- Frobenius-Schur indicator
In

mathematics the**Schur indicator**, named afterIssai Schur , or**Frobenius-Schur indicator**describes what invariant bilinear forms a given irreducible representation of a compact group on a complex vector space has, and can be used to classify the irreducible representations of compact groups on real vector spaces.**Definition**If a representation of a compact group "G" has character χ its Frobenius-Schur indicator is defined to be

:$int\_\{gin\; G\}chi(g^2),dmu$

for

Haar measure μ with μ("G") = 1. When "G" is finite it is given by:$\{1over\; |Gsum\_\{gin\; G\}chi(g^2).$

It provides criterion (for

compact group s "G") for reality ofirreducible representation s in terms ofcharacter theory . This will be discussed below in the case offinite group s, but the general compact case is completely analogous.**Real irreducible representations**There are 3 types of irreducible real representations of a finite group on a real vector space "V", as the ring of endomorphisms commuting with the group action can be isomorphic to either the real numbers, or the complex numbers, or the quaternions.

*If the ring is the real numbers, then "V"⊗

**C**is an irreducible complex representation with Schur indicator 1, also called areal representation .

*If the ring is the complex numbers, then "V" has two different conjugate complex structures, giving two irreducible complex representations with Schur indicator 0, sometimes calledcomplex representation s.

*If the ring is the quaternions numbers, then choosing a subring of the quaternions isomorphic to the complex numbers makes "V" into an irreducible complex representation of "G" with Schur indicator − 1, called aquaternionic representation .Moreover every irreducible representation on a complex vector space can be constructed from a unique irreducible representation on a real vector space in one of the three ways above. So knowing the irreducible representations on complex spaces and their Schur indicators allows one to read off the irreducible representations on real spaces.

Real representations can be complexified to get a complex representation of the same dimension and complex representations can be converted into a real representation of twice the dimension by treating the real and imaginary components separately. Also, since all finite dimensional complex representations can be turned into a unitary representation for unitary representations, the dual representation is also a (complex) conjugate representation because the Hilbert space norm gives an

antilinear bijective map from the representation to its dual representation.Self-dual complex irreducible representation correspond to either real irreducible representation of the same dimension or real irreducible representations of twice the dimension called

quaternionic representation s (but not both) and non-self-dual complex irreducible representation correspond to a real irreducible representation of twice the dimension. Note for the latter case, both the complex irreducible representation and its dual give rise to the same real irreducible representation. An example of a quaternionic representation would be the four dimensional real irreducible representation of thequaternion group "Q"_{8}.**Invariant bilinear forms**If "V" is the underlying vector space of a representation, then

:$Votimes\; V$

can be decomposed as the direct sum of two subrepresentations, the "symmetric tensor product"

:$Votimes\_S\; V$

and the "antisymmetric tensor product"

:$Votimes\_A\; V.$

It's easy to show that

:$chi\_\{Votimes\_S\; V\}(g)=frac\{1\}\{2\}\; [chi\_V(g)^2+chi\_V(g^2)]$

and

:$chi\_\{Votimes\_A\; V\}(g)=frac\{1\}\{2\}\; [chi\_V(g)^2-chi\_V(g^2)]$

using a basis set.

:$frac\{1\}sum\_\{gin\; G\}\; ho(g)$

is a self-intertwiner, for any integer "n",

:$frac\{1\}sum\_\{gin\; G\}\; ho(g^n)$

is also a self-intertwiner. By Schur's lemma, this will be a multiple of the identity for irreducible representations. The trace of this self-intertwiner is called the n

^{th}"Frobenius-Schur indicator".The original case of the Frobenius-Schur indicator is that for "n" = 2. The zeroth indicator is the dimension of the irreducible representation, the first indicator would be 1 for the trivial representation and zero for the other irreducible representations.

It resembles the

Casimir invariant s forLie algebra irreducible representations. In fact, since any rep of G can be thought of as a module for**C**["G"] and vice versa, we can look at the center of**C**["G"] . This is analogous to looking at the center of theuniversal enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra. It is simple to check that:$sum\_\{gin\; G\}g^n$

belongs to the center of

**C**["G"] , which is simply the subspace of class functions on "G".**References***cite book | author=Jean-Pierre, Serre | title=Linear Representations of Finite Groups | publisher=Springer-Verlag | year=1977 | id=ISBN 0-387-90190-6

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