- Bosniaks of Montenegro
Bosniaksare an ethnic group in Montenegro. According to the last census from 2003, the total number of Bosniaks in Montenegro was 48,184 and they comprised 7.77% of population. Bosniaks are the third largest ethnic group in the country, after Montenegrins and Serbs.
Bosniaks primarily live in northern Montenegro, in the area called
Sandžakand they form majority in two municipalities: Rožaje(82.09%) and Plav(50.73%).
Two thirds of Sandžak
BosniaksFact|date=August 2007 trace their ancestry to the regions of MontenegroproperFact|date=August 2007, which they started departing first in 1687, after Turkeylost Boka Kotorska. The trend continued in Old Montenegroafter 1711 with the extermination of converts to Islam(“istraga poturica”). Another contributing factor that spurred migration to Sandžak from the Old Montenegrowas the fact that the old Orthodoxpopulation of Sandžak moved towards Serbiaand Habsburg Monarchy( Vojvodina) in two waves, first after 1687, and then, after 1740, basically leaving Sandžak depopulated. The advance of increasingly stronger ethnic Montenegrinscaused additional resettlements out of Montenegro properin 1858 and 1878, when, upon Treaty of Berlin, Montenegrowas recognized as an independent state. While only 20 Bosniak families remained in Nikšićafter 1878, the towns like Kolašin, Spuž, Grahovo, and others, completely lost their Bosniak population. Additionally, the clan-organized Montenegrin army forcibly converted about 12,000 Bosniaksand Albaniansto Christianityfrom the areas of Southern Sandžak, and Metohija, in 1912, upon capturing those lands from the Turks in the Balkan Wars. Practically all of the converts, less a couple of families, converted back to Islamin 1913, when, under international pressure, the public announcement was made giving them freedom to profess the faith of their choosing. The last major interethnic incident occurred in 1924 in Šahovićiand Pavino Polje(present day municipality of Bijelo Poljein Sandžak), when Montenegrin peasants massacred hundreds of Bosniaks, under the pretext that Bosniak outlaws murdered a local Montenegrin hero, the allegation which was completely false.
The last segment of Sandžak
Bosniaksarrived from a couple of other places. Naturally, there was a continuous intermingling with the members of the local Turkish administration and military. Some of Bosniakscame from Slavoniaafter 1687, when Turkeylost all the lands north of Savain the Austro-Turkish war. Many more came from Herzegovinain the post-1876 period, after the Herzegovina Rebellionstaged by the Serbsagainst Austro-Hungaryand their Muslimsubjects. Another wave followed immediately thereafter from both Bosnia and Herzegovina, as the Treaty of Berlinplaced Bosnia under the effective control of Austria-Hungaryin 1878. The last wave from Bosnia followed in 1908, when Austria-Hungaryofficially annexed Bosnia, thereby cutting off all direct ties of Bosnian Muslimsto the Sublime Porte, their effective protector. Massive Bosniak migrations to other nations took place during the Yugoslavia-era as a result of ethnic Serbs wanting to ethnically cleanse Bosniaksfrom eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina (today Republika Srpska), Belgradeand Sandžak. Bosniaks had alo faced discrimination from this period from Yugoslav authorities. Today, Bosniaks are a large minority in Montenegro, with over 50,000 Bosniaks living in Montenegro.
Most of the Bosniaks in Montenegro were for Montenegrin independence when the independence referendum was held in
Bosniaks are primarily nominal
Muslims, although some are practicing Muslims and some are not.
Bosniaks of Serbia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
* [http://www.sanjak.org/ Sandžak information] Language icon|bs/en/fr/de/tr|Bosnian, English, French, German & Turkish
* [http://www.bosniak.org/06/ Congress of North American Bosniaks] Language icon|bs/en/fr|Bosnian, English & French
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