Some members of the movement are ethnically Jewish, and some of them argue that Messianic Judaism is a sect of Judaism.[unreliable source?] Jewish organizations and religious movements reject this, stating that Messianic Judaism is a Christian sect. The Supreme Court of Israel has ruled that the Law of Return should treat Jews who convert to Messianic Judaism the same way it treats Jews who convert to Christianity. Mainstream Christian groups generally accept Messianic Judaism as a form of Christianity.
From 2003 to 2007, the movement grew from 150 Messianic houses of worship in the United States to as many as 438, with over 100 in Israel and more worldwide; often congregations are members of larger Messianic organizations or alliances. In 2008, the movement was reported to have between 6,000 and 15,000 members in Israel.
Efforts by converted Jews to proselytize Jews go back to the first Century when Paul preached first at the synagogues in each city he visited. However preaching to Jews in the early centuries that followed, as for example in Epiphanius of Salamis' account of the conversion of Count Joseph of Tiberias, or Sozomen's accounts of Jewish conversions, does not mention converted Jews playing any leading role in the conversions. Notable converts from Judaism who themselves attempted to convert other Jews are more visible from at least the 13th century, when Jewish convert to Christianity Pablo Christiani attempted to convert other Jews. This activity, however, typically lacked any independent Jewish-Christian congregations, and was often imposed by force.
In the 15th and 16th century, Jewish Christians occupying professorships at the European universities began to provide translations of Hebrew texts. Men such as Paul Nuñez Coronel, Alfonso de Zamora, Alfonso de Alcalá, Domenico Gerosolimitano and Giovanni Battista Jona were actively engaged in spreading Jewish learning. 
19th and early 20th centuries
Main article: Hebrew Christian Movement
In the 19th century, some groups attempted to create congregations and societies of Jewish converts to Christianity, though most of the early congregations were short-lived. Early formal organizations run by converted Jews were: the Anglican London Society for promoting Christianity among the Jews of Joseph Frey (1809), which published the first Yiddish New Testament in 1821; the "Beni Abraham" association, established by Frey in 1813 with a group of 41 Jewish Christians who started meeting at Jews' Chapel, London for prayers Friday night and Sunday morning; and the London Hebrew Christian Alliance of Great Britain founded by Dr. Carl Schwartz in 1866.
The September 1813 meeting of Frey's "Beni Abraham" congregation at the rented "Jews' Chapel" in Spitalfields is sometimes pointed to as the birth of the semi-autonomous Hebrew Christian movement within Anglican and other established churches in Britain, though the non-Anglican minister of the chapel at Spitalfields evicted Frey and his congregation only three years later, and Frey severed his connections with the Society. A new location was found and the Episcopal Jew's Chapel Abrahamic Society registered in 1835.
In Eastern Europe, Joseph Rabinowitz established a Hebrew Christian mission and congregation called "Israelites of the New Covenant" in Kishinev, Ukraine in 1884. Rabinowitz was supported from overseas by the Christian theologian Franz Delitzsch, translator of the first modern Hebrew New Testament. In 1865, Rabinowitz created a sample order of worship for Sabbath morning service based on a mixture of Jewish and Christian elements. Mark John Levy pressed the Church of England to allow members to embrace Jewish customs.
In the United States, a congregation of Jewish converts to Christianity was established in New York City in 1885. In the 1890s, immigrant Jewish converts to Christianity worshiped at the Methodist "Hope of Israel" mission on New York’s Lower East Side while retaining some Jewish rites and customs. In 1895, the 9th edition of Hope of Israel's Our Hope magazine carried the subtitle “A Monthly Devoted to the Study of Prophecy and to Messianic Judaism”, the first use of the term "Messianic Judaism". Hope of Israel was controversial; other missionary groups accused its members of being Judaizers, and one of the two editors of Our Hope magazine, Arno C. Gaebelein, eventually repudiated his views, and, as a result, was able to become a leader in the mainstream Christian evangelical movement.
Missions to the Jews saw a period of growth between the 1920s and the 1960s. In the 1940s and 50s, missionaries in Israel such as the Southern Baptists adopted the term meshichyim (משיחיים "Messianics") to counter negative connotations of the word notsrim (נוצרים "Christians", from "Nazarenes"); the term was used to designate all Jews who had converted to Protestant evangelical Christianity.
The Messianic Judaism movement, 1970s
Messianic Judaism itself arose in the 1960s and 70s. In the 1970s, a growing number of young Jews who had converted to Christianity were committed to maintaining a culturally Jewish lifestyle, in the mode advocated by Rabinowitz in the 19th century. Going against the thinking of the older members of the Hebrew Christian movement, they believed that different methods of evangelism of Jews were needed. They looked to and adopted some of the evangelizing techniques of Jews for Jesus. According to Hocken (2009) "the new thrust that turned Hebrew Christians into Messianic Jews was distinctly charismatic." This reflected the influence of the charismatic Jesus movement at the same period. These younger members pressed the HCAA to change the "outdated" name of the Hebrew Christian Alliance of America (HCAA) to the Messianic Jewish Alliance of America (MJAA).  In 1915, when the HCAA was founded, it had "consistently assuaged the fears of fundamentalist Christians by emphasizing that it is not a separate denomination but only an evangelistic arm of the evangelical church", and insisted that it would be free of these Judaizing practices "now and forever". Martin Chernoff, who was president of the HCAA from 1971 to 1975, led the effort to shift the organization's focus. In June 1973, a motion was made to change the name of the HCAA to the Messianic Jewish Alliance of America (MJAA), and the name was officially changed in June 1975. According to David A. Rausch, "The name change, however, signified far more than a semantical expression—it represented an evolution in the thought processes and religious and philosophical outlook toward a more fervent expression of Jewish identity". The Messianic Israel Alliance, an organization of over 130 Messianic congregations and ministries, was formed in 1999.
As with many religious faiths, the exact tenets held vary from congregation to congregation. In general, essential doctrines of Messianic Judaism include views on God (omnipotent, omnipresent, eternal, outside creation, infinitely significant and benevolent—viewpoints on the Trinity vary), Jesus is believed to be the Jewish Messiah though views on his divinity vary), written Torah (with a few exceptions, Messianics believe that Jesus taught and reaffirmed the Torah and that it remains fully in force), Israel (the Children of Israel are central to God's plan, replacement theology is opposed), the Bible (Tanakh and the New Testament are usually considered the divinely inspired Scripture, though Messianics are more open to criticism of the New Testament canon than is Christianity), eschatology (similar to many evangelical Christian views), and oral law (observance varies, but virtually all deem these traditions subservient to the written Torah). Certain additional doctrines, including sin and atonement and faith and works, are more open to differences in interpretation.
God and Jesus
Many Messianics affirm the Holy Trinity (ha-shilush ha-kodesh השילוש הקדוש)—the God the Father (Elohim ha-Av אלוהים האב); God the Son (אלוהים הבן Elohim ha-Ben) and God the Holy Spirit (Elohim ruakh ha-kodesh אלוהים רוח הקודש)—as three representations of the same divinity.
God—Messianic Jews believe in God (Adonai, LORD, or Yahweh of the Bible), and that he is all-powerful, omni-present, eternal, exists outside of creation, and is infinitely significant and benevolent. Messianic Jews affirm the Shema Some who call themselves Messianic profess only a Jewish view of monotheism, but this is not common. Most Messianic Jews affirm a triune (trinitarian) view of God, believing that God is a complex being.
Jesus as Messiah—Messianics, in line with mainstream Protestant Christian theology, consider Jesus to be the Jewish Messiah and God, and God the Son. They also consider Jesus to be their "chief teacher and rabbi" whose life should be copied. Many English-speaking Messianic Jews prefer to refer to Jesus with the Hebrew name "Yeshua" rather the English name "Jesus". Any congregation that does not ascribe divinity to Jesus as the human-born son of the Spirit of God (such as those that consider him a man who only became Messiah) is outside mainstream Messianic Jewish belief. This belief is supported through links between Hebrew bible prophecies and what Messianics perceive as the prophecies's fulfillment in the New Testament,
Holy Spirit—The third person of the Trinity is the Holy Spirit (ha-ruakh ha-kodesh הרוח הקודש). According to Messianic Jewish Trinitarian belief the term "Spirit" (ruakh רוח) found in the Old Testament as co-creator (Genesis 1:2) and inspirer of prophets (I Sam 19:23-24, II Sam. 23:1-3). According to the teachings of Messianic Judaism, in the earthly life of Jesus, the Holy Spirit was the dove at baptism (Matt 3:16) and the giver of tongues in Acts 2.
