College town

College town

A college town or university town is a community (often literally a town, but possibly a small or medium sized specialized city, or in some cases a neighborhood or a district of a city) which is dominated by its university population. The university may be large, or there may be several smaller institutions such as liberal arts colleges clustered, or the residential population may be small, but college towns in all cases are so dubbed because the presence of the educational institution(s) pervades economic and social life. Many local residents may be employed by the university — which may be the largest employer in the community — many businesses cater primarily to the university, and the students' population may outnumber the local population.

In Europe, a university town is generally characterized by having an old university, often founded before, or in some cases shortly after, the industrial revolution. The economy of the city is closely related with the university activity and highly supported by the entire university structure, which may include university hospitals and clinics, university printing houses, libraries, laboratories, business incubators, student rooms, dining halls, students' unions, student societies, and academic festivities. Moreover, the history of the city is often intertwined with the history of the university itself. Many European university towns have not been merely important places of scientific and educational endeavor, but also centers of political, cultural and social influence to their respective societies throughout the centuries. Examples of these cities include Oxford, Cambridge, St Andrews, Szeged, Kraków, Leiden, Bologna, Coimbra, Salamanca, Leuven, Ghent, Heidelberg, Freiburg, Göttingen, Trondheim, Pisa, Marburg, Ferrara, Uppsala, Siena, Pavia, Delft, Tartu, Tübingen, or Poitiers. Potchefstroom and Stellenbosch are South African examples of university towns in the European tradition.

Besides a highly educated and largely transient population, a stereotypical college town often features a high number of people living non-traditional lifestyles and subcultures ("college town hippies") and high tolerance for unconventionality in general, an unusually active musical or cultural scene, and unusually left-wing politics, although there are exceptions; many college towns in the Southern United States are right-wing. While relatively lacking heavy industry, many have become centers of technological research and innovative startups.


Town-Gown relations

As in the case of a company town, the large and transient population attracted to the university may come into conflict with longstanding natives. Students may come from outside the area, and thus represent a different—sometimes radically different—culture. Furthermore, students are concentrated in a small, young (but still adult) age demographic, whose living habits may be different from older members of society.

Economically, the high spending power of the university and of its students in aggregate may inflate the cost of living above that of the region. Indeed, it is not uncommon to find that many university employees commute in from surrounding areas, finding the cost of living in town too expensive.

Studentification, in which a growing student population move in large numbers to traditionally non-student neighborhoods, may be perceived as a form of invasion or gentrification. The phenomenon has several causes, including university enrollment expanding beyond the capacity of on-campus housing, inadequate zoning enforcement, and student culture. At the same time as neighborhood associations work to limit conversion of family homes to student rentals, some local residents may oppose the construction of large on-campus dormitories or expansion of fraternity and sorority houses, forcing a growing enrollment to seek housing in town. Moreover, a single-family home can be converted into several smaller rental units, or shared by a number of students whose combined resources exceed those of a typical single-family rental—a strong incentive for absentee landlords to cater to students.

In the US, educational institutions are often exempted from paying local taxes, so in the absence of a system for "Payments In Lieu Of Taxes" (PILOT), the university population will disproportionately burden parts of the local public infrastructure, such as roads or law enforcement. Some analysts argue that students relieve the burden on other parts of the local public infrastructure, such as local primary and secondary schools, by far the most costly line item in most North American city and town budgets, they provide tax revenues, through local sales tax and property tax paid by landlords. When a university expands its facilities, the potential loss of property tax revenue is thus a concern, in addition to local desire to preserve open space or historic neighborhoods.

As a result, members of the local population may resent the university, and especially its students. The students, in turn, may criticize the local residents' taking jobs at the university provided by student tuition and fees, and accepting the tax revenues (e.g., local sales tax, property tax on rented properties) that students generate, but resenting students' lifestyles. Some students refer to regular inhabitants as townies, a term with somewhat derogatory connotations.

This "town and gown" dichotomy notwithstanding, students and the outside community typically find a peaceful (even friendly) coexistence, with the town's receiving significant economic and cultural benefits from the university, and the students' often adapting to the culture of the town.

Settlement in college towns

While noise, traffic, and other quality of life issues have not been resolved, some advocates of New Urbanism have led the development of neighborhoods in college towns by specifically capitalizing on their proximity to university life. For instance, some universities have developed properties to allow faculty and staff members to walk to work, reducing demand for limited on-campus parking; Duke University's Trinity Heights development is a key example. In many cases, developers have built communities where access to the university (even if not directly adjacent) is promoted as an advantage.

