- Burji dynasty
The Burji dynasty المماليك البرجية ruled
Egyptfrom 1382 until 1517. It proved especially turbulent, with short-lived sultans. Political power-plays often became important in designating a new sultan. During this time Mamluks fought Timur Lenkand conquered Cyprus. Constant bickering may have contributed to the ability of the Ottomansto challenge them. Their name means 'of the tower', referring to them ruling from the Citadel east of Cairo.
From 1250 Egypt had been ruled by the Turkish Mamluk
Bahri dynasty. In 1377 a revolt broke out in Syria which spread to Egypt, and the government was taken over by the CircassiansBarakah and Barkuk; Barkuk was proclaimed sultan in 1382, ending the Bahri dynasty. He was expelled in 1389 but recaptured Cairo in 1390. Permanently in power he founded the Burji dynasty.
Barkuk became an enemy of
Timurafter slaying one of Timur's envoys. Timur threatened to invade Syria, but Barkuk died in 1399; Bayezid Ithen invaded Syria, but came into conflict with Timur, who took Aleppoand other towns in 1400. Syria was regained by sultan Farajwhen Timur died in 1405, but Faraj continually faced rebellions from the emirs there and he was forced to abdicate in 1412.
In 1421 Egypt was attacked by the
Kingdom of Cyprus, and although the Egyptians were unable to capture the island they forced the Cypriotes to acknowledge the suzerainty of the Egyptian sultan Barsbay. During Barsbay's reign Egypt's population was greatly reduced from what it had been a few centuries before, with only 1/5 the number of towns. He frequently raided Asia Minor, but died in 1438. Al-Ashrafcame to power in 1453 and had friendly relations with the Ottoman Empire, who captured Constantinoplelater that year, causing great rejoicings in Egypt. However, under the reign of Khoshkadam, who took power in 1463, Egypt began the struggle between the Egyptian and the Ottoman sultanates which finally led to the incorporation of Egypt in the Ottoman empire. Both Koshkadam and Mehmet IIsupported different candidates to the principality of Karaman; then in 1467 sultan Kait Beyoffended the Ottoman sultan Bayezid II, whose brother was poisoned while being entertained by Kait. Bayezid II seized Adana, Tarsus and other places within Egyptian territory, but was eventually defeated by Kait. Kait also tried to help the Muslims in Spainby threatening the Christians in Syria, but without effect. He died in 1496, leaving several hundred thousand ducats debts to the great Venetian trading families.
In 1515 there began the war with the Ottoman sultan
Selim Iwhich led to the incorporation of Egypt and its dependencies in the Ottoman Empire.A result of the Mamluk cavalrycharges proving to be no match for the Ottoman artillery and the janissaries. Egyptian sultan Kansuh was charged by Selim with giving the envoys of the SafavidIsmail passage through Syria on their way to Veniceto form a confederacy against the Turks, and with harbouring various refugees. At the Battle of Merj Dabik, on August 24, 1515, Kansuh was killed in the fighting. Syria passed into Turkish possession, who were welcomed in many places as deliverance from the Mamelukes.
In 1517 the Ottoman Turks and their sultan
Selim Idefeated the Mamluks with the capture of Cairo on January 20. The centre of power transferred from Cairo to Istanbul. However, the Ottoman Empireretained the Mamluks as an Egyptian ruling class and the Mamluks and the Burji family succeeded in regaining much of their influence, but remained technical vassals of the Ottomans.
List of Burji Sultans
az-Zahir Sayf ad-Din Barquq"first reign"
Hajji II"second reign" (Bahri dynasty)
az-Zahir Sayf ad-Din Barquq"second reign"
an-Nasir Nasir-ad-Din Faraj"first reign"
al-Mansur Izz-ad-Din Abd-al-Aziz
an-Nasir Nasir-ad-Din Faraj"second reign"
al-Adil al-Mustain(Abbasid Caliph in Cairo, proclaimed Sultan)
al-Muayyad Sayf-ad-Din Tatar
az-Zahir Sayf-ad-Din Tatar
as-Salih Nasir-ad-Din Muhammad
*1422-1437 al-Ashraf Sayf-ad-Din Barsbay
al-Aziz Jamal-ad-Din Yusuf
az-Zahir Sayf-ad-Din Jaqmaq
al-Mansur Fakhr-ad-Din Uthman
al-Ashraf Sayf-ad-Din Inal
al-Muayyad Shihab-ad-Din Ahmad
az-Zahir Sayf-ad-Din Khushqadam
az-Zahir Sayf-ad-Din Bilbay
al-Ashraf Sayf-ad-Din Qait Bay
*1501 al-Adil Sayf-ad-Din
Tuman bay I
al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri
Tuman bay II
History of Arab Egypt
History of Ottoman Egypt
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