The place of Jesus in Messianic Judaism is usually clearly defined. They affirm his Jewishness and that of all the original disciples. Messianic Judaism asserts that Jesus is the word of God become manifest (John 1:1;14), a belief that is identical with normative Christian doctrine regarding the nature and identity of the son of God. Furthermore, Messianic Judaism generally asserts that the Messiah has a dual aspect as revealed in Scripture. Messianics believe Jesus' first role as Messiah was first to rescue the world from from spiritual bondage, and that he will return again to rescue the world from physical oppression and establish his unending Kingdom—again, a belief that is identical to the normative Christian view of the Messiah. George Berkley writes that Messianics "worship not just God but Jesus" whom they call Yeshua.
Scriptures and writings
Written Torah—Messianics, with few exceptions, consider the written Torah (Pentateuch), the five books of Moses, to remain fully in force. They believe it is a continuing covenant that is to be observed both morally and ritually by those who profess faith in God.[unreliable source?] They believe that Jesus taught and re-affirmed the Torah, rather than did away with it.[unreliable source?]
The Bible—The Tanakh and the Apostolic Writings (sometimes called the "B’rit Chadasha") are usually considered to be the established and divinely inspired Biblical scriptures by Messianic Jews.
Mishnah and Talmud
Some Messianic communities believe that the rabbinic commentaries such as the Mishnah and the Talmud, while historically informative and useful in understanding tradition, are not normative and may not be followed where they differ from the messianic scriptures. Other Messianic believers call rabbinic commentaries such as the Mishnah and the Talmud "dangerous".[unreliable source?] These people believe that followers of rabbinic and halakhic explanations and commentaries are not believers in Jesus as the Messiah.[unreliable source?] Furthermore, Messianic believers deny the authority of the Pharisees, believing that they were superseded, and contradicted, by Messianism.[unreliable source?]
Oral Law—There is no single interpretation on the use of Talmud by Messianic congregations. Most Messianic congregations and synagogues can be said to believe that the oral traditions are subservient to the written Torah, and where there is a conflict between Torah and Talmud, the plain interpretation of Torah take precedence.[unreliable source?] Some congregations believe that adherence to the Oral Law, as encompassed by the Talmud, is against Messianic beliefs, since Talmud was not written until after the whole of the affirmed canon (begun 70 CE, completed approx 500 CE). A few congregations believe that adherence to the Talmud is outright dangerous.[unreliable source?] Other congregations are selective in their applications of Talmudic law.[unreliable source?] Still others encourage a serious observance of the Jewish Halakha.
Messianics take the Christian biblical as sacred scripture. Theologian David H. Stern in his "Jewish New Testament Commentary" argues that Paul is fully congruent with Messianic Judaism, and that the New Testament is to be taken by Messianic Jews as the inspired Word of God. This is the mainstream view within the movement, although—as with many religions—there are several schools of thought. A very few Messianic believers are troubled by the writings of Paul and may reject his writings, holding them in less esteem than those of the other Gospel writers.
There are a number of Messianic commentaries on various books of the Bible, both Tanakh and New Testament texts, such as Matthew, Acts, Romans, Galatians, and Hebrews. David H. Stern has released a one-volume Jewish New Testament Commentary, providing explanatory notes from a Messianic Jewish point of view. Other noted New Testament commentary authors include: Joseph Shulam, who has written commentaries on Acts, Romans, and Galatians; Arnold Fruchtenbaum of Ariel Ministries, who has written commentaries on the Epistles, Judges & Ruth, and Genesis, and 7 systematic doctrinal studies; Tim Hegg of TorahResource, who has written commentaries on Romans, Galatians, Hebrews, and is presently examining Matthew; Daniel Thomas Lancaster, who has written extensively for the First Fruits of Zion Torah Club series; Stuart Sacks, author of Hebrews Through a Hebrews' Eyes; and J.K. McKee of TNN Online who has written several volumes under the byline "for the Practical Messianic" (James, Hebrews, Philippians, Galatians, and both a Tanach and Apostolic Scriptures Survey).
Attitudes to Paul
Messianics understand (as suggested by some recent scholars) that Paul the Apostle (who is often referred to as Sha’ul, his speculative Hebrew name) remained a Jewish Pharisee even as a believer until his death (see Paul of Tarsus and Judaism). This is based on Acts 23:6, detailing events after Paul's acceptance of Jesus as Messiah. "But when Paul perceived that the one part were Sadducees, and the other Pharisees, he cried out in the council, Men [and] brethren, I am a Pharisee, the son of a Pharisee: of the hope and resurrection of the dead I am called in question."
Messianics cite the cutting off of Paul’s hair at Cenchrea because of a vow he had taken (Acts 18:18), references in passing to him observing the Jewish holidays, the frequent mistranslations of his writings in many Bibles, and his consistent good standing with his Rabbinic master Gamaliel, to show that he was wholly in continued observance of the laws and traditions of Judaism. They maintain that Paul never set out to polarize the gospel between faith and righteous works, but that one is necessary to maintain the other. The New Perspective on Paul is important in Messianic Judaism.
Sin and atonement
Messianics define sin as transgression of the Torah (Law/Instruction) of God (1 John 3: 4–5). Messianics hold to a belief that all sin (whether committed yet or not) is already atoned for because of Jesus's death and resurrection.
Evangelism and attitudes to Jews and Israel
Evangelism—Messianics believe God's people have a responsibility to spread his name and fame to all nations (Psalms 96:3, Ezekiel 3:18–19)
Israel—It is believed that the Children of Israel were, remain, and will continue to be the chosen people of the God, and are central to his plans for existence. Virtually all Messianics (whether Jewish or non-Jewish) can be said to oppose supersessionism (popularly referred to as replacement theology), the view that the Church has replaced Israel in the mind and plans of God.[unreliable source?]
People of God There exist among Messianics a number of perspectives regarding who exactly makes up God's chosen people. These are 'covenant membership, and halakhic definitions. Most commonly, Israel is seen as distinct from Ekklesia; Messianic Jews, being a part of both Israel and Ekklesia, are seen as the necessary link of the 'Gentile' People of God to the commonwealth of God's people of Israel. The two-house view, and the one law/grafted-in view are held by many identifying as Messianic, although some Messianic groups do not espouse these theologies.
According to the (Messianic) Jerusalem Council, "the people of Israel are members of the covenant HaShem made with Avraham, Yitzhak, and Ya'akov. Covenant membership is extended to converts to Judaism from the nations, as well as to the descendants of covenant members. Israel is a nation of nations and their descendants, or more specifically a people group called out from other people groups to be a people separated unto HaShem for his purposes. HaShem's promise of covenantal blessings and curses as described in the Torah are unique to Am Yisrael (People of Israel), and to no other nation or people group. The bible describes an Israelite as one descended from Ya'akov ben Yitzhak ben Avraham, or one who has been converted or adopted into that group by either human or spiritual means." [unreliable source?]
According to Messianic Judaism, Jews are those which one or both parents are Jewish, or have undergone halakhic conversion to Judaism. Those who have Jewish fathers only are considered Jewish if the individual claims Jewish identity, similar to Reform Judaism. The statement of the Messianic Jewish Rabbinical Council on Jewish identity is often disputed among Messianic believers who either don't find it necessary or discourage halakhic conversion by believing the Romans 2:29 teaching (that a "Jew" is not one who is one "outwardly" but is one who is a Jew in his heart). They also believe that by accepting Jesus into their hearts and confessing that he is Lord, salvation is received.
Messianic believers from the nations are also considered a part of the People of God. Depending on their status within various Messianic Jewish groups, such as the Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations, an allowance for formal conversion is made based on their understanding that Messianic converts are not automatically considered Jewish. The reasoning for this variance is as follows: While Titus may have been the norm in the epistles, a Gentile not converted to Judaism, Paul nevertheless made an exception for Timothy, whom he circumcised and brought under the Covenant, probably because though Timothy's father was Greek, his mother was Jewish. According to the statement of the Messianic Jewish Rabbinical Council regarding Conversion, converts to Judaism do not in any way have a higher status within Messianic Judaism than the Messianic believers who are considered by the UMJC to still be gentiles who are attached to their communities.
One Law theology
One Law theology teaches that anyone who is a part of Israel is obligated to observe the Covenant and its provisions as outlined in the Torah. Dan Juster of Tikkun, and Russ Resnik of the UMJC, have argued against One Law theology's insistence on Gentiles being required to observe the entirety of Torah in the same way Jews are. Tim Hegg responded to their article defending what he believes to be the biblical teaching of "One Law" theology and its implications concerning the obligations of Torah obedience by new Messianic believers from the nations.
Two House theology
Two House Theology comes from the idea that the "House of Judah" in scripture refers to Jews, and the "House of Israel" refers to the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel, or Ephraim. Where scripture states the House of Israel and Judah will again be "one stick" (Ezekiel 37:15–23), it is believed to be referring to the End Times, right before Jesus returns, that many of those descended from Israel will come back to Israel. This theology postulates that the reason why so many so-called gentiles are coming into Messianic Judaism is that the vast majority of them are really Israelites and just don't know it yet. They believe a majority of the people who considered themselves as gentiles coming into Messianic Judaism are those of the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel. Like One Law groups, the Two House movement appears at first glance to have much in common with Messianic Judaism because of their belief in the ongoing validity of the Mosaic Covenant. While much of the Two House teaching is based on interpretations of Biblical prophecy, the biggest disagreements are due to inability to identify the genealogy of the ten lost tribes. Organizations such as the Messianic Jewish Alliance of America and Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations have opposed the Two House teachingand it continues to be a sensitive issue among Messianic congregations.
