Castile and León


Castile and León

Autonomous community
name = Castile and León
full-name = Comunidad de Castilla y León


coat-of-arms= Escudo de Castilla y León.svg



capital = Valladolid
language = Spanish
area = 94,223
area-rank = 1st
area-magnitude =E10
area-percent = 18.6%
pop = 2,510,849
pop-rank = 6th
pop-percent = 5.7%
pop-date = 2005
density = 26.65
english-name = Castilianleonese
spanish-name = castellanoleonés, castellanoleonesa
autonomy = March 2, 1983
congress = 33 of 350
senate = 30 of 259
president = Juan Vicente Herrera Campo (PP)
president-link = List of Presidents of Castile and Leon
code = CL
website = [http://www.jcyl.es Junta de Castilla y León]

Castile and León ( _es. Castilla y León), known formally as the Community of Castile and León is one of the seventeen autonomous communities of Spain. It was constructed from Old Castile (Spanish: "Castilla la Vieja") and León in 1983. This region is the largest in Spain and one of the largest subdvisions in the European Union. It covers an area of 94,223 km² with an official population of 2.5 million (2005).

Geography

Castile and León borders on Asturias and Cantabria to the north, Aragon, the Basque Country, and La Rioja to the east, the autonomous community of Madrid and Castile-La Mancha to the southeast, Extremadura to the south, and on Portugal and Galicia to the west.

Castile and León roughly overlaps with the Spanish part of the Douro River basin, on the northern half of the Meseta Central, a vast plateau in the middle of the Iberian Peninsula. It also extends to some adjoining valleys, such as El Bierzo (León) and many secluded mountain valleys: Laciana (León), Valle de Mena (Burgos), Valle del Tiétar (Ávila), etc.

Road Communications

The region is the land communication hub of northern Spain. It is crossed by the International E-road E80. This is the main road connection between Portugal and the rest of Europe.

Castilla and León is also crossed by two major ancient routes:
* The Way of St. James (Spanish: "Camino de Santiago"), now a hiking trail and a motorway, from East to West.
* The Roman Silver Way (Spanish: Vía de la Plata), now a main road, through the West of the region.

Airports

The last years have seen a vast improvement in accessibility from the rest of Europe, mainly through the operations of low-cost airlines at the airport of Villanubla (Valladolid). There are three other airports in Castile and León: León, Salamanca and Burgos. The main airport of the neighbouring region of Madrid (Barajas) are close as well, if not yet with a direct communication through public transportation.

Regional Administration and Government

Castile and León is divided into nine provinces:
* Avila
* Burgos
* Leon
* Palencia
* Salamanca
* Segovia
* Soria
* Valladolid
* ZamoraEach of these provinces is named after its respective provincial capital.

Although the "Statute of Autonomy" for Castile and Leon does not specify any city to be the capital of the autonomous community, the city of Valladolid serves that purpose in certain contexts, and is the city of residence for the Regional Executive, the Courts, and several other important arms of the regional parliament and government.

Autonomous Executive

The executive of Castile and León is known as the " de Castilla y León" in Spanish.

It has one head of the Regional Executive (Spanish: "Presidente de la Junta") and twelve departments: Two "Vicepresidencias" and ten ministries (Spanish: "Consejerías").
*Seat of the Regional Executive: Valladolid
*Seat of the Accounting Committee: Palencia

Regional Legislature

The Regional Courts of Castile and León (Spanish: "Cortes de Castilla y León") is the elected legislature of the Autonomous Community. The tradition of the Regional Courts is traced back to the Royal Council (Latin: "Curia Regis") of León (1188). The "Curia Regis" was a king's summons of the estates of the realm. Although the practical outcome of the Curia Regis of 1188 is still disputed, its charter seems to be an early movement towards the rule of constitutional law, much like the Magna Carta. The home is in Valladolid.

Parties with parliamentary representation in Castilla y León:
*Partido Popular de Castilla y León 48 Autonomical seats, 18 Congress seats.
*Partido Socialista de Castilla y León 33 Autonomical seats, 14 Congress seats.
*Unión del Pueblo Leonés, 2 autonomical seats.

Regional Judicature

* Regional High Court: Burgos

Other regional bodies

Ombudsman

The Ombudsman of Castile and León (Spanish: "Procurador del Común") is appointed by the Regional Courts.

*Seat of the Ombudsman of Castile and León: León

Consultive Committee

The Consultive Committee of Castile and León (Spanish: "Consejo Consultivo") is a group of five legal analysts. They are appointed by the Regional Courts and the Junta. The Committee delivers reports on legal issues both to the Regional Government and to incumbent municipal governments.
*Seat of the Consultive Committee: Zamora

Education

Universities

*Catholic University of Ávila
*Miguel de Cervantes European University (Valladolid)
*Pontificial University of Salamanca
*SEK University (Segovia)
*University of Burgos
*University of León
*University of Salamanca
*University of Valladolid

Language

Leonese and Galician are recognised in the Statute of Autonomy.

UNESCO World Heritage Sites

There are six UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Castile and León:

* The Way of Saint James, that crosses both regions of Castile and León.
* Gothic-style cathedral of Burgos
* Old city and aqueduct of Segovia
* Old city and wall of Ávila
* Old city of Salamanca
* Las Médulas in the province of León, Roman gold mines
* Archaeological deposits of Atapuerca, near the city of Burgos, where fossils of the one of the earliest known hominids in Europe have been found

See also

* Kingdom of Castile
* Kingdom of León
* Castilian-Leonese cuisine

External links

* [http://www.ccyl.es/ Cortes de Castilla y León (Regional Parliament)] (in Spanish)
* [http://www.jcyl.es/ Junta de Castilla y León (Regional Government)] (Mostly in Spanish)
* [http://www.cccyl.es/index.php Consejo Consultivo de Castilla y León] (in Spanish)
* [http://libro.uca.edu/cortes/cortes.htm The Cortes of Castile-León, Joseph F. O'Callaghan] (historical)
* [http://www.turismocastillayleon.com/ Tourist Information]
* [http://www.jcyl.es/jcyl-client/jcyl/ap/tkContent?idContent=16986&locale=en_UK&textOnly=false Statute of autonomy] (in Spanish)
* [http://www.caminodesantiago.me.uk/ Walking the Camino de Santiago, A Guide] The Camino de Santiago passes through the Leon area, and is very well supported by the local government
* [http://musique09.free.fr/espagne_new2/index.php?cat=5&lang=english Pictures of Castilla y León]
* [http://www.paradoxplace.com/Photo%20Pages/Spain/Camino_de_Santiago/Camino.htm Abbeys and Cathedrals of Castilla y León and the Camino – Photos & History]
* [http://www.iberianature.com/material/wild_nature_sites/wild_castilla_leon/castilla_leon_nature.htm The natural history and geography of Castilla-León]
* [http://www.winetourismspain.com/castilla_leon/wine-routes-in-castilla_leon-spain.php Wine routes in Castilla Leon]


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