Vellore Fort

Vellore Fort

Vellore Fort (Tamil:வேலூர் கோட்டை) is a large 16th-century fort situated in Vellore city near Chennai, in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. It was built by the Nayakar chieftains of the Vijayanagara Empire and was constructed with large granite blocks. The fort is known for its grand ramparts, wide moat and robust masonry. It is believed to be the only stone fort in India. [ [ Vellore fort was the only stone fort ever built in India] ]

The Fort's ownership passed from the Nayaks, to the Bijapur Sultans, to Marathas, to the Carnatic Nawabs and finally to the British, who held the fort until India gained independence. During British rule, the Tippu Sultan's family and the last Nayak king of Kandy were held in captivity in the fort. The fort houses a Christian church, a Muslim mosque and a Hindu temple, the latter of which is famous for its magnificent carvings. The first rebellion against British rule erupted at this fort in 1806, and it is also a witness to the tragic massacre of the Vijayanagara royal family of Emperor Sriranga Raya.


The Fort was built around 1566 by Chinna Bommi Nayak and Thimma Reddy Nayak, subordinate Chieftains under Sadasiva Raya of the Vijayanagara Empire. The Vijayanagara kings called it "Raya Vellore" to differentiate it from "Uppu Vellore" in the Godavari region. The name Vellore is also spelt "Belur." The present day Chennai region and Tirupathi were under the domain of the Fort.

Under the Vijayanagara Empire (1566–1656)

Vellore Fort gained strategic prominence following the re-establishment of Vijayanagar rule after the Talikota battle in Chandragiri. The Aravidu Dynasty that held the title of Rayas in 17th century resided in this fort, using it as a base in the battle of Toppur in the 1620s. This major battle took place for the claiming of the Raya title between two faction of the Raya family. Each faction was by their respective subordinates; the Nayaks of Tanjore, the Gingee and the Madurai taking sides to suit their interests.

The Rayas also had long-running battles with their long time rivals, the Bijapur Sultans, and with the Nayaks of Madurai and the Gingee over non-remittance of annual tributes. In the 1640s, during the reign of Sriranga Raya III, the Fort was briefly captured by the Bijapur army, but was eventually recaptured with the help of the Nayaks of Tanjore.

During Sriranga Raya's reign in 1614 a coup broke out within the royal family and the reigning Emperor Sriranga Raya and his royal family were murdered, with the younger son Rama Deva Raya of the Emperor smuggled out from the fort by several supporters. These events led to the Battle of Toppur in 1616, one of the largest South Indian wars of the century,Fact|date=December 2007 with all other Nayak rulers of Tamil Country taking part. The war was won by the legal claimants with the minor Rama Deva Raya getting crowned as the Aravidu Vijayanagara Emperor in 1617.

In 1639, Francis Day of the East India Company obtained a small strip of land in the Coromandel Coast from the Chieftains of Vellore-Chandragiri regions to do trading, which is now in present day Chennai.

Capture by Bijapur (1656–1678)

In the 1650s, Sriranga allied with the Mysore and Tanjore Nayaks and marched south to attack Gingee and Madurai. His first stop was the capture of Gingee Fort, but Thirumalai Nayak of Madurai responded by requesting the Sultan of Bijapur to attack Vellore from the North to divert Sriranga's attention. The Bijapur Sultan promptly dispatched a large army and captured Vellore Fort. Subsequently, both the Madurai-Bijapur armies converged on Gingee, defeating the Vellore-Tanjore forces. After a melee, both the Forts ended up in the hands of the Sultan of Bijapur. The defeat also marked the end of the last direct line of Vijayanagara emperors. Within 20 years after this incident, the Marathas seized the fort from the Bijapur Sultans.

Capture by Marathas (1678–1707)

In 1676, the Marathas under Shivaji marched south to the Tanjore country, which had recently been attacked and captured by Chokkanatha Nayak of Madurai. That same year, Ekoji, the brother of Shivaji, took control of Tanjore, but was under threat from his immediate neighbours Madurai and Bijapur Sultans, based in Gingee and Vellore respectively. Shivaji's army first captured the Gingee Fort in 1677, but left the task of attacking Vellore to his assistant and rushed to Deccan as his territories were being attacked by Mughal Emperor Aurangazeb. In 1688, after a prolonged fourteen-month siege, the Fort passed on to the Marathas. Shivaji's representative strengthened the fort's fortifications and ruled the area in relative peace.

Capture by Mughal Army (1707–1760)

In 1707, the year that Aurangazeb died, the Delhi Army under Daud Khan captured Vellore Fort after defeating the Marathas. The struggle for the Delhi throne empowered the Deccan Muslim governors to declare independence. In 1710 the recently established Nawab of Arcot under Sadat Ullah Khan followed suit. Dost Ali, the latter's successor in 1733, gifted the fort to one of his sons-in-law.

