Yeraz


Yeraz

The Yeraz people, sometimes called Yer-az or Yerazi, are an Azerbaijani sub-group, also referred to as a clan, consisting of Azeris originally from present-day Armenia. The term Yeraz has double-meaning in the Azeri language: either meaning "Azeris from Yerevan" [http://www.c-r.org/our-work/accord/nagorny-karabakh/political-glossary.php Political glossary] , Conciliation Resources, "Accessed Dec. 14, 2006".] or through the separate words "yeri" and "az", meaning a person without a place.

Due to longtime historic tensions between neighboring Armenia and Azerbaijan, virtually all Azerbaijanis have left Armenia for Azerbaijan and other countries lastly in 1988-89Nagorno-Karabakh War. UNHCR estimates the current population of Azeris in Armenia to be somewhere between 30 and a few hundred persons [ [http://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/432_1163080631_pdf-2nd-sr-armenia.pdf Second Report Submitted by Armenia Pursuant to Article 25, Paragraph 1 of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities] . Received on 24 November 2004] , with majority of them living in rural areas and being members of mixed couples (mostly Azeri women married to Armenian men), as well as elderly and sick, and thus unable to leave the country. Most of them are also reported to have changed their names and maintain a low profile to avoid discrimination [http://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/470_1162983398_3f5f27d14.pdf International Protection Considerations Regarding Armenian Asylum-Seekers and Refugees] . United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Geneva: September 2003] [ [http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2003/27823.htm Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2003: Armenia] U.S. Department of State. Released 25 February, 2004] .

History

According to the Armenian-American historian George Bournoutian, "in the first quarter of the 19th century the Khanate of Erevan included most of Eastern Armenia and covered an area of approximately 7,000 square miles. The land was mountainous and dry, the population of about 100,000 was roughly 80 percent Muslim (Persian, Azeri, Kurdish) and 20 percent Christian (Armenian)". [George A. Bournoutian. "Eastern Armenia in the Last Decades of Persian Rule", 1807 - 1828 (Malibu: Undena Publications, 1982), pp. xxii + 165] After the incorporation of the Erivan khanate into the Russian Empire in 1828, many Muslims (Azeris, Kurds, Lezgis and various nomadic tribes) left the area and were replaced with tens of thousands of Armenian refugees from Persia. Such migrations, albeit on a lesser scale, continued until the end of the 19th century. [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=JL9N4F1SgyYC&pg=PA2&dq=azeris+zangezur&lr=&sig=v1307QX10sKwgZj29GZzBq7SJ-w Conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia and South Ossetia: A Legal Appraisal] by Tim Potier. Martinus NijhoffPublishers. 2001. p.2 ISBN 9041114777] By 1832 Muslims in what had been the Erivan khanate were already outnumbered by migrating Armenians. [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=ff2zOZYaZx0C&pg=PA66&dq=muslim+zangezur&lr=&sig=B4B717WTvUpq-jjhV9E9legv1b4#PPA67,M1 Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus] by Svante Cornell. Routledge. 2001. p.67 ISBN 0700711627] According to the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary, by the beginning of the 20th century a significant population of Azeris still lived in Russian Armenia. They numbered about 300,000 persons or 37.5% in Russia's Erivan Governorate (roughly corresponding to most of present-day central Armenia, the Iğdır Province of Turkey, and Azerbaijan's Nakhichevan exclave). [ru icon [http://www.cultinfo.ru/fulltext/1/001/007/119/119474.htm Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary: Erivan Governorate] ] Most lived in rural areas and were engaged in farming and carpet-weaving. They formed the majority in 4 of the governorate's 7 districts, including the city of Erivan (Yerevan) itself where they constituted 49% of the population (compared to 48% constituted by Armenians). [ru icon [http://www.cultinfo.ru/fulltext/1/001/007/119/119478.htm Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary: Erivan] ] At the time, Eastern Armenian cultural life was centered more around the holy city of Echmiadzin, seat of the Armenian Apostolic Church.Thomas de Waal. "Black Garden: Armenia And Azerbaijan Through Peace and War". New York: New York University Press, p. 74. ISBN 0-8147-1945-7] Historian Luigi Villari reported that in 1905, Azeris in Yerevan were generally wealthier than the Armenians living the city. [ [http://www.armenianhouse.org/villari/caucasus/nakhitchevan-massacres.html Fire and Sword in the Caucasus] by Luigi Villari. London, T. F. Unwin, 1906: p. 267]