Historically, Christianity has featured supersessionism (replacement theology), which implies or outright states that Christianity has superseded Judaism, that the Mosaic Covenant of the First Testament is superseded by the New Covenant of Jesus, wherein the merciful grace of God and not obedience to the Torah is required for salvation. This is sometimes complemented with God moving the status of "God's people" from Israel, as described in the Hebrew bible, to the Christian Church. Messianic Judaism, in varying degrees, challenges both thoughts, and instead believes that although Israel has rejected Jesus, it has not forfeited its place as God's chosen people (Matthew 5:17). Messianic Judaism cites Romans 11:29: "for God's gifts and his call are irrevocable." The core of supersessionism, in which the First Testament covenant is canceled, is less agreed upon. Though the mitzvot may or may not be necessary, most are still followed, especially keeping Sabbath and other holy days. Some followers of the movement believe that Jews can still find favor with God through the Torah without accepting Jesus, as did Moses, David, and the Prophets.
Biblical eschatology—Most Messianics hold all of the following eschatological beliefs: the End of Days, the Second Coming of Jesus as the conquering Messiah, the re-gathering of Israel, a rebuilt Third Temple, a Resurrection of the Dead (and that Jesus was resurrected after his death), and the Millennial Sabbath.
Many Messianics believe that all of the moedim, indeed the entire Torah, intrinsically hint at the Messiah, and thus no study of the End Times is complete without understanding the major Jewish Festivals in the larger prophetic context. To these believers, Passover, First Fruits, and Shavuot were fulfilled in Jesus's first coming, and Yom Teruah, Yom Kippur, and Sukkot will be at his second. Many Messianics believe in a literal 7000-year period for the human history of the world, with a Messianic Millennial Sabbath Kingdom before a final judgment.
There is a variety of practice within Messianic Judaism regarding the strictness of Torah observance. Generally, "Torah observant" congregations observe Jewish Law, biblical feasts, and Sabbath. While most traditional Christians deny that the ritual laws and specific civil laws of the Pentateuch (though still affirming that Torah is the word of God) apply directly to themselves, passages regarding Torah observance in the New Testament are cited by Messianics that Torah was not abolished for Jews. They point out that in Acts 21 we find that the Jewish believers in Jerusalem are "zealous for Torah" and that Paul himself never stopped being observant. Most Messianics believe that observance of the Torah brings about sanctification, not salvation, which was to be produced only by the Messiah.
Union of Conservative Messianic Synagogues (UCMJS)
The International Alliance of Messianic Congregations and Synagogues (IAMCS).
HaYesod ("the foundation") is a discipleship course that respectfully explores the Jewish foundation of Christianity. There are currently 259 HaYesod study groups of 5 or more members.
The Jerusalem Council, an organization seeking to become a ruling council for Messianic believers worldwide. It is in the process of publishing a set of Messianic halakha that the "majority of orthodox Messianic Jews accept."
The Messianic Jewish Rabbinical Council, many of whose members are affiliated with the Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations, has published its standards of Messianic Torah observance.
Organizations sympathetic to Messianic Judaism which remain outside the mainstream Messianic movement.
Jews for Jesus is an evangelizing organization that does not create or sponsor Messianic congregations.
The movement has attempted to "eliminate the elements of Christian worship that cannot be directly linked to their Jewish roots".
Worship services are generally held on Friday evenings (Erev Shabbat) or Saturday mornings. The Messianic Jewish Rabbinical Council recommends the observance of Jewish holidays. Most larger Messianic Jewish congregations follow Jewish custom in celebrating seven key holidays (Pesach or Passover, Shavuot, Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, Sukkot, Hanukkah, and Purim). Celebration of other holidays is less widespread.
The dietary laws of Judaism are a subject of continued debate among Messianic Jews. Some Messianics keep kosher purely for the purposes of evangelism to Jewish people. Most avoid pork and shellfish, but there is division on more strict adherence to kosher dietary laws.
Conversion to Messianic Judaism
Messianic perspectives on "Who is a Jew" vary. The Messianic Jewish Rabbinical Council, (West Haven, CT, 2006) a global Messianic body, acknowledges a Jew as one born to a Jewish mother, or who has converted to Judaism. Copying from the Reform stream of Judaism, the Council also recognizes as a Jew one who was born to a Jewish father (but not a Jewish mother) on the condition that the family of the child (or the individual as an adult) has undertaken public and formal acts of identification of the individual with the Jewish faith and people.
Large numbers of "Messianic Jews" are not of Jewish descent, but join the movement anyway as they "enjoy the Messianic Jewish style of worship." The MJAA views conversion for Gentiles an unbiblical practice, but accepts them into the congregations. 
Messianic Jews practice baptism, calling it a mikveh ("cistern", from Leviticus 11) rather than the term hattvila ("baptism" הטבילה in the Hebrew New Testament).
Some within the Ephraimite movement seek to convert themselves for identification with Israel, but most Messianic governing bodies acknowledge the presence of gentiles in the congregations, and do not see a need for them to convert to worship in the Messianic style and understanding. When conversion is sincerely desired by a Gentile Messianic believer in Jesus, Messianic Jewish halachic standards (including circumcision) are imposed to maintain integrity among the world Messianic Jewish community.
Use of Hebrew names and vocabulary in English
The movement prefers to maximise the use of Hebrew terms in English.[why?] The New Testament term tsalav ( צלב "cross") is avoided. Messianic Jews take the opposite approach from the Sacred Name Movement regarding the name of God. The name Yahweh is rarely used, nor the New Testament "Lord", but HaShem, "The NAME". Messianic Jews take the same approach to the Sacred Name Movement for the name "Yeshua".
There are recording artists who consider their music to be Messianic in message, such as Joel Chernoff of Lamb, Paul Wilbur, Marty Goetz, Ted Pearce and Chuck King. Many of these artists have been influenced by Jewish music and often incorporate Hebrew phrases into their lyrics.
Reception of the Messianic Judaism movement
Reception among other Christians
In America the emergence of the Messianic Jewish movement created some stresses with previous Jewish-Christian and proselytzing organization; the Fellowship of Christian Testimonies to the Jews (FCTJ) in 1975 condemned several aspects of the Messianic Jewish movement.The use of Hebrew vocabulary, and often dietary practices and festivals, can meet with a mixed reception among other Christians in America.
In Israel, where all Hebrew-speaking Christians use Hebrew vocabulary the distinctions between "Messianic Jews" and generic Christians is less clear, and the name "Messianic" (Meshiyhiy משיחי) is commonly used by churches anyway, in preference of the secular government administrative term for Christian, "Nazarene" (Notsri נוצרי). The Israel Trust of the Anglican Church (ITAC) based at Christ Church, Jerusalem, although ecumenical, and running an inter-faith school in Jerusalem gives some social support to Messianic Jews in Israel.
Reception among Jews
Specific response to "Messianic Judaism"
Jewish objections to Messianic Judaism are numerous, and often begin with objections to the term "Messianic Judaism" itself: They state that while Judaism is a messianic religion, its messiah is not Jesus, and thus the term is misleading. Use of "Judaism" in the term is also considered misleading and as a subversive tactic used for missionary purposes.
All denominations of Judaism, as well as national Jewish organizations, reject Messianic Judaism being a form of Judaism, often on the grounds that belief in Jesus as the Messiah is an insuperable dividing line between Christianity and Judaism.
"For us in the Jewish community, anyone who claims that Jesus is their savior is no longer a Jew and is an apostate. Through that belief she has placed herself outside the Jewish community. Whether she cares to define herself as a Christian or as a 'fulfilled Jew,' 'Messianic Jew,' or any other designation is irrelevant; to us, she is clearly a Christian."
Canadian B'nai Brith considers messianic activities as antisemitic incidents. Several anti-missionary organizations, such as Outreach Judaism and Jews for Judaism oppose Messianic Judaism on theological grounds, usually from an Orthodox Jewish perspective. In recent years these organizations have noticeably narrowed their focus from countering the missionizing of Jews in the name of Christianity in general to countering the spread of Messianic Judaism in particular. The Jewish anti-missionary organizations view the latter (Messianic Judaism) as a more threatening and subversive form of missionary activity than the former (openly missionizing in the name of Christianity).
