- Ferdinand Stoliczka
Ferdinand Stoliczka (
June 7, 1838– June 19, 1874) was a Moravian palaeontologistwho worked in Indiaon paleontology, geologyand various aspects of zoology. He died of high altitude sickness during an expedition across the Himalayas.
Stoliczka was born at
Hukvaldy(Hochwald) near Kromeriz in Moravia. Stoliczka, whose father was a forester, studied at a German Secondary school in Kromeriz. Although Stoliczka published 79 articles from 1859–1875, he never wrote anything in Czech. It is believed that he spoke German at home. In his Calcuttayears he was an important figure in the German-speaking community there.cite journal|author=Hruby, Jiri|year=2005|title=Ferdinand Stoliczka|journal=Birding Asia|volume=3|year=2005|pages=50–56]
geologyand palaeontology at Pragueand the University of Viennaunder Professor Eduard Suessand Dr Rudolf Hoernesand his earliest works were studies on some freshwater molluscafrom the Cretaceous rocks of the north-eastern Alpsabout which he wrote to the Vienna Academy in 1859. His scientific career proper started in the Austrian Geological Survey, which he joined in 1861, and his first papers there were based on work in the Alps and Hungary.
Career in India
In 1862 Stoliczka joined the
Geological Survey of India(GSI) under the British Government in India after being recruited by Dr Thomas Oldham(1816–1878). In Calcuttahe was assigned the job of documenting the Cretaceous fossils of southern India and published them in the "Palaeontologia indica", along with William Thomas Blanford. By May 1873 this work was completed with four volumes totalling nearly 15000 pages. Among these works was the osteological description of "Oxyglossus pusillus", a fossil frog from the Deccan Trapsof Bombay. [cite journal|author=Stoliczka, F|year=1869|title=Osteological notes on "Oxyglossus pusillus" ("Rana pusilla" Owen), from the tertiary frog-beds in the Island of Bombay|journal=Mem. Geol. Survey of India|volume=6|pages=387-394]
He studied the geology of the western
Himalayasand Tibet, and published numerous papers on many subjects including Indian zoology. He was also briefly (in 1868) the joint curator of the Indian Museum and also the Natural History Secretary of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. He was involved in editing the Society's journal.
He visited Burma, Malaysia and Singapore, and made two trips to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Rann of Kutch. His first Himalayan trip was in 1864 with F. R. Mallet of the GSI. In 1865 he visited again with an artist friend and a dog to the Ladakh Valley. He visited
Kutchin 1871–1872 but noted that his geology work kept him from making many observations. He noted wild cheetahs from the region and also what is now Stoliczka's bushchat. In 1873 he joined an expedition organized by Hume along with Valentine Ballto the Andaman and Nicobar islands.
His third and last expedition was the most important expedition (1873–1874) during the height of the "Great Game", the rivalry between the Russian and British empires. Eastern Turkestan (
Kashgaria) was a buffer state of prime importance. The British launched an official diplomatic enterprise—the Second Yarkand Mission led by (afterwards Sir) Douglas Forsythto Yakub Beg, the ruler of Chinese Turkestan. The mission had seven sahibs, 350 support staff and 550 animals The expedition needed 6476 porters and 1621 horses and it is said that the Ladakh economy took four years to recover from the losses incurred.
The mission set out from
Rawalpindito Leh "via" Murree. The mission travelled past the Pangong Lake, Changchenmo and Karakash Valley onto Shahidulla and finally to Yarkand. They reached Kashgar in December 1873. On March 17, 1874they began the return journey. They were to visit the Pamir and Afghanistan areas but could not do so due to the political situation and returned to India via Ladakh. On June 16, 1874he had severe headaches as they crossed the Karakoram pass (5580 m). That night, he wrote....:"...upon this followed massive dolomitic limestone and this was overlain with blue shales. I must have a ramble in these limestones tomorrow."Captain Trotter reported that on the 18th "he started on horseback early in the morning to examine some rocks up the stream." He returned tired and complained of a headache. He breathed heavily and coughed all night. The native doctor diagnosed acute bronchitis and inflammation of the lungs and treated him with brandy mixed in a cough mixture. At 2 p.m. he drank some port wine and "his respiration grew slower and slower, and also did his pulse, and he finally breathed his last, dying so quietly that it was impossible to say at what precise instant he passed away".
Stoliczka died on
June 19, 1874at Moorghi in Ladakh. His dying request was that the birds part of the scientific results of the expedition be published by Allan Octavian Hume. This work was finally, however completed by Richard Bowdler-Sharpeseventeen years later.
H. W. Bellewdid the post-mortem and confirmed "spinal meningitis deteriorated by over-exertion in strenuous endeavours after information, and the great height." Today this is generally believed to have been Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS), a condition well known to Himalayan travellers. It manifests as pulmonary or cerebral oedema. Above 5000 m this is fatal in about 40% of the cases. Conditions that aggravate it include exertion, fast ascent and alcohol, all of which were present in his case.
Stoliczka's interest in birds started only in 1864 when in the Himalayas and he was greatly encouraged by
Allan Octavian Hume, the "father of Indian Ornithology". His first ornithological work was making large collections of birds from the Sutlej Valley.
Arthur Viscount Walden recognized his contributions and welcomed the geologist Stoliczka "to a high place among scientific ornithologists" but disagreed with Stoliczka's idea of adding new species due to small differences in plumage. Hume however supported Stoliczka and wrote a note in the journal, Ibis, against the "cabinet naturalists" of London who knew nothing about the geography of India. Hume shortly afterwards started the journal Stray Feathers and persuaded ornithologists in India to publish there.
