George H. Hitchings


George H. Hitchings

Infobox Scientist
name = George Herbert Hitchings
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image_width =150px
caption = George Herbert Hitchings
birth_date = April 18, 1905
birth_place = Hoquiam, Washington
death_date = February 27, 1998
death_place =
residence =
citizenship =
nationality = American
ethnicity =
field =
work_institutions =
alma_mater =
doctoral_advisor =
doctoral_students =
known_for = chemotherapy
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influences =
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prizes = 1988 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
religion =
footnotes =

George Herbert Hitchings (April 18, 1905 – February 27, 1998) was an American doctor who shared the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Sir James Black and Gertrude Elion "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment," Hitchings specifically for his work on chemotherapy.

Hitchings was born in Hoquiam, Washington, in 1905, and grew up there, in Berkeley, California, San Diego, Bellingham, Washington, and Seattle. He graduated from Seattle's Franklin High School, where he was salutatorian, in 1923, and from there went to the University of Washington, from which he graduated with a degree in chemistry "cum laude" in 1927, after having been elected to Phi Beta Kappa as a junior the year before. That summer, he worked at the university's Puget Sound Biological Station at Friday Harbor on San Juan Island [http://depts.washington.edu/fhl/] , and received a master's degree the next year for his thesis based on that work.

From the University of Washington, Hitchings went to Harvard University as a teaching fellow, ending up at Harvard Medical School. Before getting his Ph.D. in 1933, he joined Alpha Chi Sigma in 1929. During the next ten years, he would work at Harvard and Western Reserve University. In 1942, he went to work for Wellcome Research Laboratories, where he began working with Gertrude Elion in 1944. Drugs Hitchings' team worked on included 2,6-diaminopurine (a compound to treat leukemia) and p-chlorophenoxy-2,4-diaminopyrimidine (a folic acid antagonist). According to his Nobel Prize autobiography,:The line of inquiry we had begun in the 1940s [also] yielded new drug therapies for malaria (pyrimethamine), leukemia (6-mercaptopurine and thioguanine), gout (allopurinol), organ transplantation (azathioprine) and bacterial infections (co-trimoxazole (trimethoprimA)). The new knowledge contributed by our studies pointed the way for investigations that led to major antiviral drugs for herpes infections (acyclovir) and AIDS (zidovudine).

In 1967 Hitchings became Vice President in Charge of Research of Burroughs-Wellcome. He became Scientist Emeritus in 1976. He died in 1998 in Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

References

*Citation
id = PMID:10768469
url= http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10768469
last=Raju
first=T N
publication-date=2000 Mar 18
year=2000
title=The Nobel chronicles. 1988: James Whyte Black, (b 1924), Gertrude Elion (1918-99), and George H Hitchings (1905-98).
volume=355
issue=9208
periodical=Lancet
pages=1022

*Citation
id = PMID:8195827
url= http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8195827
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first=R L
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year=1993
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volume=5
issue=6
periodical=Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy)
pages=361-8

*Citation
id = PMID:3063980
url= http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3063980
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first=P A
publication-date=1988 Dec 31
year=1988
title= [Nobel prize for Medicine 1988]
volume=132
issue=53
periodical=Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
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*Citation
id = PMID:3078084
url= http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3078084
last=Giner-Sorolla
first=A
publication-date=1988 Dec
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*Citation
id = PMID:3060998
url= http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3060998
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publication-date=1988 Dec
year=1988
title=Physiology or medicine.
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periodical=Sci. Am.
pages=33

*Citation
id = PMID:2462143
url= http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2462143
last=Sjöqvist
first=F
publication-date=1988 Oct 26
year=1988
title= [Nobel Prize in medicine: three share this year's Nobel Prize in medicine. Important principles in drug therapy]
volume=85
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periodical=Lakartidningen
pages=3542-7

*Citation
id = PMID:4950964
url= http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4950964
last=Dameshek
first=W
publication-date=1970
year=1970
title=The deVilliers award of the Leukemia Society of America Inc. to George H. Hitchings, Ph.D.
volume=
issue=36
periodical=Bibliotheca haematologica
pages=XXI-XXII

*Citation
id = PMID:4895870
url= http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4895870
last=Talalay
first=P
publication-date=1969 Sep 1
year=1969
title=Presentation of Dr. George Herbert Hitchings for the Passano Award.
volume=209
issue=9
periodical=JAMA
pages=1337-8


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • George H. Hitchings — George Hitchings George Hitchings Naissance 18 avril 1905 Hoquiam (États Unis) Décès 27 février 1998 Chapel Hill (États Unis) Nationalité …   Wikipédia en Français

  • George H. Hitchings — George Herbert Hitchings (* 18. April 1905 in Hoquiam, Washington; † 27. Februar 1998, Chapel Hill, North Carolina) war ein amerikanischer Biochemiker. Er war lange Zeit als Forschungs Direktor der Burroughs Wellcome Company tätig. 1988 erhielt… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • George Herbert Hitchings — (* 18. April 1905 in Hoquiam, Washington; † 27. Februar 1998, Chapel Hill, North Carolina) war ein amerikanischer Biochemiker. Er war lange Zeit als Forschungs Direktor der Burroughs Wellcome Company tätig. 1988 erhielt er gemeinsam mit James W.… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • George H. Hitchings — (18 de abril de 1905 27 de febrero de 1998). Se licencia y doctora en Medicina y Ciencias en las Universidades de Brown y de Washington. En 1942 entró a trabajar en la empresa Borrough Wellcome, donde fue director del departamento de… …   Wikipedia Español

  • George H. Hitchings — nació en Hoquiam , Washington, Estados Unidos en 1905. Se licencia y doctora en Medicina y Ciencias en las Universidades de Brown y de Washington. En 1942 entró a trabajar en la empresa Borrough Wellcome, donde fue director del departamento de… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • George Herbert Hitchings — noun United States biochemist noted for developing drugs to treat leukemia and gout (1905 1998) • Syn: ↑Hitchings • Instance Hypernyms: ↑biochemist …   Useful english dictionary

  • Medizinnobelpreis 1988: James Whyte Black — Gertrude Belle Elion — George Herbert Hitchings —   Die Wissenschaftler wurden für wegweisende Entdeckungen wichtiger biochemischer Prinzipien der Arzneimitteltherapie ausgezeichnet.    Biografien   Sir (seit 1981) James Whyte Black, * Uddingston (Schottland) 14. 6. 1924; 1947 59 als… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • George Hitchings — George Herbert Hitchings (* 18. April 1905 in Hoquiam, Washington; † 27. Februar 1998, Chapel Hill, North Carolina) war ein amerikanischer Biochemiker. Er war lange Zeit als Forschungs Direktor der Burroughs Wellcome Company tätig. 1988 erhielt… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hitchings — George Herbert Hitchings (* 18. April 1905 in Hoquiam, Washington; † 27. Februar 1998, Chapel Hill, North Carolina) war ein amerikanischer Biochemiker. Er war lange Zeit als Forschungs Direktor der Burroughs Wellcome Company tätig. 1988 erhielt… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • George Hitchings — Naissance 18 avril 1905 Hoquiam (États Unis) Décès 27 février 1998 Chapel Hill (États Unis) Nationalité …   Wikipédia en Français


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