Jewish leaders dispute the Jewishness of the movement. Rabbi Tovia Singer, founder of an organization dedicated to opposing Christian efforts to convert Jews, noted of a Messianic rabbi in Toledo: "He’s not running a Jewish synagogue ... It’s a church designed to appear as if it were a synagogue and I’m there to expose him. What these irresponsible extremist Christians do is a form of consumer fraud. They blur the distinctions between Judaism and Christianity in order to lure Jewish people who would otherwise resist a straightforward message." Religious leaders across the Jewish spectrum have all declared that Messianic Jews are not Jews.
God is unitary: Belief in the Trinity, or shituf (association with God) is considered idolatrous for Jews. 
The Messiah is not divine: Jewish theology rejects the idea that the messiah, or any human being, is a divinity, and consequently the majority Christian teaching of the Trinity has always been regarded as idolatrous. Further, Judaism does not view the role of the messiah to be the salvation of the world from its sins, an integral part of Christian theology.
Messianic Jews are only considered eligible for the State of Israel's Law of Return if they can also claim Jewish descent. An assistant to one of the two lawyers involved with an April 2008 Supreme Court of Israel case explained to the Jerusalem Post that Messianics who are not Jewish according to Jewish law, but who had sufficient Jewish descent to qualify under the Law of Return, could claim automatic new immigrant status and citizenship despite being Messianics.
The state of Israel grants Aliyah (right of return) and citizenship to Jews, and to those with Jewish parents or grandparents who are not considered Jews according to halacha, e.g. people who have a Jewish father but a non-Jewish mother. Specifically excluded were any “person who has been a Jew and has voluntarily changed his religion.” An Israeli Supreme Court decision in 1989 ruled that Messianic Judaism constituted another religion. However, on April 16, 2008, the Supreme Court of Israel ruled in a case brought by a number of Messianic Jews with Jewish fathers and grandfathers. Their applications for Aliyah had been rejected on the grounds that they were Messianic Jews. The argument was made by the applicants that they had never been Jews according to halacha, and were not therefore excluded by the conversion clause. This argument was upheld in the ruling.
The International Religious Freedom Report 2008, released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor in the US states that discrimination against Messianic Jews in Israel is increasing. Some acts of violence have also occurred such as incident on March 20, 2008, a bomb concealed as a Purim gift basket was delivered to the house of a prominent Messianic Jewish family in Ariel, in the West Bank, which severely wounded the son. The bombing was eventually traced to Yaakov "Jack" Teitel, an "alleged Jewish terrorist" who immigrated to Israel from the United States has been arrested in connection with several bombings, murders and attempted murders in Israel. 
This antagonism has led to harassment and some violence, especially in Israel, where there is a large and militant Orthodox community. Several Orthodox organizations, including Yad L'Achim, are dedicated to rooting out missionary activity in Israel, including the Messianic Jewish congregations. One tactic is to plaster posters asking Israelis to boycott shops where Messianic Jews are owners or employees; another is to report Messianic Jews to the Interior ministry, which is charged with enforcing an Israeli law forbidding proselytizing. In another incident, the mayor of Or Yehuda, a suburb of Tel Aviv, held a public book-burning of literature passed out to Ethiopian immigrants. He later apologized for the action.
Response of US government
The US Navy made a decision that Messianic Jewish chaplains must wear as their insignia the Christian cross, and not the tablets of the law, the insignia of Jewish chaplains. According to Yeshiva World News, a website covering stories of Jewish interest, the Navy Uniform Board commanded that Michael Hiles, a candidate for chaplaincy, wear the Christian insignia. Hiles resigned from the program, rather than wear the cross. Rabbi Eric Tokajer, a spokesman for the Messianic Jewish movement, responded that "This decision essentially bars Messianic Jews from serving as chaplains within the U.S. Navy because it would require them to wear an insignia inconsistent with their faith and belief system."
^ Kessler, Edward (2005). "Messianic Jews". In Edward Kessler and Neil Wenborn (eds.) A Dictionary of Jewish-Christian Relations. Cambridge University Press. p. 292. "[Messianic Judaism's] syncretism confuses Christians and Jews...".
^ abc Feher, Shoshanah. Passing over Easter: Constructing the Boundaries of Messianic Judaism, Rowman Altamira, 1998, ISBN 9780761989530, p. 140. "This interest in developing a Jewish ethnic identity may not be surprising when we consider the 1960s, when Messianic Judaism arose."
^ abcMelton, J. Gordon. Encyclopedia of Protestantism. Infobase Publishing, 2005, ISBN 9780816054565, p. 373. "Messianic Judaism is a Protestant movement that emerged in the last half of the 20th century among believers who were ethnically Jewish but had adopted an Evangelical Christian faith... By the 1960s, a new effort to create a culturally Jewish Protestant Christianity emerged among individuals who began to call themselves Messianic Jews."
^ abLewis, James R. (2001). Odd Gods: New Religions & the Cult Controversy. Prometheus Books. p. 179. ISBN 9781573928427. "The origins of Messianic Judaism date to the 1960s when it began among American Jews who converted to Christianity."
^ abCohn-Sherbok, Dan (2010). Judaism Today. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 100. "In the 1970s a number of American Jewish converts to Christianity, known as Hebrew Christians, were committed to a church-based conception of Hebrew Christianity. Yet, at the same time, there emerged a growing segment of the Hebrew Christian community that sought a more Jewish lifestyle. Eventually, a division emerged between those who wished to identify as Jews and those who sought to pursue Hebrew Christian goals... In time, the name of the movement was changed to Messianic Judaism."
^Ariel, Yaakov S. (2000). "Chapter 20: The Rise of Messianic Judaism" (Google Books). Evangelizing the chosen people: missions to the Jews in America, 1880–2000. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. p. 223. ISBN 9780807848807. OCLC43708450. http://books.google.com/books?id=r3hCgIZB790C&printsec=frontcover&vq=advocated+offspring+rhetoric+Shalom#v=onepage&q=advocated%20offspring%20rhetoric%20Shalom&f=false. Retrieved August 10, 2010. "Messianic Judaism, although it advocated the idea of an independent movement of Jewish converts, remained the offspring of the missionary movement, and the ties would never be broken. The rise of Messianic Judaism was, in many ways, a logical outcome of the ideology and rhetoric of the movement to evangelize the Jews as well as its early sponsorship of various forms of Hebrew Christian expressions. The missions have promoted the message that Jews who had embraced Christianity were not betraying their heritage or even their faith but were actually fulfilling their true Jewish selves by becoming Christians. The missions also promoted the dispensationalist idea that the Church equals the body of the true Christian believers and that Christians were defined by their acceptance of Jesus as their personal Savior and not by their affiliations with specific denominations and particular liturgies or modes of prayer. Missions had been using Jewish symbols in their buildings and literature and called their centers by Hebrew names such as Emanuel or Beth Sar Shalom. Similarly, the missions' publications featured Jewish religious symbols and practices such as the lighting of a menorah. Although missionaries to the Jews were alarmed when they first confronted the more assertive and independent movement of Messianic Judaism, it was they who were responsible for its conception and indirectly for its birth. The ideology, rhetoric, and symbols they had promoted for generations provided the background for the rise of a new movement that missionaries at first rejected as going too far but later accepted and even embraced."
^ abcIsrael b. Betzalel (2009). "Trinitarianism". JerusalemCouncil.org. http://jerusalemcouncil.org/articles/apologetics/trinitarianism/. Retrieved 2009-07-03. "This then is who Yeshua is: He is not just a man, and as a man, he is not from Adam, but from God. He is the Word of HaShem, the Memra, the Davar, the Righteous One, he didn’t become righteous, he is righteous. He is called God’s Son, he is the agent of HaShem called HaShem, and he is “HaShem” who we interact with and not die."
There is one God as declared in the Shema [Deuteronomy 6:4], who is “Echad,” a compound unity, eternally existent in three persons: God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit [Isaiah 48:16-17; Ephesians 4:4-6].
In the Deity of our Lord, Messiah Yeshua, in His virgin birth, in His sinless life, in His miracles, in His vicarious atoning death, in His bodily resurrection, in His ascension to the right hand of the Father, in His personal future return to this earth in power and glory to rule."
^ ab"Do I need to be Circumcised?". JerusalemCouncil.org. Feb 10, 2009. http://jerusalemcouncil.org/articles/faqs/do-i-need-to-be-circumcised/. Retrieved August 18, 2010. "To convert to the Jewish sect of HaDerech, accepting Yeshua as your King is the first act after one’s heart turns toward HaShem and His Torah – as one can not obey a commandment of God if they first do not love God, and we love God by following his Messiah. Without first accepting Yeshua as the King and thus obeying Him, then getting circumcised for the purpose of Jewish conversion only gains you access to the Jewish community. It means nothing when it comes to inheriting a place in the World to Come.…Getting circumcised apart from desiring to be obedient to HaShem, and apart from accepting Yeshua as your King, is nothing but a surgical procedure, or worse, could lead to you believe that Jewish identity grants you a portion in the World to Come – at which point, what good is Messiah Yeshua, the Word of HaShem to you? He would have died for nothing!…As a convert from the nations, part of your obligation in keeping the Covenant, if you are a male, is to get circumcised in fulfillment of the commandment regarding circumcision. Circumcision is not an absolute requirement of being a Covenant member (that is, being made righteous before HaShem, and thus obtaining eternal life), but it is a requirement of obedience to God’s commandments, because circumcision is commanded for those who are of the seed of Abraham, whether born into the family, adopted, or converted.…If after reading all of this you understand what circumcision is, and that is an act of obedience, rather than an act of gaining favor before HaShem for the purpose of receiving eternal life, then if you are male believer in Yeshua the Messiah for the redemption from death, the consequence of your sin of rebellion against Him, then pursue circumcision, and thus conversion into Judaism, as an act of obedience to the Messiah."[unreliable source?]