Some of Stoliczka's new species were discovered to have been already discovered by the Russian zoologist N. A. Severtzov. A week before his death, Stoliczka wrote to
Valentine Ball...: 'Please tell Waterhouse to order for the Asiatic, Severtzov's "Turkestanskie Jevotnie" immediately, if it is not at the Indian Museum. If they do not like ordering it, order it for myself through Truebner without delay. Do not forget, please.'
A granite obelisk is erected in his memory at the Moravian Cemetery in Leh. An obituary was published in Nature,
July 9, 1874by W. T. Blanford.
FERDINANT STOLICZKA, Ph D.Born in Moravia 7th June 1838 Died at Moorgo 19th June 1874 while returning from Yarkund with the British Mission to which he was attached as Naturalist. Though young when he fell a sacrifice to duty, he had already achieved eminence by his researches into the geology and natural history of India AND HIS EARLY DEATH is deeply regretted by the world of science and by the Government of India, who in recognition of his able and honourable services, have caused this monu- ment to be erected 1876
A partial list of his publications on birds include
* Stoliczka, F. (1873): Letters to the Editor. Stray Feathers. 1(5):425-427.
* Stoliczka, F. (1874): Letters to the Editor. Stray Feathers. 2(4&5):461-463.
* Stoliczka, F. (1874): Letters to the Editor. Stray Feathers. 2(4&5):463-465.
* Stoliczka, F. (1875): The avifauna of Kashgar in winter. Stray Feathers. 3(1,2&3):215-220.
* Stoliczka, F. (1872): Notice of the mammals and birds inhabiting Kachh [Cutch] . Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal 41(2):211-258.
* Stoliczka, F. (1868): Ornithological observations in the Sutlej valley, N.W. Himalayas. Jour. Asiatic Soc. Bengal 37(2):1-70.
Some of the species named after him are listed below. Not all names may be currently valid.
* The snake genus "
* Ladakh Banded Apollo, "
Parnassius stoliczkanus" C. & R. Felder 1864
* Orange Clouded Yellow, "
* Stoliczka's crab spider ("
* Stoliczka's Tic-Tac-Toe Barb ("
Puntius stoliczkanus") / (" Barbus stoliczkanus")
* Stoliczka's Loach ("
Stoliczka's Bushchat(" Saxicola macrorhyncha")
* Stoliczka's Treecreeper ("
* Stoliczka's Trident Bat ("
* Stoliczka's mountain vole ("
* [http://www.archive.org/details/scientificresult01indirich Scientific results of the second Yarkand Mission; (1891)]
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См. также в других словарях:
Ferdinand Stoliczka — Ferdinand Stoliczka. Ferdinand Stoliczka (Mayo de 1838 19 de junio de 1874) fue un paleontólogo y naturalista austriaco/checo nacido en Hukvaldy (Hochwald) en Moravia. Estudió geología y paleontología en … Wikipedia Español
Ferdinand Stoliczka — (* 7. Juli 1838 in Hochwalt/Bílany, heute zu Kroměříž, Mähren; † 19. Juni 1874 beim indischen Dorf Murghi an den Ufern des Shayok Rivers in der Region Ladakh) war ein österreichischer Asienforscher, Botaniker, Zoologe, Geologe, Landvermesser… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Ferdinand Stoliczka — est un géologue, un paléontologiste et un zoologiste britannique d origine tchèque, né le 28 mai 1838 à Bílany près de Kroměříž (en Moravie) et mort le 9 … Wikipédia en Français
Ferdinand Stoliczka — (Mayo de 1838 19 de junio de 1874) fue un paleontólogo austriaco/checo nacido en Hukvaldy (Hochwald) en Moravia. Estudió geología y paleontología en Praga y en la Universidad de Viena atendiendo a las clases de los profesores Eduard Suess y Dr… … Enciclopedia Universal
Stoliczka — Ferdinand Stoliczka Ferdinand Stoliczka (* Mai 1838 in Bílany, heute zu Kroměříž, Mähren; † 19. Juni 1874 im indischen Dorf Murghi an den Ufern des Shayok Rivers in der Region Ladakh) war ein österreichischer Asienforscher, Botaniker, Zoologe … Deutsch Wikipedia
Stoliczka's Bushchat — Taxobox name = Stoliczka s Bushchat status = StatusVulnerable image caption = In the Kutch region of India status = VU | status system = IUCN3.1 status ref = [IUCN2006|assessors=BirdLife International|year=2004|id=19931|title=Saxicola… … Wikipedia
Stoliczka — (spr. litschka), Ferdinand, Paläontolog, geb. im Mai 1838 in Mähren, gest. 19. Juni 1874 in Murghi, war mehrere Jahre Mitglied der geologischen Reichsanstalt in Wien und ging 1862 als Mitarbeiter an der Geological Survey of India nach Kalkutta… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Столичка — (Ferdinand Stoliczka, 1833 1874) палеонтолог, состоял в продолжение нескольких лет членом Венского геологического института, в 1862 г. был приглашен в Калькутту в качестве члена сотрудника в Geological Survey of India. Ряд его статей занимается… … Энциклопедический словарь Ф.А. Брокгауза и И.А. Ефрона
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Allan Octavian Hume — (June 6, 1829 July 31, 1912) son of Joseph Hume was a civil servant in British governed India, and a political reformer. With Sir William Wedderburn, he founded the Indian National Congress, a political party that was to later lead the Indian… … Wikipedia