Olympic Oath


Olympic Oath

The Olympic Oath (distinct from the Olympic creed) is a solemn promise made by one athlete -- as a representative of each of the participating Olympic competitors; and by one judge -- as a representative of each officiating Olympic referee or other official, at the opening ceremonies of each Olympic Games. It was spoken in Chinese at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing and in Italian at the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin.

The athlete, from the team of the organizing country, holds a corner of the Olympic Flag while reciting the oath :

In the name of all the competitors I promise that we shall take part in these Olympic Games, respecting and abiding by the rules which govern them, committing ourselves to a sport without doping and without drugs, in the true spirit of sportsmanship, for the glory of sport and the honour of our teams.[1]

The judge, also from the host nation, likewise holds a corner of the flag but takes a slightly different oath:

In the name of all the judges and officials, I promise that we shall officiate in these Olympic Games with complete impartiality, respecting and abiding by the rules which govern them in the true spirit of sportsmanship.[1]

Contents

History

A call for an oath was announced as early as 1906 by International Olympic Committee (IOC) president and founder Pierre de Coubertin in the Revue Olympique (Olympic Review in French).[1] This was done in an effort to ensure fairness impartiality.[1]

The Olympic Oath was first taken at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp by the fencer/water polo player Victor Boin. The first judge's oath was taken at the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo by Fumio Asaki.

Victor Boin's oath in 1920 was

We swear. We will take part in the Olympic Games in a spirit of chivalry, for the honour of our country and for the glory of sport.[1]

In 1961, "swear" was replaced by "promise" and "the honour of our countries" by "the honour of our teams" in an obvious effort to eliminate nationalism at the Olympic Games.[1] The part concerning doping was added at the 2000 Summer Olympics.

Speakers

The athletes and judges that have delivered the Olympic Oath are listed below.

Olympic Oath
Olympics Athlete Judge (Official) Language
1920 Summer Olympics Victor Boin[2] - -
1924 Winter Olympics Camille Mandrillon[3] - -
1924 Summer Olympics Géo André[4] - French
1928 Winter Olympics Hans Eidenbenz[5] - -
1928 Summer Olympics Harry Dénis[6] - -
1932 Winter Olympics Jack Shea[7] - -
1932 Summer Olympics George Calnan[8] - English
1936 Winter Olympics Willy Bogner, Sr.[9] - -
1936 Summer Olympics Rudolf Ismayr[10] - -
1948 Winter Olympics Bibi Torriani[11] - -
1948 Summer Olympics Donald Finlay[12] - English
1952 Winter Olympics Torbjørn Falkanger[13] - -
1952 Summer Olympics Heikki Savolainen[14] - -
1956 Winter Olympics Giuliana Minuzzo[15] - -
1956 Summer Olympics John Landy (Melbourne)
Henri Saint Cyr (Stockholm)[16]
- English/Swedish
1960 Winter Olympics Carol Heiss[17] - -
1960 Summer Olympics Adolfo Consolini[18] - -
1964 Winter Olympics Paul Aste[19] - -
1964 Summer Olympics Takashi Ono[20] - -
1968 Winter Olympics Léo Lacroix[21] - -
1968 Summer Olympics Pablo Garrido[22] - -
1972 Winter Olympics Keiichi Suzuki[23] Fumio Asaki[23] -
1972 Summer Olympics Heidi Schüller[24] Heinz Pollay[24] -
1976 Winter Olympics Werner Delle Karth[25] Willy Köstinger[25] -
1976 Summer Olympics Pierre St.-Jean[26] Maurice Fauget[26] -
1980 Winter Olympics Eric Heiden[27] Terry McDermott[27] -
1980 Summer Olympics Nikolai Andrianov[28] Alexander Medved[28] -
1984 Winter Olympics Bojan Križaj[29] Dragan Perovic[29] -
1984 Summer Olympics Edwin Moses[30] Sharon Weber[30] English
1988 Winter Olympics Pierre Harvey[31] Suzanna Morrow-Francis[31] -
1988 Summer Olympics Hur Jae
Shon Mi-Na[32]
Lee Hak-Rae[32] -
1992 Winter Olympics Surya Bonaly[33] Pierre Bornat[33] -
1992 Summer Olympics Luis Doreste Blanco[34] Eugeni Asensio[34] -
1994 Winter Olympics Vegard Ulvang[35] Kari Kåring[35] -
1996 Summer Olympics Teresa Edwards[36] Hobie Billingsley[36] -
1998 Winter Olympics Kenji Ogiwara[37] Junko Hiramatsu[37] -
2000 Summer Olympics Rechelle Hawkes[38] Peter Kerr[38] English
2002 Winter Olympics Jimmy Shea[39] Allen Church[39] English
2004 Summer Olympics Zoi Dimoschaki[40] Lazaros Voreadis[40] -
2006 Winter Olympics Giorgio Rocca[41] Fabio Bianchetti[41] -
2008 Summer Olympics Zhang Yining[42] Huang Liping[42] -
2010 Winter Olympics Hayley Wickenheiser Michel Verrault English/French