Harries, Richard (August 2003). "Should Christians Try to Convert Jews?". After the evil: Christianity and Judaism in the shadow of the Holocaust. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. g. 119. ISBN 0199263132. LCCN2003-273342. "Thirdly, there is Jews for Jesus or, more generally, Messianic Judaism. This is a movement of people often of Jewish background who have come to believe Jesus is the expected Jewish messiah.…They often have congregations independent of other churches and specifically target Jews for conversion to their form of Christianity."
Stetzer, Ed (October 13, 2005). "A Missional Church", The Christian Index. "Missional churches are indigenous. Churches that are indigenous have taken root in the soil and reflect, to some degree, the culture of their community... The messianic congregation (is)... in this case indigenous to Jewish culture."
"Missionary Impossible". Hebrew Union College. August 9, 1999. http://www.huc.edu/news/mi.html. Retrieved 2007-02-14. "Missionary Impossible, an imaginative video and curriculum guide for teachers, educators, and rabbis to teach Jewish youth how to recognize and respond to "Jews-for-Jesus," "Messianic Jews," and other Christian proselytizers, has been produced by six rabbinic students at Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion's Cincinnati School. The students created the video as a tool for teaching why Jewish college and high school youth and Jews in intermarried couples are primary targets of Christian missionaries."
"FAQ's About Jewish Renewal". Aleph.org. 2007. https://www.aleph.org/faq.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-20. "What is ALEPH's position on so called messianic Judaism? ALEPH has a policy of respect for other spiritual traditions, but objects to deceptive practices and will not collaborate with denominations which actively target Jews for recruitment. Our position on so-called "Messianic Judaism" is that it is Christianity and its proponents would be more honest to call it that."
^ abc"Why Jews Don't Believe in Jesus". Ask the Rabbi. Jerusalem: Ohr Somayach. 2000. http://ohr.edu/ask/ask00j.htm. Retrieved July 28, 2010. "The Christian idea of a trinity contradicts the most basic tenet of Judaism – that G-d is One. Jews have declared their belief in a single unified G-d twice daily ever since the giving of the Torah at Sinai – almost two thousand years before Christianity. The trinity suggests a three part deity: The Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost (Matthew 28:19). In Jewish law, worship of a three-part god is considered idolatry; one of the three cardinal sins for which a person should rather give up his life than transgress. The idea of the trinity is absolutely incompatible with Judaism."
^ abKaplan, Dana Evan (August 2005). "Introduction". In Dana Evan Kaplan (ed.). The Cambridge companion to American Judaism. Cambridge Companions to Religion. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. pp. 9. ISBN 0521822041. LCCN2004-024336. "For most American Jews, it is acceptable to blend some degree of foreign spiritual elements with Judaism. The one exception is Christianity, which is perceived to be incompatible with any form of Jewishness.…Messianic Jewish groups are thus seen as antithetical to Judaism and are completely rejected by the majority of Jews."
^ abLotker, Michael (May 2004). "It’s More About What is the Messiah than Who is the Messiah". A Christian’s guide to Judaism. New York, NY: Paulist Press. pp. g. 35. ISBN 0809142325. LCCN2003-024813. "It should now be clear to you why Jews have such a problem with ‘Jews for Jesus’ or other presentations of Messianic Judaism. I have no difficulty with Christianity. I even accept those Christians who would want me to convert to Christianity so long as they don't use coercion or duplicity and are willing to listen in good faith to my reasons for being Jewish. I do have a major problem with those Christians who would try to mislead me and other Jews into believing that one can be both Jewish and Christian."
^ abBerman, Daphna (June 10, 2006). "Aliyah with a cat, a dog and Jesus". Haaretz. http://www.wwrn.org/article.php?idd=21820&sec=59&con=35. Retrieved August 9, 2010. "In rejecting their petition, Supreme Court Justice Menachem Elon cited their belief in Jesus. ‘In the last two thousand years of history…the Jewish people have decided that messianic Jews do not belong to the Jewish nation…and have no right to force themselves on it,’ he wrote, concluding that ‘those who believe in Jesus, are, in fact Christians.’"
^Schoeman, Roy H. (2003). Salvation is from the Jews: the role of Judaism in salvation history from Abraham to the Second Coming. San Francisco, California: Ignatius Press. p. 351. ISBN 089870975X. LCCN2003-105176. "By the mid 1970s, Time magazine placed the number of Messianic Jews in the U.S. at over 50,000; by 1993 this number had grown to 160,000 in the U.S. and about 350,000 worldwide (1989 estimate).…There are currently over 400 Messianic synagogues worldwide, with at least 150 in the U.S."
^ Barry Yeoman, "Evangelical movement on the rise" JTA news service, November 15, 2007  accessed March 30, 2011
^ Paul Barnett Jesus & the Rise of Early Christianity: A History of New Testament- 2002 p367 Nonetheless, Paul appears always to have preached first in the synagogues to offer his fellow Israelites the first opportunity to hear about their Messiah ( cf. Rom 1:16).
^ Günter Stemberger Jews and Christians in the Holy Land: Palestine in the fourth century 2000 "For example, Sozomen reports that in Constantinople (under Constantine?) countless Jews also converted to Christianity.92 The question remains to what extent it could still be expected of Jewish converts of this period that they should join a Jewish Christian congregation. Would they not rather attempt to make a radical break with their past? The Judaizers mentioned again and again, for example, in Jerome, are not automatically Jewish Christians."
^ Edward H. Flannery The anguish of the Jews: twenty-three centuries of antisemitism 1985 p129 "One of his more famous converts was Pablo Christiani, who became a Dominican brother and a zealous missionary to the Jews. He was authorized to preach in all Jewish synagogues."
^Ariel, Yaakov (2006). "Judaism and Christianity Unite! The Unique Culture of Messianic Judaism". In Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. Jewish and Christian Traditions. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. 2. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 192. ISBN 978-0275987145. OCLC315689134. LCCN2006-022954. "Even before the rise of messianic Judaism, there were groups that promoted the creation of congregations of Jewish believers in Jesus. …In the nineteenth century many attempts were made in the United States to create Hebrew Christian Brotherhoods, designed as centers for Jews who converted to Christianity. …Jewish converts established their own organization in Great Britain as early as 1860 and in the United States in 1915."
^ John James Moscrop. Measuring Jerusalem: the Palestine Exploration Fund and British ... p15 2000 "the perspective of the Holy Land the most important of these societies was the London Jews' Society. Founded in 1809 during the high point of evangelical endeavour, the London Jews' Society was the work of Joseph Samuel Frederick Frey , ..."
^Yiddish language & culture then & now "The first Yiddish New Testament distributed by the BFBS was published by the London Jews Society in 1821; the translator was Benjamin Nehemiah Solomon, "a convert from Judaism, who [had come] over to England from Poland."
^Cohn-Sherbok, Dan (2000). Messianic Judaism. Continuum. p. 16. "On 9 September 1813 a group of 41 Jewish Christians established the Beni Abraham association at Jews' Chapel. These Jewish Christians met for prayer every Sunday morning and Friday evening."
^ Carl Schwartz The Scattered nation 5 p16 1870 "What does the Hebrew-Christian Alliance signify? is asked by well-wishers and opponents. True, its objects have been clearly stated from the ... Let me try briefly to state the nature and objects of the Hebrew-Christian Alliance."
^Jewish Journal of Sociology Volumes 9-10 World Jewish Congress 1967 "It was on 9 September 1813 that a group of forty-one Jewish converts to Christianity met in London setting forth ... ... Thus, in 1813, Hebrew Christianity was born in England through the efforts of a group of converts calling themselves the Beni Abraham, or Sons of Abraham. This group was followed by a number of others variously known as the Episcopal Jew's Chapel Abrahamic Society (1835), the Hebrew Christian Union (1865), and the Hebrew Christian Prayer Union (1882)."
^ William Thomas Gidney The history of the London Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews 1908 "As regards missionary work in London during this period we find that the lectures to the Jews and also to ... The Jews' Chapel, Spitalfields, had to be given up in 1816, as the minister refused his consent to its being licensed as a place of worship of the Church of England. Frey's connexion with the Society ceased in the same year.