Under control of British (1760 –1947)

Following the decline of Madurai Nayaks and coinciding with the emergence of the British on the Madras coast, the Nawab and his sons-in-law broke out into a feud over the title of Nawab. The Nawab was supported by the British and the rival claimants by the French resulting in the Carnatic Wars. The British Nawab's victory in the 1760s in the Battle of Plassey finally sealed the fate of the French in India and launched Britain's dominance of the Indian subcontinent. In addition, the British took possession of Vellore fort with relative ease and used the Fort as a major garrison until the Indian independence.

In 1780, the Fort was attacked by Hyder Ali in his wars against the British, but an English garrison held out against Hyder Ali for over two years.

First Sepoy Mutiny (1806)

In 1806, Vellore fort was used by the British to station Infantry Military units of the Madras Regiment. The British Commander in chief of the Madras Army prescribed a new round hat for soldiers, which would replace turbans, and the removal of beards, caste markings and jewellery. The Sepoys considered this offensive, and the situation was worsened by rumours that the hat was made of the hides of cows and pigs.

On July 10, 1806, before sunrise, Indian Sepoys stationed in the fort attacked the European barracks there, and by late morning had killed about 15 Officers and 100 English soldiers and ransacked their houses. Some of the rebelling soldiers also instigated the sons of Tipu Sultan to lead the campaign. The news quickly reached the colonel commanding the Cavalry Cantonment in Arcot, who reached the Fort with heavy battalions. The rebelling Sepoys, numbering more than 800, were mercilessly hounded and killed, and by noon the rebellion was put down. The events lead to a Court inquiry by the British, who decided to shift the Tipu Sultan's family from Vellore to faraway Calcutta, in isolation.

The news of the Vellore Rebellion sent shockwaves to England. The Governor, William Bentinck, and Commander-in-Chief of the Madras Army, Sir John Cradock both were recalled on this count. This was the first rebellion experienced in the fort by the British.


The fort covers is about convert|133|acre|km2, and is situated above 220 mts on plains nestled within the broken mountain range of the Eastern Ghats, near the Palar riverbanks. Its walls were constructed using heavy blocks of green granite rocks sourced from nearby hills in the Arcot and Chitoor Districts.

The fortification consists of a main rampart broken at irregular intervals by round towers and rectangular projections. The fort's crenellated parapets have wide merlons for musket fire, and is surrounded by a moat which was once filled with crocodiles to create a formidable extra line of defense. This broad moat is fed with water by subterranean drains from the Suryagunta tank. The rampart can also accommodate two cart wagons side by side. The fort is considered to one of the most perfect specimens of military architecture in Southern India and is known for its grand ramparts, wide moat and robust masonry. The Vellore Fort is now maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India, and is well maintained compared to other monuments.

There is supposed to be a tunnel deep below the fort, leading to a temple in a village known as Virinjipuram exactly 12 km away. The king would use the tunnel to escape in the event of a major attacks. While the tunnel still exists and its mouth in Virinjipuram temple can be seen, it has been closed for years due to fears of dangerous gas or reptiles within the tunnel. The mouth of the tunnel in Virinjipuram temple is located placed near the mother goddess (AMMAN), and rumours have it that say that some archeologists have tried exploring the tunnel but did not return from it.

This 13th century fort is promoted by the state government as a historical tourist destination. This fort retains the past glory with its ramparts, basements, turrets, posts, and gates with its perennial water supply. Double walls fortify it and its main walls are made of massive granite blocks; it was the strongest fortress during the Carnatic War in the 17th century, and it witnessed the revolt of Indian soldiers during the mutiny of 1857.

Jacques de Coutré, a European traveller in the region during the 1610s, stated that "“We arrived in the city of Belur, which is also walled, with two walls of stone, and is more than two leagues in circuit, with very deep moats full of water. It seemed to be almost two cities. I have never seen a city that was so fortified and which had such lovely walls and bastions as this one. We prize the cities of Antwerp and Flanders, but neither can compare in their fortifications or loveliness to this city”".

Buildings within the fort

The fort houses a Temple, a Mosque and a Church, the reknown Vellore Christian Hospital, and many other buildings that are now used as public offices.

