Yale School of Medicine

Yale School of Medicine

name = Yale School of Medicine

established = 1810
free_label = Dean
free = Robert J. Alpern
faculty = 1,557 full time; 1,637 voluntary
type = Private
city = flagicon|USA New Haven
state = Connecticut
country = USA
students = 558 : • 413 MD: • 74 MD/PhD: • 71 PA [http://info.med.yale.edu/viewbook/saturday/index.html School of Medicine Vital Statistics] ]
postgrad = 537
website = [http://info.med.yale.edu/ysm http://info.med.yale.edu/ysm]
The Yale School of Medicine at Yale University is a private medical school located in New Haven, Connecticut, U.S. It was founded in 1810 as The Medical Institution of Yale College, and formally opened its doors in 1813.

The primary teaching hospital for the school is Yale-New Haven Hospital. The school is home to the Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library, one of the largest modern medical libraries, also known for its historical collections. The faculty includes 25 National Academy of Sciences members and 24 Institute of Medicine investigators.


The School of Medicine offers a medical degree (M.D.) and a physician associate (PA) degree (M.M.S.). Public Health degrees are administered through the Yale School of Public Health. There are also joint degree programs with other disciplines at Yale including law (M.D/J.D.), business (M.D./M.B.A.), public health (M.D/M.P.H.) and science/engineering (M.D./Ph.D.). Students pursuing a tuition-free fifth year of research are eligible for the Master of Health Science degree. There is a joint program in divinity (M.D./M.Div).

The M.D. program is notable for its assessment of student achievement. In particular, the school employs the so-called "Yale System", established by Dean Winternitz in the 1920s, wherein first- and second-year students are not graded or ranked among their classmates. In addition, course examinations are anonymous, and are intended only for students' self-evaluation. Student performance is thus based on seminar participation, qualifying examinations (if a student fails, it is his or her responsibility to meet with a professor and arrange for an alternative assessment - passing grades are not released), clinical clerkship evaluations, and the USMLE. Prior to graduation, students are required to submit a thesis based on original research. A hallmark of the Yale System is the unusual flexibility that it provides; with this flexibility comes great responsibility for the student to take an active role in directing his or her education according to individual interests.

Other key features of the Yale System include:
*commentary-based feedback from small group leaders
*an integrated Molecules to Systems course that includes Biochemistry, Physiology, and Cell Biology and the corresponding small group conferences (Biochemistry Conference, Physiology Case Conference, Histology Lab)
*early clinical exposure through the two-year Pre-Clinical Clerkship (PCC) course, in which students (in groups of 4) are assigned a physician mentor with whom they will learn the History and Physical Examination
*a surgery-based Human Anatomy course that focuses on teaching the principles of anatomy through case-based dissections involving surgical procedures rather than rote memorization
*a comprehensive student teaching program (Students Helping Students) in which second-year students review key concepts during optional evening sessions several times each week
*the opportunity to take electives that include advanced cell biology and neuroscience, global health, translational research, or any topic being taught through graduate or undergraduate programs at the University


In 18th century America, credentials were not needed to practice medicine. Prior to the founding of the medical school, Yale graduates would train through an apprenticeship in order to become physicians. Yale president Ezra Stiles conceived the idea of training physicians at Yale and ultimately, his successor Timothy Dwight IV helped to found the medical school. The school was chartered in 1810 and opened in New Haven in 1813. Nathan Smith (medicine and surgery) and Benjamin Silliman (pharmacology) were the first faculty members. Silliman was a professor of chemistry and taught at both Yale College and the Medical School. The other two founding faculty were Jonathan Knight, anatomy, physiology and surgery and Eli Ives, pediatrics. [http://info.med.yale.edu/library/exhibits/yalemed1/medinstyalecoll.html Founding of the Medical Institution at Yale College] ]

The original building (at Grove and Prospect) later became Sheffield Hall, part of the Sheffield Scientific School (razed in 1931). In 1860, the school moved to Medical Hall on York Street, near Chapel (this building was razed in 1957). In 1925, the school moved to its current campus, neighboring the hospital. This campus includes the Sterling Hall of Medicine, Boyer Center for Molecular Medicine (1991, designed by Cesar Pelli), Anlyan Center (2003, designed by Payette and Venturi Scott Brown) and the Amistad Building (2007, designed by Herbert Newman).


Before 1845, there was no dean. Nathan Smith, followed by Jonathan Knight, provided leadership in the early years.

* Charles Hooker (1845-1863), Professor of Anatomy and Physiology. His practice included surgery, obstetrics, and practical medicine.
* Charles Augustus Lindsley (1863-1885), Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics; later of the Theory and Practice of Medicine.
* Herbert Eugene Smith (1885-1910), physician and chemist
* George Blumer (1910-1920)
* Milton Winternitz (1920-1935), pathologist
* Stanhope Bayne-Jones (1935-1940), physician and bacteriologist
* Francis Gilman Blake (1940-1947)
* Cyril Norman Hugh Long (1947-1952), physician and biochemist
* Vernon W. Lippard (1952-1967)
* Frederick Carl Redlich (1967-1972), psychiatrist
* Lewis Thomas (1972-1973), physician and author
* Robert Berliner (1973-1984)
* Leon Rosenberg (1984-1991)
* Robert M. Donaldson (acting) (1991-1992)
* Gerard N. Burrow (1992-1997)
* David Aaron Kessler (1997-2003), pediatrician, lawyer and former commissioner of the FDA
* Dennis Spencer (acting) (2003-2004), neurosurgeon
* Robert Alpern (2004-present), nephrologist

Notable faculty

* Harvey Cushing
* Russell Henry Chittenden
* Patricia Goldman-Rakic
* Arnold Gesell
* Arthur L. Horwich
* Orvan Hess
* Lafayette Mendel
* Nathan Smith
* Stephen Fleck
* Theodore Lidz

ee also

* List of Yale University people


External links

* [http://info.med.yale.edu/ysm/ Official site]
* [http://www.med.yale.edu/library/exhibits/yalemed1/medinstyalecoll.html Medicine at Yale 1701-1901]
* [http://info.med.yale.edu/library/exhibits/yalemed2/ Medicine at Yale 1901-1951]
* [http://info.med.yale.edu/library/exhibits/yalemed3/ Medicine at Yale 1951-2001]
* [http://www.iom.edu/CMS/2951/16476.aspx?ps=50&sb=LastName&sd=ASC&cp=undefined&search=yale+medicine&scroll=1#ResultScroll1 Institute of Medicine member list]

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