^ Dan Cohn-Sherbok essay in The image of the Judaeo-Christians in ancient Jewish and Christian literature ed. Doris Lambers-Petry p287
^ Edward Kessler, Neil Wenborn (2005). A Dictionary of Jewish-Christian Relations. Cambridge University Press. p. 180.
^ Arnulf Baumann, "Jewish Christians", in Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley (2003). The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, p. 35.
^ Dan Cohn-Sherbok (2000). Messianic Judaism. Continuum Publishing. p. 18.
^ Yaakov Shalom Ariel. Evangelizing the Chosen People: Missions to the Jews in America, 1880-2000. University of North Carolina Press. p. 19.
^ Peter Hocken (2009). The challenges of the Pentecostal, Charismatic, and Messianic Jewish movements: the tensions of the spirit. Ashgate Publishing, p. 98.
^ The Missionary review of the world No.35 Royal Gould Wilder, Delavan Leonard Pierson, James Manning Sherwood - 1912 "The letter to Joseph Rabinowitz brought an encouraging answer and also a few copies of the New Testament translated into Hebrew by Franz Delitzsch. They gave Scheinmann the thought to organize a class of young men for their study"
^ abRausch, David A. (September 1982). "The Messianic Jewish Congregational Movement". The Christian Century99 (28): 926. http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=1339. "As I interviewed their leaders across the United States, I found a prevalent belief that they had coined the term “Messianic Judaism.” Others thought that the term had originated within the past ten or 20 years. Most of their opponents also agreed that this was so. In fact, both the term “Messianic Judaism” and the frustration with the movement go back to the 19th century. During 1895 Our Hope magazine, which became a bulwark in the fundamentalist-evangelical movement under the editorship of Arno C. Gaebelein, carried the subtitle “A Monthly Devoted to the Study of Prophecy and to Messianic Judaism.”"
^Ariel, Yaakov S. (2000). "Chapter 19: Years of Quiet Growth" (Google Books). Evangelizing the chosen people: missions to the Jews in America, 1880–2000. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. p. 191. ISBN 9780807848807. OCLC43708450. http://books.google.com/books?id=r3hCgIZB790C&lpg=PP1&vq=advocated%20offspring%20rhetoric%20Shalom&pg=PA191#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved January 4, 2011. "Missions to the Jews during the period were conservative evangelical institutions. It should be noted, therefore, that the years from the 1920s to the 1960s were not ones of decline but rather a period of growth for these enterprises in size, experience, organization and sophistication. Contrary to the way many Americans viewed the matter, conservative evangelicalism did not consider itself defeated following the Scopes trial in 1925. The decades between the trial and the evangelical resurgence of the late 1960s and early 1970s were in actuality years of quiet growth in the movement. ...In the 1970s many were caught by surprise when they discovered in the early 1970s the existence of a large and dynamic movement of missions to the Jews."
^Dan Cohn-Sherbok (September 2000). Messianic Judaism. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8264-5458-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=5aOOlWdLpNwC. Retrieved 12 August 2011. "Distancing themselves from the older members of the movement, the youth believed that different methods of evangelism should be used. Influenced by the techniques devised by Jews for Jesus, the promoted the use of pamphlets with humorous illustrations and dramatic themes proclaiming Yeshua. In addition, like Moishe Rosen's group, they participated in street theatre and outdoor concerts."
^ Peter Hocken The challenges of the Pentecostal, Charismatic, and Messianic ... 2009 Page 100 "The new thrust that turned Hebrew Christians into Messianic Jews was distinctly charismatic. This reflected the influence of the Jesus movement. However the Evangelical missions to the Jews were and remained non-charismatic."
^Rausch, David A. (September 1982). "The Messianic Jewish Congregational Movement". The Christian Century99 (28): 926. http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=1339. "It is fascinating that the movement would arise in the American branch of the Hebrew Christian Alliance (HCAA), an organization that has consistently assuaged the fears of fundamentalist Christians by emphasizing that it is not a separate denomination but only an evangelistic arm of the evangelical church. The organization’s Quarterly, however, reveals that the tension between the Messianic Jewish movement and the Hebrew Christian movement had always been present. After the inception of the HCAA in 1915, the first major controversy was over an “old” heresy -- and the “heretical” dogma that was being proposed was Messianic Judaism. The controversy could have split the organization asunder during that period but for a strong united effort against Messianic Judaism."
^ (1) per footnotes sources in he.wikipedia Trinity article—also checked consistent webpage e.g. www.slicha.com/divinity.asp בנצרות ניתן למצוא תפיסה משולשת של האלוהים (השילוש הקדוש), המבחינה בין אלוהים האב, אלוהים הבן ורוח הקודש. באיסלם שמו של אלוהים הוא אללה וביהדות אלוהים הוא ... etc.
^Kerstetter, Adam Yisroel (2007). "Who Do You Say That I Am? An introduction to the true Messiah from a non-Trinitarian view.". Archived from the original on April 1, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080330233053/http://www.mikvehyisrael.com/trinityone.html. Retrieved August 11, 2010. "The material presented below has been researched to great lengths and is based totally on the Scriptures. I have examined both sides of the subject and can assure you that I have no ax to grind, but have found that the information on the Trinity is without any foundation, nor is it supported by the language of the Scripture. Let me state that I believe in our Heavenly Father and in his Son Y’shua (Jesus) and that the Father sent Y’shua to be a way back to Him and a means for our salvation, but I do not believe the Scripture supports the idea of the Moshiach (Messiah) being G-d of very G-d. When wrong ideas of the Mashiach are espoused they put us on the course of misinterpretations and a misconception of who our Mashiach and his Heavenly Father are. These misconceptions and misinterpretations lead us further away from the truth and ultimately further away from the Father who is the only true G-d."
^"Doctrinal Statement". Lev HaShem Messianic Synagogue. 2004. http://www.levhashem.org/doctrine.html. Retrieved August 17, 2010. "We believe that Yeshua HaMashiach is the Jewish Messiah. "Therefore, the L-rd Himself will give you a sign: the virgin shall be with child and will give birth to a Son, and will call Him Immanuel (G-d with us)". Yeshayahu 7:14. We believe in His virgin birth conceived by the Ruach HaKodesh. We do not believe that a man can become G-d. "For a child is born to us, a Son is given to us, dominion will rest on his shoulders, and he will be given the name PELE-YOETZ, EL GIBBOR, AVI-AD SAR SHALOM (Wonderful Counselor, Mighty G-d, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace)" Yeshayahu 9:6–7. "That in honor of HaShem (the Name), Yeshua took the form of humanity and that G-d has given Him the name above every name". Philippians 2:6–11"[unreliable source?]
"But you, Bethlehem Ephratah, little among the thousands of Judah, out of you will go forth for Me, one who will be ruler in Israel, whose goings forth have been from days of eternity" (Micah 5:2-v.1 in the Hebrew text). http://www.wordofmessiah.org/jewish_answers.htm Note: comparisons are at bottom of page
Micah clearly states that Israel’s Ruler would not only be "born", in Bethlehem, but his “goings forth” would be from eternity (olam). That is, He who would be born in Bethlehem is God, the Eternal One! http://www.wordofmessiah.org/man_become_god.htm Nadler, Sam, PdD. "Messiah's Birth, Lineage, & Deity". Dr. Nadler is a past president of Chosen People Ministries, an active Messianic leader, and congregational rabbi in North Carolina.
^"Statement of Faith". Kehilat T'Nuvah. graftedin.com. 2007. http://www.graftedin.com/statementFaith.html. Retrieved 2008-01-07. "We believe that the Torah (five books of Moses) is a comprehensive summary of HaShem's foundational laws and ways, as found in both the new and older covenant (Ex. 19&20; Deut. 5; Jer. 31:31–34; Heb. 8:10; Matt. 5:17–19). Therefore we encourage all believers, both Jews and Gentiles, to affirm, embrace, and practice these foundational laws and ways as clarified through the teachings of Messiah Yeshua (Matt. 5:17–19; I Cor. 7:19; Rev. 14:12)."
^ Nadler, Sam. Messianic Discipleship Word of Messiah Ministries (2009) ISBN 978-0-9786568-4-3, page 26 | quote - God's word is tested and found to be eternally true and pure (without error)...The Scripture reveals that every word of God is completely reliable. THe word every in Hebrew is Kos, meaning every or all. Therefore, it is a totally trustworthy testimony of God and His priorities.
