- Les Automatistes
Les Automatistes were a group of "
Québécois" artistic dissidents from Montreal, Quebec. The movement was founded in the early 1940s by painter Paul-Émile Borduas. "Les Automatistes" were so called because they were influenced by Surrealismand its theory of automatism. Members included Marcel Barbeau, Roger Fauteux, Claude Gauvreau, Jean-Paul Riopelle, Pierre Gauvreau, Fernand Leduc, Jean-Paul Mousseau, and Marcelle Ferronand Françoise Sullivan.
The movement may have begun with an exhibition Borduas gave in Montreal in 1942. However, "les Automatistes" were soon being exhibited in
Parisand New Yorkalso. Though it began as a visual arts group, it also spread to other forms of expression, such as drama, poetry and dance. The title "les Automatistes" came from journalist Tancrède MarcilJr., in a review of their second exhibit in Montreal (February 15 to March 1, 1947), which appeared in "Le Quartier Latin" (the Université de Montréal's student journal).
In 1948, Borduas published a collective
manifestocalled the Refus global, which is considered an important document in the cultural history of Quebec. Although the group dispersed soon after the manifesto was published, the movement continues to have influence, and may be considered forerunners of the Quiet Revolution.
* [http://callisto.si.usherb.ca:8080/dhsp3/lois/Manifeste_Refus_global.html Text of "Le Refus global"] (in French)
* [http://www.collectionscanada.ca/2/5/h5-301-e.html The Automatists and the Book] by Michel Brisebois on "Le Refus global" as a printed book.
* [http://archives.cbc.ca/IDD-1-68-109/arts_entertainment/refus_global/ CBC Digital Archives - Le Refus global: Revolution in the Arts]
* [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/1998/int/980824/the_arts.art.resplenden6a.html Time Article on Borduas and Le Refus global]
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