to Car and Driver 's "10 Best" list, and is once again one of Automobile Magazine's "All-Stars".
  • 1992: For the third straight year, Car and Driver names the 300ZX Turbo one of its "10 Best", and Automobile Magazine names it to its "All-Stars" list.
  • 1993: For the fourth straight year, the 300ZX Turbo is named a Car and Driver "10 Best", and one of Automobile Magazine's "All-Stars".
  • 1994: For the fifth straight year, the 300ZX Turbo is named to the "10 Best" and "All Stars" lists by Car and Driver and Automobile Magazine, respectively.
  • 1995: For the sixth straight year the 300ZX Turbo is named to the "10 Best" list by Car and Driver.
  • 1996: For the seventh straight year the 300ZX Turbo is named to the "10 Best" list by Car and Driver, this is also the final year of production in the US.

Even after production stopped magazines have continued to rave and award the 300ZX years later.

  • 2004: Automobile lists the Z32 as one of the 100 greatest cars of all time.
  • 2006: Automobile lists the Z32 on both the "20 Greatest Cars of the Past 20 years" and the "25 Most Beautiful Cars in History".

"once again beautiful, so sleek and tight and shimmering that it still looks great ten years after it went away" -Automobile, 2006

  • 2010: GQ Magazine lists the Z32 as one of the most stylish cars over the past 50 years.

From the year it was introduced, the Z32 has also won many comparison tests against similar sports cars such as the Mitsubishi 3000GT/Dodge Stealth, Mazda RX-7, Chevrolet Corvette, Toyota Supra, Dodge Viper, and the Porsche 968.[24]

Safety

In Australia, the 1990 to 1995 Nissan 300ZX was assessed in the Used Car Safety Ratings brochure as providing "average" protection for its occupants in the event of a crash.[25]

The 300ZX was also reported by the United States Department of Transportation to be safer than other popular sports cars like the RX-7, Ford Mustang, Chevrolet Camaro, Pontiac Firebird, and the newer Nissan 350Z in the event of a crash. This is due mainly to the placement of the seatbelt being mounted on the body of the car instead of on the door (94-96 models).

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. (December 1990 (05)). Nissan 300ZX 1991 Service Manual. Tokyo, Japan: Nissan Overseas Service Department. Publication No.: SM1E-0Z32U0. 
  2. ^ a b Z-Club Hungary. "Nissan 300 ZX - Z31". http://www.zclubhungary.hu/E300ZXZ31.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-20. 
  3. ^ a b ZBUM. "US 1988 300ZX SS Registry and Information". http://www.az-zbum.com/information.ss.registry.shtml. Retrieved 2007-02-20. 
  4. ^ a b ZBUM. "The US 300ZX Production Numbers". http://www.az-zbum.com/information.production.shtml. Retrieved 2011-02-04. 
  5. ^ a b c Long, Brian (October 1999). Datsun/Nissan 280/300 ZX. Dorchester: Veloce Publishing. pp. 66–69. ISBN 1-901295-06-0. 
  6. ^ WSPR Racing. "24 h Le Mans". http://www.wspr-racing.com/wspr/results/lemans/lemans1994.html. Retrieved 2007-03-05. 
  7. ^ a b Konik, Michael (1995). "On the Edge". Cigar Aficionado Online. Archived from the original on 2007-10-13. http://web.archive.org/web/20071013172501/http://cigaraficionado.com/Cigar/CA_Archives/CA_Show_Article_Print/0,2812,674,00.html. Retrieved 2007-03-05. 
  8. ^ a b Tanaka Industrial Co., Ltd. (1997-2005). "JUN Demonstration Cars". http://www.junauto.co.jp/democar/index.html?en. Retrieved 2007-02-08. 
  9. ^ http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/fv20080413pl.html
  10. ^ a b Long, Brian (2004). Nissan 300 ZX/350 Z. Dorchester: Veloce Publishing. p. 203. ISBN 1-904788-04-1. 
  11. ^ ZBUM. "ZBUM's Z31 FAQs". http://www.az-zbum.com/faqs.shtml. Retrieved 2007-03-13. 
  12. ^ Nissan Motor Co.; Nissan Motor Co. (1983) (PDF). New Model Introduction Product Bulletin - Europe. Nissan Motor Co.. p. 18. http://xenonz31.com/files/NissanProductBulletins/1984%20Z31%20Euro%20Model%20Intro.pdf. Retrieved 2011-03/19. 
  13. ^ "Australian Z31 Owners Club • View topic - 300ZX FSM". Auz31club.com. http://www.auz31club.com/viewtopic.php?p=464#p464. Retrieved 2010-10-23. 
  14. ^ "Zed Speed - Part One". AutoSpeed. http://autospeed.com/cms/title_Zed-Speed-Part-One/A_2491/article.html. Retrieved 2010-10-23. 
  15. ^ "Nissan 300ZX forum". TwinTurbo.NET. http://www.twinturbo.net/ttnetfaq/stats/z32stats.html. Retrieved 2010-10-23. 
  16. ^ "Z Cars ~ Z History". Zcca.org. http://www.zcca.org/pages/ZCarsZhistory.htm. Retrieved 2010-10-23. 
  17. ^ "Johnthecopywriter: 300ZX Brochure" (PDF). http://www.johnthecopywriter.com/NIssan_300ZX_files/300zx%20Broch.pdf. Retrieved 2010-10-23. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g TwinTurbo.NET (1998-2007). "FAQ: What are the differences between model years?". http://twinturbo.net/ttnetfaq/FAQpages/differences.html. Retrieved 2007-02-08. 
  19. ^ Paul Hillman. "The US 300 ZX Production Numbers". http://www.az-zbum.com/information.production.shtml. Retrieved 2008-03-14. 
  20. ^ Stone, M and Lerner, P (2009). Winning: The Racing Life of Paul Newman. Motorbooks, p. 75,172. ISBN 0760337063.
  21. ^ RedZ31 Dyno Charts. "Electromotive VG30ET Power Band". http://redz31.net/turbofaq/dynographs/gtpzxturbodyno.jpg. Retrieved 2007-06-20. 
  22. ^ Stillen. "Racing Heritage 2". http://www.stillen.com/page.asp?heritage2. Retrieved 2007-03-05. 
  23. ^ WSPR Racing. "Imsa 1995". http://www.wspr-racing.com/wspr/results/imsa/imsa1995.html. Retrieved 2007-03-05. 
  24. ^ Motor Trend (April 1992). RX-7 vs. 3000GT vs. Corvette vs. 300ZX. PRIMEDIA Magazines, Inc.. pp. 46–52. 
  25. ^ Australian Transport Safety Bureau; Land Transport New Zealand, New Zealand Automobile Association, National Roads and Motorists' Association, Royal Automobile Club of Victoria, Royal Automobile Club of Western Australia, Road Safety Council, Roads and Traffic Authority of New South Wales, Transport Accident Commission, VicRoads (2006-06). "Passenger vehicles built 1982-2004, 2006 update" (PDF). Used Car Safety Ratings (Land Transport NZ): 17. ISSN: 1176-9890. http://www.vicroads.vic.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/A84147E8-69ED-488D-8E0C-3C447112AC5E/0/GDS01655UsedCarSafety_FA.pdf. Retrieved 2007-02-21. 

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