"About Halakha Shel HaDerech". JerusalemCouncil.org. http://jerusalemcouncil.org/component/content/article/35-10-halakha/44-11-about-halakha-shel-haderech.html. Retrieved 2008-09-18. "Accepted halakha follows the centrality of the written Torah as the final arbiter and standard for behavior and right living. Primary consideration is given to the teachings of the Messiah, Yeshua, and those of his immediate disciples. Other sources include traditional rabbinic Judaism, with emphasis on understandings and traditions accepted during the period of the Taanitic Sages (Jewish teachers that existed during the time of the 2nd Temple period), as well as accepted halakha practiced by the majority of the Israelite community today."[dead link]
Leman, Derek. "Why MJ Needs Talmud Study". Messianic Jewish Musings. http://ffoz.org/torahclub/whatstorah.html?zoom_highlight=talmud. Retrieved 2008-09-18. "If we seriously believe that Messianic Judaism is a Judaism, and if Torah living is important to us, then there are a number of reasons why we must take on the difficult task of learning Talmud. In the first place, Talmud is a historical document without compare. In Talmud we find historical details about the life of Israel, the origins of customs, procedures from the Second Temple*, and so on. More than that, Talmud is a Jewish way of thought about subjects important from a Jewish frame of reference. It is a guide for Messianic Judaism in forming halakhah*, not as a book of halakhic decisions, but a guide to the kinds of questions that must be asked and the areas of life that require halakhic rulings."
"Vayechi". Beit Shalom Messianic Synagogue. Archived from the original on January 5, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080105135834/http://www.messianicjewishonline.com/article1008.html. Retrieved 2008-09-18. "[T]he Mishnah as a part of the Talmud, and the Talmuds, both Jerusalem and Babylonian, have much value for us. We see in many cases that what is said there is paralleled by Yeshua's words. And while we can learn from the Talmuds, we must be careful to not give their words the weight of the Scriptures. HaShem's Word from Genesis to Revelation is our ultimate authority. While there are many things in the Talmuds that we view as wonderful traditions, and even descriptions of the way to do certain things, we cannot give them the same level of authority as Scripture. So, with this in mind, realize that as I bring you certain portions from the Talmuds that they are here to help us understand what we already believe as shown in Scripture, and their words are not authoritative unless they are in full agreement with the written Torah."
^ abcd"So, What Exactly is a Messianic Congregation?". RabbiYeshua.com. Kehilat Sar Shalom. 2001. http://rabbiyeshua.com/articles/2001/mcongregation2.html. Retrieved 2007-02-20. "When we begin to study and observe Torah to become like Messiah, there are pitfalls we must avoid. One such pitfall is the study of Mishnah and Talmud (Rabbinic traditional Law). There are many people and congregations that place a great emphasis on rabbinic legal works, such as the Mishnah and the Talmud in search of their Hebrew roots. People are looking to the rabbis for answers on how to keep God’s commands, but if one looks into the Mishnah and does what it says, he or she is not a follower of the Messiah. Or, if one looks into the Talmud and does what it says, he or she is not a follower of the Messiah – he or she is a follower of the rabbis because Rabbi Yeshua, the Messiah, is not quoted there.…Rabbinic Judaism is not Messianic Judaism. Rabbinic Judaism is not founded in Messiah. Rabbinic Judaism, for the most part, is founded in the yeast – the teachings of the Pharisees. Yeshua’s teachings and the discipleship that He brought His students through was not Rabbinic Judaism. There is a real danger in Rabbinics. There is a real danger in Mishnah and Talmud. No one involved in Rabbinics has ever come out on the other side more righteous than when he or she entered. He or she may look “holier than thou” – but they do not have the life changing experience clearly represented in the lives of the believers of the Messianic communities of the first century."
^Bernay, Adam J. (December 3, 2007). "Who we are". Beit-tefillah.com. Archived from the original on 2008-04-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20080409073515/http://beit-tefillah.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=19&Itemid=40. Retrieved 2007-12-20. ""Orthodox Messianic" groups (they go by many names) teach that you must keep the commandments in order to be saved, and not just the commandments in the Scripture, but the traditional rules as coined by Judaism since the Temple was destroyed... essentially, they teach that we must keep Orthodox Judaism, but with the addition of Yeshua. We do NOT teach this in any way, shape, or form. Some of the traditions are right and good, and in keeping with the commandments. Others are not. Only by studying to show ourselves approved of God can we rightly divide the word of truth and discover how God calls us to live."
^http://jerusalemcouncil.org/articles/apologetics/messanic-apologetics-101/ The Jerusalem Council, a Global Association of Orthodox Jewish Believers, teaches "This is based on the premise that one can not add to nor take away from the Torah, as in Deut 13:1 ... This is also why one’s beliefs about Mashiach can not rest on one’s understanding of the Prophets and Writings alone (or any tradition derived therefrom), apart from the Torah!"
^http://www.ctomc.ca/sof.html The Torah in our usage never refers to the Talmud but, while we do not consider the Talmud or any other commentary on the Scriptures as the Word of G-d, we believe that the writings of Oral Tradition, such as the Talmud, the Mishnah, and the Midrash Rabbah, also contain further insight into the character of G-d and His dealings with His people.
^"Authoritative Sources in Halakhic Decision Making". Messianic Jewish Rabbinical Council. ourrabbis.org. 2007. Archived from the original on June 26, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080626002002/http://www.ourrabbis.org/main/content/view/14/26/. Retrieved 2008-01-07. "In Jewish tradition as a whole, Scripture is of paramount importance and authority in the development of Halakhah. In principle, issues become "Halakhic" because they are connected to some area of life in which Scripture reveals certain authoritative norms. In addressing those issues, Scripture is not the only resource consulted. However, it is always the source of greatest sanctity. Thus, when Rabbinic literature distinguishes between laws that are d'oraita (biblically mandated) and those that are d'rabbanan (rabbinically mandated), precedence is always given to those that are d'oraita."
^Brad H. Young (1997). Paul the Jewish Theologian: A Pharisee among Christians, Jews, and Gentiles. Hendrickson Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 1565632486. "Paul calls himself a Pharisee. We should listen to what Paul tells us about himself. In fact, there is no evidence anywhere in the New Testament, that he departed from his firm convictions as a Pharisee. [Note that others cite I Cor. 9:20–21 as evidence that he no longer strictly followed the Torah and as explaining why he sometimes did so in front of his fellow Jews.]"
^"Statement of Faith". Kehilat T'Nuvah. graftedin.com. 2007. http://www.graftedin.com/statementFaith.html. Retrieved 2008-01-07. "Just as the prophet Isaiah foretold (Isa. 56), Yahweh is gathering many from the nations to those whom He already gathered (Israel). Together these individuals comprise the universal church (covenant community of Yahweh). These Jews and Gentiles in Messiah collectively are called Israel throughout the Scriptures. There is no other "church" or covenant community; just one new man, one torah, one Messiah, one Spirit, one God."
^"Who Is A Jew? Messianic Style". Chaia Kravitz. MessianicJewishOnline.com. 2007. Archived from the original on August 11, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070811053053/http://www.messianicjewishonline.com/article1022.html. Retrieved 2007-08-23. "In Messianic Judaism, children are generally regarded as being Jewish with one Jewish parent. Since we are one in Messiah, both Jew and Gentile, there is not sharp division between the two groups. Therefore, if a Gentile has a heart for Israel and God's Torah, as well as being a Believer in Yeshua, and this person marries a Jewish Believer, it is not considered an "intermarriage" in the same way Rabbinic Judaism sees it, since both partners are on the same spiritual plane. Children born from this union are part of God's Chosen, just like the Gentile parent who has been grafted in to the vine of Israel through His grace."
^"Mission, Vision, & Purpose of the Jerusalem Council". JerusalemCouncil.org. JerusalemCouncil.org. 2007. http://www.jerusalemcouncil.org/midrash/viewtopic.php?f=7&t=61. Retrieved 2007-12-23. "Our vision also includes the hope of re-appointing a beit din for Messianic believers worldwide, to be called the Jerusalem Council, or Beit HaDin HaYerushalmi, modeled after the original, and submitted to the new Jewish Sanhedrin in issues that do not contradict obedient faith to Messiah Yeshua or his teachings; to provide guidance in issues that may conflict with the Sanhedrin, or in issues that contradict the primacy of the written Word of God, or in issues which may divide the Body of Messiah; to promote the unity of the Body of Messiah worldwide by Spirit-led direction through means of accountability, open dialogue, reasoned doctrine, and sound leadership; and to provide corporate and individual edification by providing apologetic, midrashic, and halakhic guidance for the Body of Messiah."
"what we do". jewsforjesus.org. http://www.jewsforjesus.org/about/whatwedo. Retrieved 2010-07-21. "[O]ur regular missionary work-street witnessing-by sending our own staff and plenty of volunteers on sorties (tract passing expeditions) four times a day for two hours at a time.…As some come to faith, we continue studying with them, providing discipleship lessons until the new Jewish believers are well grounded in a local congregation."
^ Feher, Shoshanah. Passing over Easter: Constructing the Boundaries of Messianic Judaism, Rowman Altamira, 1998, ISBN 9780761989530, p. 20 The Messianic movement has eliminated the elements of Christian worship that cannot be directly linked to their Jewish roots. Communion is therefore associated with Passover, since the Eucharist originated during Ushua’s Last Supper, held at Passover. In this way, Passover is given a new, Yshua-centered meaning.