;Sri Jalagandeeswarar Temple:The temple, dedicated to Jalagandeeswar, is noted for its sculptures, and speaks volumes of the exquisite craftsmanship of the highly skilled artisans of that period. The sculpture in the porch on the left of the entrance is a masterpiece appreciated by the connoisseurs of art and architecture. The temple ws long used as an arsenal, and remained without a deity, although several years ago it was sanctified with an idol of Lord Shiva. The temple has a large wedding hall adorned with elegant reliefs and monolithic sculptures. The temple manifests a double Gopuram and impressive mandapam. The temple is maintained by a Trust.;The Mosque:This building was constructed during the last Arcod Navab's period.;The Church:This building was constructed during the early British period (Robert Clive, East Indian Company). ;Muthu Mandapam:This is a memorial built around the tombstone of Vikramraja Singh, the last Tamil ruler of Kandy. Situated on the bank of the Palar River, it is just one kilometer north of Vellore town. ;Government Museum:This is a multi purpose museum maintained by the Department of Museum Government of Tamil Nadu. Its treasures include ancient- and present-day curiousities relating to subjects such as anthropology, botany, geology, numismatics, pre-history, and zoology. Historical monuments of the erstwhile composite North Arcot district are gracefully depicted in the gallery. This museum is kept open on all days between 9.00 a.m. and 12.30 p.m. and 2.00 p.m and 5.00 p.m. except on holidays, and admission is free.

Royal Captives

Vellore Fort has housed several royal captives over its history.

Family of Tipu Sultan

After the fall of Shreerangapatanam in 1799 and the death of Tipu Sultan, his family, includig his sons, daughters, wife and mother (who was the wife of Hyder Ali), was detained in the fort. After the 1806 Sepoy Mutiny, the British transferred Tipu's sons and daughters to Calcutta. The Tombs of Bakshi Begum (d. 1806), widow of Hyder Ali and Padshah Begum, Tipu's wife, who died in 1834 are located with a kilometre to the eastern side of the Fort.

Last King of Kandy

Vellore Fort also became the final destination for the last ruling monarch of Sri Lanka, the Nayaks of Kandy, who were of Telugu origins and an extension of the Madurai rulers. Sri Vikrama Rajasinha (1798-1815) was defeated by the British in 1816 and the whole family was taken as royal prisoners.

The King and his family were supplied with everything they needed, including clothing, jewels and workmen for making ornaments for the ladies. The King lived for 17 years in confinement, and died of dropsy on January 30, 1832, aged fifty-two years, his death bringing to an end the Royal line of Kandy.

Location and transportation

The Fort is situated in the centre of Vellore town, on the Chennai (Madras) to Bangalore highway. It is 120 km from Chennai and 210 km from Bangalore, and is located 7 km from Katpadi Railway Junction and 2 km from Vellore Cantonment railway station. The fort is in front of the old bus stand in Vellore town, which is about 3 km from the new central bus stand.

An auto-rickshaw ride from the Katpadi railway station, where almost all important trains stop, to the fort will cost between 70 and 80 rupees. Shared autos are also available at a nominal cost of 5 to 10 rupees for a ride from the railway station to the town bus stand, opposite the fort. Visitors can reach the fort from the town bus stand on foot via an overhead bridge, entering the fort via a statue of Gandhi.

The National Highway that connects Chennai with the Western parts of the region passes through Vellore town, and the Katpadi Railway Junction is just 6 km from the Town. The nearest Airports are Tirupathi, Chennai and Bangalore.


In 1981 the Post and Telegraph Department of India released a stamp commemorating the Fort, and on July 2006 a stamp marking the 200th anniversary of the Mutiny was released by the Tamilnadu Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi.

External links

* [ Official Government Site]
* [ Fort]
* [ Photos of Vellore Fort]
* [ more Photos of Vellore Fort]


* [ Article on Vellore Revolt 1806 - Bi-Centenary Commemoration Committee]
* [ Vellore — the town with the "healing touch"]
* [ Vellore Fort History by Indian Postal Dept.]
* [ When the Vellore sepoys rebelled]
* [ Revisiting Vellore's hoary past]
* [ Colonial British perspective on the Sepoy Mutiny at Vellore Fort]
* [ Rulers of Arcot]
* [ Tamils dispute India mutiny date]
* [ Historic monuments in Vellore district]


* Rao, Velcheru Narayana, and David Shulman, Sanjay Subrahmanyam. "Symbols of substance : court and state in Nayaka period Tamilnadu" (Delhi ; Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1998) ; xix, 349 p., [16] p. of plates : ill., maps ; 22 cm. ; Oxford India paperbacks ; Includes bibliographical references and index ; ISBN 0-19-564399-2.
* Sathianathaier, R. "History of the Nayaks of Madura" [microform] by R. Sathyanatha Aiyar ; edited for the University, with introduction and notes by S. Krishnaswami Aiyangar ( [Madras] : Oxford University Press, 1924) ; see also ( [London] : H. Milford, Oxford University Press, 1924) ; xvi, 403 p. ; 21 cm. ; SAMP early 20th-century Indian books project item 10819.
* Vriddhagirisan V,"Nayaks of Tanjore" ,ISBN : 8120609964,Reprint Annamalainagar 1942 edn.) 1995

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