- John IV Laskaris
John IV Doukas Laskaris or Ducas Lascaris (Greek: Ιωάννης Δ΄ Δούκας Λάσκαρις, "Iōannēs IV Doukas Laskaris"),
December 25 1250– c. 1305) was emperor of Nicaea from August 18, 1258to December 25, 1261. This small empirewas one of the Greek states founded after the capture of Constantinopleby Western European Christians during the Fourth Crusadein 1204, which caused a fragmentation of the Byzantine Empire.
John was a son of Theodore II Doukas Laskaris and
Elena of Bulgaria. His maternal grandparents were Emperor Ivan Asen II of Bulgariaand his second wife Anna Maria of Hungary. Anna was originally named Mária and was the eldest daughter of Andrew II of Hungaryand Gertrude of Merania.
John IV was only seven years old when he inherited the throne on the death of his father. The young monarch was the last member of the Laskarid dynasty, which had done much to restore the Byzantine Empire. His
regentwas originally the bureaucrat George Mouzalon, but that position was usurped by the aristocrat Michael Palaiologos, who later made himself co-emperor as Michael VIII on January 1, 1259.
After Michael's conquest of
Constantinopleon July 25, 1261, John IV was left behind at Nicaea, and was later blinded on Michael's orders on his eleventh birthday, December 25 1261. This made him ineligible for the throne, and he was exiled and imprisoned in a fortress in Bithynia. This action caused the excommunication of Michael VIII Palaiologos by the Patriarch Arsenius Autoreianus, and a later revolt led by a Pseudo-John IV near Nicaea.
John IV spent the remainder of his life as monk, under the name Joasaph. In 1290 he was visited by
Andronikos II Palaiologos, who sought forgiveness for his father's blinding of John IV three decades earlier. The deposed emperor died about 1305 and was eventually recognized as a saint, whose memory was revered in Constantinople in the 14th century.
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1= 1. John IV Laskaris
Theodore II Laskaris
3= 3. Elena Asenina
John III Doukas Vatatzes
5= 5. Eirene Laskarina
Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria
Anna Maria of Hungary
Theodore I Laskaris
Ivan Asen I of Bulgaria
13= 13. Elena
Andrew II of Hungary
Gertrude of Merania
20= 20. Manuel Laskaris
21= 21. Joanna Karatzaina
Alexios III Angelos
Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamatera
Béla III of Hungary
29= 29. Agnes de Chatillon
Berthold IV, Duke of Merania
31= 31. Constance of Sicily
Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium", Oxford University Press, 1991.
s-ttl|title=Emperor of Nicaea|years=1259–1261
Michael VIII Palaiologos|years1=1258–1261
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