^ Carol Harris-Shapiro Messianic Judaism: a rabbi's journey through religious change in 1999 "However, not all Messianic believers are Jews. Nothing is as problematic as the large numbers of Messianic Gentiles in the movement. To claim Jewish identity when one is not Jewish oneself adds another layer of struggle: "We are Jews!"
^ Brown Answering Jewish Objections to Jesus p12 2000
^ Dan Cohn-Sherbok Messianic Judaism 2000 p161 "For Gentile Christians, baptism is perceived as a means of entering into the body of Christ. Within Messianic Judaism, however, immersion is understood as a religious act symbolizing the believer's commitment to Yeshua: the faithful are "
^"Jewish Conversion Process". JerusalemCouncil.org. February 10, 2009. http://jerusalemcouncil.org/halacha/giyur/convert-to-judaism/. Retrieved August 18, 2010. "The process of Jewish Conversion is: 1. Repent by keeping the Covenant (Return to the Torah, get circumcised if male, and commit to the Torah).…2. Believe Yeshua is the Messiah, and that he is coming as the King (Obey everything He commands, which is the Torah).…3. Be immersed in the name of Yeshua, witnessed by others (Go through a mikveh in his name)."[unreliable source?]
^ Peter J. Tomson, Doris Lambers-Petry The image of the Judaeo-Christians in ancient Jewish and Christian ... 2003 p292 "From outside the movement hostile criticism of Messianic Judaism was voiced by such bodies as the Fellowship of Christian Testimonies to the Jews. At their annual conference from 16 to 19 October 1975 a resolution was passed condemning "
^ A dictionary of Jewish-Christian relations - Page 97 Dr. Edward Kessler, Neil Wenborn - 2005 "Messianic Jews in Israel who accept Yeshua (Hebrew for Jesus) as the Messiah are supported, when they meet with hostility, by CMJ/ITAC. In the 1980s CMJ gave some support to evangelistic campaigns by Jews for Jesus,"
Ariel, Yaakov (2005) . "Protestant Attitudes to Jews and Judaism During the Last Fifty Years". In Robert S. Wistrich (ed.). Terms of survival: the Jewish world since 1945 (Digital Printing edition ed.). New York, NY: Routledge. pp. g. 343. ISBN 0415100569. LCCN94-22069. "Evangelical Christians are engaged in aggressive and extensive missionary activity among Jews. Among other results, this has given rise to groups of 'Messianic Jews', of which 'Jews for Jesus' is the most outstanding example. These are actually Jews who have adopted the evangelical Protestant faith and its precepts."
"Messianic Judaism: A Christian Missionary Movement". Messiah Truth Project. http://www.messiahtruth.com/response.html. Retrieved 2007-02-14. "Messianic Judaism is a Christian movement that began in the 1970s combining a mixture of Jewish ritual and Christianity. There are a vast and growing numbers of these groups, and they differ in how much Jewish ritual is mixed with conventional Christian belief. One end of the spectrum is represented by Jews For Jesus, who simply target Jews for conversion to Christianity using imitations of Jewish ritual solely as a ruse for attracting potential Jewish converts. On the other end are those who don't stress the divinity of Jesus, but present him as the "Messiah." They incorporate distorted Jewish ritual on an ongoing basis."
Ariel, David S. (1995). "The Messiah". What do Jews believe?: The Spiritual Foundations of Judaism. New York, NY: Schocken Books. pp. g. 212. ISBN 0805241191. LCCN94-3550. "The Jews of the first centuries of the Common Era believed the Messiah had not yet come, while the followers of Jesus—strongly influenced by contemporary Jewish messianism—asserted that he was the Messiah. The belief that the Messiah has arrived and that he is Jesus is the teaching that most acutely divides Judaism from Christianity."
Schiffman, Lawrence H. (1993). "Meeting the Challenge: Hebrew Christians and the Jewish Community" (PDF). Jewish Community Relations Council of New York. Archived from the original on November 7, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20061107233420/http://www.jcrcny.org/pdf/sdpp/MEETINGTHECHALLENG2.pdf. Retrieved 2007-02-14. "Though Hebrew Christianity claims to be a form of Judaism, it is not. It is nothing more than a disguised effort to missionize Jews and convert them to Christianity. It deceptively uses the sacred symbols of Jewish observance…as a cover to convert Jews to Christianity, a belief system antithetical to Judaism.…Hebrew Christianity is not a form of Judaism and its members, even if they are of Jewish birth, cannot be considered members of the Jewish community. Hebrew Christians are in radical conflict with the communal interests and the destiny of the Jewish people. They have crossed an unbreachable chasm by accepting another religion. Despite this separation, they continue to attempt to convert their former coreligionists."
^Schochet, Jacob Immanuel (July 29, 1999). "Judaism has no place for those who betray their roots". Canadian Jewish News. "For a Jew, however, any form of shituf is tantamount to idolatry in the fullest sense of the word. There is then no way that a Jew can ever accept Jesus as a deity, mediator or savior (messiah), or even as a prophet, without betraying Judaism."
^ abMyers, Calev (April 16, 2008). "Justice in Israel". Jerusalem Institute of Justice, and organization supporting the rights of "Israeli Evangelical believers, Messianic Jews and families of mixed (Jewish-Christian) marriages". http://jerusaleminstituteofjustice.createsend.com/t/1/e/xtlly/jdlkuuit/. Retrieved 2008-04-24. "In a landmark decision today, the Supreme Court of Israel ratified a settlement between twelve Messianic Jewish believers and the State of Israel, which states that being a Messianic Jew does not prevent one from receiving citizenship in Israel under the Law of Return or the Law of Citizenship, if one is a descendent of Jews on one's father's side (and thus not Jewish according to halacha). This Supreme Court decision brought an end to a legal battle that has carried on for two and a half years. The applicants were represented by Yuval Grayevsky and Calev Myers from the offices of Yehuda Raveh & Co., and their legal costs were subsidized by the Jerusalem Institute of Justice. There is a growing trend, today, to use the term Messianic Believers, which solves the objections of Jews and makes the movement more 'accessible' to Gentiles as well, who make up a significant proportion of those who attend Messianic fellowships. This is important because some fellowships under the heading Messianic Judaism, do not actually have any Jews as members and the title does not, therefore, reflect the reality on the ground."
^"Israeli Court Rules Jews for Jesus Cannot Automatically Be Citizens". The New York Times. Associated Press. December 27, 1989. http://www.nytimes.com/1989/12/27/world/israeli-court-rules-jews-for-jesus-cannot-automatically-be-citizens.html. Retrieved August 13, 2010. "Messianic Jews are not entitled to automatic Israeli citizenship, Israel's Supreme Court has ruled, concluding that their belief that Jesus was the Messiah makes them Christians instead of Jews. The ruling, published in Israeli newspapers today, supported Orthodox religious interpretations of the state's 1950 Law of Return. The law forms the basis of Jewish immigration to Israel. The law and its subsequent amendments define a Jew as a person born to a Jewish mother or who converts to Judaism and professes no other faith. Orthodox politicians have long sought a more precise definition, and the court's Christmas Day ruling has resolved one issue. The 100-page decision said that belief in Jesus made one a member of another faith and ineligible for automatic Israeli citizenship, The Jerusalem Post, Hadashot and Yediot Ahronot reported.…“Messianic Jews attempt to reverse the wheels of history by 2,000 years,” Justice Elon wrote in a passage quoted by the Israeli newspapers. “But the Jewish people has decided during the 2,000 years of its history” that Messianic Jews “do not belong to the Jewish nation and have no right to force themselves on it. Those who believe in Jesus are, in fact, Christians.”"
^Izenberg, Dan (April 22, 2008). "Court applies Law of Return to Messianic Jews because of fathers". The Jerusalem Post. http://fr.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1208870469395&pagename=JPost/JPArticle/ShowFull. Retrieved 2008-04-24. "An article published in the Baptist Press after the High Court ruling was handed down maintained that the court had ruled that ‘the Messianics should receive equal treatment under the Israeli Law of Return, which says that anyone who is born Jewish can immigrate from anywhere in the world to Israel and be granted citizenship automatically.’ But, as was explained to The Jerusalem Post by a legal assistant to Myers, this is apparently a misunderstanding of the ruling, which determined that the petitioners were entitled to automatic new immigrant status and citizenship precisely because they were not Jews as defined by the Law of Return, but rather because they were the offspring of Jewish fathers."
^"Messianic Ruling". cbn.com. CBNnews.com. 2008. http://www.cbn.com/CBNnews/359362.aspx. Retrieved 2008-04-17. "Myers told CBN News, "The bottom line is that if your father is Jewish or if any of your grandparents are Jewish from your father's side – even if you're a Messianic Jew – you can immigrate to Israel under the law of return or under the law of citizenship if you marry an Israeli citizen.""
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