For Azeris of Armenia, the 20th century was the period of marginalization, discrimination, mass and often forcible migrationsBlack Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan Through Peace and War by Thomas de Waal ISBN 0814719457] resulting in significant changes in the country's ethnic composition, even though they have managed to stay its largest ethnic minority until the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. In 1905–1907 Erivan Governorate became an arena of clashes between Armenians and Azeris believed to have been instigated by the Russian government in order to draw public attention away from the Russian Revolution of 1905. [ru icon [http://www.dk1868.ru/history/ZAKAVKAZ.htm Memories of the Revolution in Transcaucasia] by Boris Baykov]

Tensions rose again after both Armenia and Azerbaijan became briefly independent from the Russian Empire in 1918. Both quarreled over where their common borders lay.de Waal. "Black Garden". p. 127-8.] Warfare coupled with the influx of Armenian refugees resulted in widespread massacres of Muslims in Armenia [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=2Plw98pTk5wC&pg=PA58&dq=azerbaijanis+zangezur&lr=&sig=1FkT3zv5MjVGu7Zva1Bof0I7XRk Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War] by Stuart J. Kaufman. Cornell University Press. 2001. p.58 ISBN 0801487366] [ru icon [http://safety.spbstu.ru/book/hrono/hrono/sobyt/1920arm.html Turkish-Armenian War of 1920] ] [ [http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/Armenia/turkarwar.htm Turkish-Armenian War: Sep.24 – Dec.2, 1920] by Andrew Andersen] [ru icon [http://www.auditorium.ru/books/469/p_6.htm Ethnic Conflicts in the USSR: 1917–1991] . State Archives of the Russian Federation, fund 1318, list 1, folder 413, document 21] [ru icon [http://www.ceghakron.ru/pages/menu/menu3/kgb1.htm Garegin Njdeh and the KGB: Report of Interrogation of Ohannes Hakopovich Devedjian] August 28 1947. Retrieved May 31 2007] causing virtually all of them to flee to Azerbaijan. Relatively few returned, as according to the 1926 All-Soviet population census of there were only 78,228 Azeris living in Armenia. [http://monderusse.revues.org/docannexe4079.html The Alteration of Place Names and Construction of National Identity in Soviet Armenia] by Arseny Sarapov] By 1939, however, the numbers increased to 131,000. [ru icon [http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/sng_nac_39.php?reg=6 All-Soviet Population Census of 1939 - Ethnic Composition in the Republics of the USSR: Armenian SSR] . "Demoscope.ru"]

In 1948–1951, with the Council of Ministers of the USSR's adoption of the resolution entitled "Planned measures for the resettlement of collective farm workers and other Azerbaijanis from the Armenian SSR to the Kura-Arax lowlands", the growing Azeri community became partly subject to "voluntary resettlement" (classified by Azerbaijani sources as in fact deportation [ [http://www.azerbembassy.org.cn/eng/31march_bg.html Deportation of 1948-1953] . "Azerbembassy.org.cn"] ) into central Azerbaijan [ [http://www.archiveeditions.co.uk/Leafcopy/955LFLT.htm Armenia: Political and Ethnic Boundaries 1878-1948] by Anita L. P. Burdett (ed.) ISBN 1-85207-955-X] to make way for incoming Armenian immigrants from the Armenian diaspora. Some 100,000 Azeris left Armenia within those three years bringing the number of those in Armenia further down to 107,748 in 1959. [ru icon [http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/sng_nac_59.php?reg=9 All-Soviet Population Census of 1959 - Ethnic Composition in the Republics of the USSR: Armenian SSR] . "Demoscope.ru"] By 1979, Azeris numbering 160,841 were constituting 6.5% of Armenia's population. [ru icon [http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/sng_nac_79.php?reg=13 All-Soviet Population Census of 1979 - Ethnic Composition in the Republics of the USSR: Armenian SSR] . "Demoscope.ru"]