Student housing is also an important component of college towns. In the United States most state universities have 50 percent or more of their enrolled students living off-campus. This trend, which began in the 1960s, originally meant the conversion of near campus single-family homes to student housing, creating "student ghettos."

Colleges and other developers began building purpose-built off-campus student housing areas in the 1970s in more college towns. The Cotton District in Starkville, Mississippi is an especially well-designed example of such a development. Beginning around 2000 in the United States, nationwide real estate investment trusts (REIT) and publicly traded corporations began developing student housing complexes.

Another notable development since the 1990s is the surge in popularity of retirees relocating to college towns. Retirees are attracted to these locations because of cultural and educational opportunities, college athletic events, good medical facilities (often at teaching hospitals affiliated with medical schools), a low cost of living, and often a pedestrian- or public transit-friendly development pattern. Several development companies now specialize in constructing retirement communities in college towns. In some cases the communities have developed formal relationships with the local institution.

The demand for housing from students, faculty, staff, and retirees has kept college town home prices stable during the housing market downturn that began in 2005.[1]

College towns worldwide

The college town is largely an American phenomenon, according to Blake Gumprecht, an assistant professor of geography at the University of New Hampshire;[2] in Europe and Asia, most institutions of higher education grew together with major cities—with considerable exceptions such as Pantnagar, Aligarh, Cambridge, Oxford, Durham, Aberystwyth, St. Andrews, Coimbra, Lund, Trondheim and Heidelberg. As new institutions are increasingly founded in outlying locations to serve growing student populations, the phenomenon of the college town is recognizable worldwide.

College towns in Europe


Republic of Ireland

United Kingdom

College towns in the United States





























New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New York

North Carolina

Winston-Salem, North Carolina (Wake Forest University, University of North Carolina School of the Arts, Salem College, Winston-Salem State University

North Dakota





Puerto Rico

Rhode Island

South Carolina

South Dakota







West Virginia



College towns in Canada

See also


  1. ^ Gopal, Prashant (March 13, 2008). "College Towns: Still a Smart Investment". BusinessWeek. Retrieved 2008-03-15. 
  2. ^
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "Professor Writes First Book about Life in the American College Town". Newswise. November 10, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz ia ib ic id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im in io ip iq ir is it Blake Gumprecht, The American College Town
  5. ^ "College-town life has good and bad points". Tuscaloosa News. May 16, 2006. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar Blake Gumprecht, The American College Town
  7. ^ NAU and Flagstaff make list of 'great college towns', Northern Arizona University press release, April 18, 2007]
  8. ^ "Fayetteville, Ark., no longer just a college town". Deseret News. July 30, 2007. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  9. ^ Serrano, Richard A. (January 26, 2008). "Huckabee's Jonesboro book still rankles". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  10. ^ Fair Oaks Walk - Frequently Asked Questions
  11. ^
  12. ^ Older Suburbs in the Los Angeles MetropolitanArea
  13. ^ Casnocha, Ben (October 10, 2008). "Start-Up Town". The American. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  14. ^ "Frontier Outpost Grows Up". Sunset. October 2001. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  15. ^ a b Winnie, Trista.Top 10 Small College Towns for Investment, NuWire Investor, August 15, 2007
  16. ^ a b c d e f Jaschik, Scott (October 20, 2008). "'The American College Town'". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  17. ^ Morton, David (September 29, 2006). "Shell of a Town". Washington City Paper. 
  18. ^ Albion College Special Collections Historical Tour: Goodrich Chapel
  19. ^ "University Cities" Retrieved on 15 July 2009.
  20. ^ a b "Ben's Hometown of Moorhead - Moorhead, Minnesota". 16-03-2003. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  21. ^ "About Winona MN". Weekend on Wheels 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-23. [dead link]
  22. ^ a b c d e Ten College Towns for Grownups, Kiplinger's
  23. ^ Brad Edmondson, "All Dolled Up", Preservation Magazine, May/June 2002, reprinted by Aurora Coalition, Inc., accessed 10 Apr 2009
  24. ^ Small, Leslie (October 28, 2008). "Is State College 'real' enough for Palin?". Daily Collegian. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  25. ^ Kurlantzick, Joshua (October 26, 2008). "36 Hours in Charlottesville". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 


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