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Wendl, Karel. "The Olympic Oath - A Brief History" ''Citius, Altius, Fortius'' (''Journal of Olympic History'' since 1997). Winter 1995. pp. 4,5." (PDF). http://www.la84foundation.org/SportsLibrary/JOH/JOHv3n1/JOHv3n1c.pdf. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  2. ^ "IOC 1920 Summer Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Summer/Antwerp-1920/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  3. ^ "IOC 1924 Winter Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Winter/Chamonix-1924/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  4. ^ "IOC 1924 Summer Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Summer/Paris-1924/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  5. ^ "IOC 1928 Winter Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Winter/St-Moritz-1928/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  6. ^ "IOC 1928 Summer Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Summer/Amsterdam-1928/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  7. ^ "IOC 1932 Winter Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Winter/Lake-Placid-1932/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  8. ^ "IOC 1932 Summer Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Summer/Los-Angeles-1932/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  9. ^ "IOC 1936 Winter Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Winter/Garmisch-Partenkirchen-1936/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  10. ^ "IOC 1936 Summer Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Summer/Berlin-1936/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  11. ^ "IOC 1948 Winter Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Winter/St-Moritz-1948/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  12. ^ "IOC 1948 Summer Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Summer/London-1948/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  13. ^ "IOC 1952 Winter Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Winter/Oslo-1952/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  14. ^ "IOC 1952 Summer Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Summer/Helsinki-1952/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  15. ^ "IOC 1956 Winter Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Winter/Cortina-dAmpezzo-1956/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  16. ^ IOC 1956 Summer Olympics
  17. ^ "IOC 1960 Winter Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Winter/Squaw-Valley-1960/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  18. ^ "IOC 1960 Summer Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Summer/Rome-1960/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  19. ^ "IOC 1964 Winter Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Winter/Innsbruck-1964/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  20. ^ "IOC 1964 Summer Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Summer/Tokyo-1964/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  21. ^ "IOC 1968 Winter Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Winter/Grenoble-1968/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  22. ^ IOC 1968 Summer Olympics
  23. ^ a b "IOC 1972 Winter Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Winter/Sapporo-1972/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  24. ^ a b "IOC 1972 Summer Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Summer/Munich-1972/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  25. ^ a b "IOC 1976 Winter Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Winter/Innsbruck-1976/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  26. ^ a b "IOC 1976 Summer Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Summer/Montreal-1976/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  27. ^ a b "IOC 1980 Winter Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Winter/Lake-Placid-1980/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  28. ^ a b "IOC 1980 Summer Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Summer/Moscow-1980/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  29. ^ a b "IOC 1984 Winter Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Winter/Sarajevo-1984/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  30. ^ a b "IOC 1984 Summer Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Summer/Los-Angeles-1984/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  31. ^ a b "IOC 1988 Winter Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Winter/Calgary-1988/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  32. ^ a b "IOC 1988 Summer Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Summer/Seoul-1988/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  33. ^ a b "IOC 1992 Winter Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Winter/Albertville-1992/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  34. ^ a b "IOC 1992 Summer Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Summer/Barcelona-1992/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  35. ^ a b "IOC 1994 Winter Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Winter/Lillehammer-1994/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  36. ^ a b "IOC 1996 Summer Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Summer/Atlanta-1996/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  37. ^ a b "IOC 1998 Winter Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Winter/Nagano-1998/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  38. ^ a b "IOC 2000 Summer Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Summer/Sydney-2000/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  39. ^ a b "IOC 2002 Winter Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Winter/Salt-Lake-City-2002/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  40. ^ a b "IOC 2004 Summer Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Summer/Athens-2004/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  41. ^ a b "IOC 2006 Winter Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Winter/Turin-2006/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 
  42. ^ a b "IOC 2008 Summer Olympics". Olympic.org. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Games/All-Past-Olympic-Games/Summer/Beijing-2008/. Retrieved 2011-10-24. 

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