- Aksu, Xinjiang
Aksu or Akesu (also known as Ak-su, Akshu, Aqsu, Bharuka and Po-lu-chia; _ug. ئاقسۇ|Aqsu|Ak̡su.
simplified Chinese阿克苏; traditional Chinese阿克蘇, pinyin(Ākèsù).
As of 2002, the city, which is in the southern foothills of the
Tian Shan, has a population of 560,000, mostly Han Chinese, the city itself has a population of 362,000.
The economy of Aksu is mostly agricultural, with cotton, in particular long-staple cotton as the main product. Also produced are grain, fruits, oils, beets and so on. The industry mostly consists of weaving, cement, and chemical industries.
Former Handynasty (125 BCE to 23 CE) at least until the early Tang dynasty (618-907 CE), Aksu was known as Gumo 姑墨 [Ku-mo] . It was an important stop on the Northern Silk Roadthat runs along the northern edge of the Taklamakandesert in the Tarim Basinbetween Kuchaand Kashgar. In Buddhist Sanskrit, it was known as "Bharuka". [ [http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/hhshu/notes20.html#12 Notes to the translation from the "Hou Hanshu" by John E. Hill] ] [Bailey, H. W. (1985): "Indo-Scythian Studies being Khotanese Texts Volume VII". Cambridge University Press. 1985.] The ancient capital town of Nan ("Southern Town") was likely well south of the present town.
During the Former Han dynasty, Gumo is described as a "kingdom" ("guo") containing 3,500 households and 24,500 individuals, including 4,500 people able to bear arms. It is said to have produced copper, iron and
orpiment. [Hulsewé, A. F. P. and Loewe, M. A. N. 1979. "China in Central Asia: The Early Stage 125 B.C. – A.D. 23: an annotated translation of chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han Dynasty", p. 162. E. J. Brill, Leiden.]
The Chinese pilgrim
Xuanzangvisited this "kingdom" in 629 CEand referred to it as Baluka. He recorded that there were tens of SarvastivadinBuddhist monasteries in the kingdom and over 1000 monks. He said the kingdom was 600 " li" from east to west, and 300 "li" from north to south. Its capital was said to be 6 "li" in circuit. He reported that the "native products, climate, temperament of the people, customs, written language and law are the same as in the country of Kuci ( Kucha), but the spoken language is somewhat different." He also stated that fine cotton and hempen cloth made in the area was traded in neighbouring countries. [Li, Rongxi. Translator. 1996. "The Great Tang Dynasty Record of the Western Regions". Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research. Berkeley, California.]
In the 7th, 8th, and early 9th centuries, control of the entire region was often contested by the Chinese
Tang Dynasty, the Tibetan TufanEmpire, and Uyghur Empire; control of cities frequently changed hands. Tibet seized Aksu in 670 AD, but Tang forces reconquered the region in 692. Tibet regained the Tarim Basin in the late 720s, and the Tang Dynasty again annexed the region in the 740s. The Battle of Talasled to the gradual withdrawal of Chinese forces, and the region was contested between the Uyghurs and Tibetans.
Aksu was strongly connected with
Kucha, though its spoken language differed a little from standard Kuchean. It was positioned on a junction of trade routes; the northern-Tarim silk road, and a route north to the fertile Ili Rivervalley.
Around 1220 Aksu became the capital of the
Kingdom of Mangalai. Francis Younghusband, visited Aksu in 1887 on his overland journey from Beijingto India. He described it as being the largest town he had seen on his way from Beijing. It had a local population of about 20,000 besides those of the district and a garrison of about 2,000 soldiers. "There were large bazaars and several inns—some for travellers, others for merchants wishing to make a prolonged stay to sell goods." [Younghusband, Francis E. (1896). "The Heart of a Continent", p. 154. John Murray, London. Facsimile reprint: (2005) Elbiron Classics. ISBN 1-4212-6551-6 (pbk); ISBN 1-4212-6550-8 (hardcover).]
630: Xuanzangvisited the kingdom.
The kingdom bordered
Kashgarto the south-west, and Kucha, Karasahrthen Turfanto the east. Across the desert to the south was Khotan.
*Hill, John E. 2003. "Annotated Translation of the Chapter on the Western Regions according to the "Hou Hanshu"." 2nd Draft Edition. [http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/hhshu/hou_han_shu.html]
*Puri, B. N. "Buddhism in Central Asia", Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited, Delhi, 1987. (2000 reprint).
*Stein, Aurel M. 1907. "Ancient Khotan: Detailed report of archaeological explorations in Chinese Turkestan", 2 vols. Clarendon Press. Oxford. [http://dsr.nii.ac.jp/toyobunko/]
*Stein, Aurel M. 1921. "Serindia: Detailed report of explorations in Central Asia and westernmost China", 5 vols. London & Oxford. Clarendon Press. Reprint: Delhi. Motilal Banarsidass. 1980. [http://dsr.nii.ac.jp/toyobunko/]
*Yu, Taishan. 2004. "A History of the Relationships between the Western and Eastern Han, Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern Dynasties and the Western Regions". Sino-Platonic Papers No. 131 March, 2004. Dept. of East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Pennsylvania.
* [http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/ Silk Road Seattle] (The Silk Road Seattle website contains many useful resources including a number of full-text historical works)
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