Non-Hodgkin lymphoma


Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas
Classification and external resources

Micrograph of mantle cell lymphoma, a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Terminal ileum. H&E stain.
ICD-10 C82-C85
ICD-9 200, 202
ICD-O: 9591/3
OMIM 605027
DiseasesDB 9065
MedlinePlus 000581
eMedicine med/1363 ped/1343
MeSH D008228

The non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are a diverse group of blood cancers that include any kind of lymphoma except Hodgkin's lymphomas.[1] Types of NHL vary significantly in their severity, from indolent to very aggressive.

Lymphomas are types of cancer derived from lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. Lymphomas are treated by combinations of chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies, immunotherapy, radiation, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Non-Hodgkin lymphomas were classified according to the 1982 Working Formulation which recognizes 16 types. The Working Formulation is now considered obsolete, and the classification is commonly used primarily for statistical comparisons with previous decades. The Working Formulation has been superseded twice.

The latest lymphoma classification, the 2008 WHO classification, largely abandoned the "Hodgkin" vs. "Non-Hodgkin" grouping. Instead, it lists over 70 different forms of lymphomas in four broad groups.[2]

Contents

History

Hodgkin lymphoma (H, Hodgkin disease), described by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832, was the first form of lymphoma described and defined. Other forms were later described and there was a need to classify them. Because Hodgkin lymphoma was much more radiation-sensitive than other forms, its diagnosis was important for oncologists and their patients. Thus, research originally focused on it. The first classification of Hodgkin lymphoma was proposed by Robert J. Luke in 1963.

While consensus was rapidly reached on the classification of Hodgkin lymphoma, there remained a large group of very different diseases requiring further classification. The Rappaport classification, proposed by Henry Rappaport in 1956 and 1966, became the first widely accepted classification of lymphomas other than Hodgkin. Following its publication in 1982, the Working Formulation became the standard classification for this group of diseases. It introduced the term non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and defined three grades of lymphoma.

However, NHL consists of 16 different conditions that have little in common with each other. They are grouped by their aggressiveness. Less aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas are compatible with a long survival while more aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas can be rapidly fatal without treatment. Without further narrowing, the label is of limited usefulness for patients or doctors.

Modern usage of term

Nevertheless, the Working Formulation and the NHL category continue to be used by many. To this day, lymphoma statistics are compiled as Hodgkin's vs non-Hodgkin lymphomas by major cancer agencies, including the National Cancer Institute in its SEER program, the Canadian Cancer Society and the IARC.

See also

  • Lymphoma, for information about all forms of NHL as well as Hodgkin's lymphoma
  • Chemotherapy, for information on the standard of care of all forms of non-Hodgkin lymphomas.
  • CHOP-R for the most common chemotherapeutic regimen for lymphoma.

References

  1. ^ "non-Hodgkin lymphomas " at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. ^ ed. by Steven H Swerdlow et al. (2008). WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. Oxford Univ Pr. ISBN 978-92-8322431-0. 

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • non-Hodgkin lymphoma — Any of a large group of cancers of the immune system. Non Hodgkin lymphoma can occur at any age and are often marked by enlarged lymph nodes, fever, and weight loss. There are many different types of non Hodgkin lymphoma, which can be divided… …   English dictionary of cancer terms

  • non-Hodgkin lymphoma — a heterogeneous group of malignant lymphomas, the only common feature being an absence of the giant Reed Sternberg cells characteristic of Hodgkin disease. They arise from the lymphoid components of the immune system, and present a clinical… …   Medical dictionary

  • stage I adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma — Stage I is divided into stage I and stage IE. In stage I, cancer is found in a single lymph node area. In stage IE, cancer is found in an organ or tissue other than the lymph nodes …   English dictionary of cancer terms

  • stage I childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma — Cancer is found in a single area or lymph node outside of the abdomen or chest …   English dictionary of cancer terms

  • stage II adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma — Stage II is divided into stage II and stage IIE. In stage II, cancer is found in two or more lymph node areas on the same side of the diaphragm. In stage IIE, cancer is found in an organ or tissue other than the lymph nodes and may have spread to …   English dictionary of cancer terms

  • stage II childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma — Cancer is found (1) in only one area and in the lymph nodes around it; or (2) in two or more areas or lymph nodes on one side of the diaphragm (the thin muscle under the lungs that divides the chest and abdominal cavity and helps with breathing); …   English dictionary of cancer terms

  • stage III adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma — Stage III is divided into stage III, stage IIIE, stage IIIS, and stage IIIS+E. In stage III, cancer is found in lymph node areas on both sides of the diaphragm. In stage IIIE, cancer is found in lymph node areas on both sides of the diaphragm and …   English dictionary of cancer terms

  • stage III childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma — Cancer is found (1) in areas or lymph nodes on both sides of the diaphragm (the thin muscle under the lungs that divides the chest and abdominal cavity and helps with breathing); or (2) to have started in the chest; or (3) in more than one place… …   English dictionary of cancer terms

  • stage IV adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma — The cancer either (1) is found in at least one organ or tissue other than the lymph nodes and may be in nearby lymph nodes; or (2) has spread to one organ other than the lymph nodes and has spread to lymph nodes far away from that organ …   English dictionary of cancer terms

  • stage IV childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma — Cancer is found in the bone marrow, brain, or spinal cord. Cancer may also be found in other parts of the body …   English dictionary of cancer terms


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