In 1988-90 the remaining 220 000 Azerbaijanis were forced to flee primerily to Azerbaijan. [24]

Current situation

As stated above most of Azerbaijanis deported from Armenia in different years of 20th century settled in Azerbaijan.In Azerbaijan, the they form a cohesive political clan that, along with the Nakhichevani clan, has dominated Azerbaijani politics since Soviet times. [http://www.europeanforum.net/country/azerbaijan Azerbaijan Update] , The European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity, November 24, 2006, "Accessed Dec. 14, 2006".] Ben Wetherall, [http://www.globalinsight.com/Perspective/PerspectiveDetail2399.htm Azerbaijan: President Aliyev Asserts His Authority on Eve of Parliamentary Elections] , Global Insight, "Accessed Dec. 14, 2006".] Though born in Nakhichevan, the family of Heydar Aliyev, longtime President of Azerbaijan and father of its current President, originated from Armenia; as a result he essentially had a double-origin and strong political base in Azerbaijan's Western clans. [http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/UNTC/UNPAN016499.pdf Azerbaijan: Turning Over a New Leaf?] , Europe Report N°156, International Crisis Group, May 12, 2004, "Accessed Dec. 14, 2006".] As the distribution of power in Azeri politics is based on clan and familial tiesPhilip Stephens, [http://www.ft.com/cms/s/5543b5aa-46ad-11da-b8e5-00000e2511c8,_i_rssPage=daa36138-ce4f-11d7-81c6-0820abe49a01.html From east to west] , "Financial Times", October 28, 2005, "Accessed Dec. 14, 2006".] , these two Western Azeri clans have pushed other clans from power [http://www.europeanforum.net/country/azerbaijan Azerbaijan Update] , The European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity, November 24, 2006, "Accessed Dec. 14, 2006".] [http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/UNTC/UNPAN016499.pdf Azerbaijan: Turning Over a New Leaf?] , Europe Report N°156, International Crisis Group, May 12, 2004, "Accessed Dec. 14, 2006".] and formed a pyramidal web of patronage built around Nakhichevanis and Yerazi clan groups [http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?action=conflict_search&l=1&t=1&c_country=7 Head of State: President Ilham Aliyev, October 2003-] , International Crisis Group, September 22, 2004, "Accessed Dec. 14, 2006".] .

The leader of the Yeraz clan is Jalal Aliyev, uncle of Azeri President Ilham AliyevPhilip Stephens, [http://www.ft.com/cms/s/5543b5aa-46ad-11da-b8e5-00000e2511c8,_i_rssPage=daa36138-ce4f-11d7-81c6-0820abe49a01.html From east to west] , "Financial Times", October 28, 2005, "Accessed Dec. 14, 2006".] . Ramiz Mehtiev, the head of the President's Executive Body, is another prominent member. [http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/UNTC/UNPAN016499.pdf Azerbaijan: Turning Over a New Leaf?] , Europe Report N°156, International Crisis Group, May 12, 2004, "Accessed Dec. 14, 2006".] Before Jalal Aliyev, the unofficial leader of the Yerazi was Ali Insanov, a co-founder of the ruling New Azerbaijan Party and the former Health Minister of Azerbaijan for 12 years. Insanov and influential bureaucrat Akif Muradverdiyev were considered among the most powerful members of the Yerazi clan until they were sacked by President Ilham Aliyev for corruption before the November 2005 parliamentary elections.Ben Wetherall, [http://www.globalinsight.com/Perspective/PerspectiveDetail2399.htm Azerbaijan: President Aliyev Asserts His Authority on Eve of Parliamentary Elections] , Global Insight, "Accessed Dec. 14, 2006".] [Rovshan Ismayilov, [http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/civilsociety/articles/eav102005.shtml Azerbaijan: Two More officials Sacked] , Eurasianet, October 20, 2005, "Accessed Dec. 14, 2006".]

