Islam and other religions


Islam and other religions

Over the centuries of Islamic history, Muslim rulers, Islamic scholars, and ordinary Muslims have held many different attitudes towards other religions. Attitudes have varied according to time, place and circumstance.

Non-Muslims under Islam

Non-Muslims under Islamic law would be held under the status of "dhimmi" (from Arabic ذميّ th as pronounced in this) were allowed to "practice their religion, subject to certain conditions, and to enjoy a measure of communal autonomy" and guaranteed their personal safety and security of property, in return for paying tribute and acknowledging Muslim rule. [Lewis (1984), pp. 10, 20] Taxation from the perspective of thimmis who came under the Muslim rule, was "a concrete continuation of the taxes paid to earlier regimes"Cl. Cahen in Encyclopedia of Islam, Jizya article] (but now lower under the Muslim rule [ Lewis 1984 p.18 ] [ Lewis (2002) p.57 ] ) and from the point of view of the Muslim conqueror was a material proof of the thimmi's subjection. Various restrictions and legal disabilities were placed on thimmis, such as prohibitions against bearing arms or giving testimony in courts in cases involving Muslims. [Lewis (1987), p. 9, 27; Bat Ye'or (2002), p. 74]

The Qur'an distinguishes between the monotheistic People of the Book ("ahl al-kitab") (Jews, Christians, Sabians and others), and polytheists or "idolaters" on the other hand.]
* Francis Bok - Sudanese-American activist, from Christianity; later returned to his Christian faith. [ [http://www.usaweekend.com/03_issues/031109/031109francis_bok.html Beale, Lewis. "Precious Freedom. "USA Weekend Magazine". November 9, 2003.] ]
* Steve Centanni and Olaf Wiig - forced to convert at gunpoint by terrorists of the Holy Jihad Brigades.cite web|title=Kidnapped Fox journalists released|publisher=CNN|accessmonthday=August 27 |accessyear=2006|url=http://www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/meast/08/27/fox.journalists/index.html]
* Sabbatai Zevi - convert from Judaism, 17th century mystic, pseudo-Messiah and the self-proclaimed "King of Jews". Converted ostensibly of his own free will, while in prison. Although, some speculate that he may have been executed for treason had he not converted, [ [http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-Sabbatai.html Sabbatai Zevi - Encyclopedia.com ] ] Muslim authorities were opposed to his death. [Geoffrey L Lewis; Cecil Roth. New Light on the Apostasy of Sabbatai Zevi. The Jewish Quarterly Review]

ee also

*Islam and Hinduism
*Islam and Judaism
*Christianity and Islam
*Jainism and Islam
*Islam and Sikhism
*Islam and antisemitism

Notes

References

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