The Yeraz have two non-political movements: Ağrıdağ (Azerbaijani name of Ararat) and the Yerevan Unity (Azeri: "İrəvan Birliyi"). [http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/UNTC/UNPAN016499.pdf Azerbaijan: Turning Over a New Leaf?] , Europe Report N°156, International Crisis Group, May 12, 2004, "Accessed Dec. 14, 2006".] Originally founded by Insanov, Ağrıdağ acted as a vehicle to spread the clan's influence at the national level, particularly over the country's health system.Ben Wetherall, [http://www.globalinsight.com/Perspective/PerspectiveDetail2399.htm Azerbaijan: President Aliyev Asserts His Authority on Eve of Parliamentary Elections] , Global Insight, "Accessed Dec. 14, 2006".]

ee also

*Azerbaijanis in Armenia

Notes


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Yeraz — Yeraz …   Википедия

  • Еразы — – сокращенное обозначение азербайджанцев, выходцев из Армении. Значение слова еразы объясняется следующим образом – Ер – ереванские, аз – азербайджанцы. Данное обозначение применяется к азербайджанцам – выходцам из Армянской ССР и Республики… …   Википедия

  • Мхитарян, Гор — В Википедии есть статьи о других людях с такой фамилией, см. Мхитарян. Гор Мхитарян Գոռ Մխիթարյան …   Википедия

  • Gor Mkhitarian — was born in 1973 in Vanadzor, Armenia. Biography ARMENIAN SINGER/SONGWRITERThe emergence of Gor Mkhitarian reflects the very best of the burgeoning music scene now taking foot in the independent former Soviet Republic of Armenia. Widely known… …   Wikipedia

  • Ruben Hakhverdyan — Infobox musical artist Name = Ruben Hakhverdyan |200px Background = solo singer Born = 1950 Yerevan, Armenia, Soviet Union Genre = Armenian Folk Instrument = Vocals Guitar Years active = Label = Associated acts = URL = Ruben Hakhverdyan (Armenian …   Wikipedia

  • Bahodir Sidikov — (born July 19, 1970 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan) is a journalist, consultant and researcher in Central Asian Studies. He lives in Berlin, Germany.Biographical SketchSidikov was born in 1970 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. He attended a Russian speaking… …   Wikipedia

  • Bahodir Sidikov — (* 19. Juli 1970 in Taschkent, Usbekistan) ist ein in Deutschland lebender usbekischer Orientalist und Journalist. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben 2 Schwerpunkte 2.1 Zentralasien und Kaukasus 2.2 Postsowjetische Nationenbildun …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Haig Yazdjian — (* 1959 in Aleppo, Syrien) ist ein armenischstämmiger Oudspieler, Komponist und Sänger. Er wuchs als Sohn armenischer Eltern in Syrien auf und lebt seit 1988 in Griechenland. Sein erstes Album TALAR ist 1996 erschienen. Yazdjian mischt in seinen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Yazdjian — Haig Yazdjian (* 1960er Jahre in Syrien) ist ein armenischstämmiger Oudespieler; Komponist und Sänger. Er wuchs als Sohn armenischer Eltern in Syrien auf und lebt seit 1988 in Griechenland. Sein erstes Album TALAR ist 1996 erschienen. Yazdjian… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Liste Des Prénoms Arméniens Masculins — Voici une liste des prénoms arméniens masculins : Sommaire : Haut A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A …   Wikipédia en Français