European hip hop


European hip hop

European hip hop is hip hop music created by European musicians. Hip hop is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. Due to this success, it has gained worldwide popularity, especially in Europe where many diverse and unique styles of hip hop have been created. Hip-hop from non-European countries is described in World hip hop and articles dedicated to hip-hop from each country.

By region

Northern Europe

Denmark

In Denmark, Hip Hop has been growing steadily more popular over the last fifteen years and began with Danish language acts such as MC Einar and Rockers by Choice. In the early 1990s, English was the preferred language for underground acts such as Dope Solution, Kidnap and one of the first female and ground breaking artists No Name Requested, who fusioned rap with reggae well before contemporary artists. In the late 1990s Danish language rap was again in demand and the favorite choice of artists because of artists such as Jokeren and his group Den Gale Pose. The Funky Fly record label has been an important part of this evolution. In contrast to many other countries, Hip Hop in Danish has been generally as successful or more so locally than acts in English. Some Danish English language rappers have become more well-known abroad than at home, such as Static and NATiLL, both popular German acts, and Funk Flush and Delireeus, who are well-known elsewhere in Scandinavia. Prominent Danish-language artists include:

The members of Full Impact Productions (F.I.P.), (Orgi-E, Bai-D, Troo.L.S., L.O.C., Rune Rask & U$O),

The members often refer to themselves as F.I.P.G.C. (Full Impact Productions Gangster Click). The (in)famous Danish rap group Suspekt is made up of F.I.P members Orgi-E, Bai-D & Rune Rask although L.O.C. is a frequent guest, as well as Troo.L.S produces most of the tracks together with Rune Rask.

In 2005, two of the members, Troo.L.S. & Orgi-E came out with an album, "Forklædt Som Voksen" (Disguised As Adult). The group has not split up, but they have made it clear that they will not make any new albums. However, they often perform together. While Suspekt was/is a group, F.I.P. can be considered a "guild."

[L.O.C] (Liam O'Connor) is the most successful solo-rapper in history of Danish hip hop, with his 60,000 sold albums. His first album, "Dominologi", included hits such as "Absinthe" and "Drik Min Hjerne Ud" (Drink My Brain Away). His second album, "Inkarneret" (Incarnated) was a huge success, with hits as "Undskyld" (Sorry), "Hvem" (Who), and "Pop Det Du Har" (Pop [out] What You've Got). His latest album, "Cassiopeia", was released on September 15, 2005 and the song "Frk. Escobar" (Miss Escobar) became a huge hit.

The two famous producers Rune Rask and Troo. L.S. have stood behind most of the hits of F.I.P. members. They have been awarded the title as best producer-team.In 2006, they produced the song "Gangsta Bop" by Akon. It will be featured on his second album, "Konvicted"

Finland

Finnish hip hop music is an increasingly robust part of the Finnish music scene. While some crews based in Finland (Bomfunk MC's, Don Johnson Big Band, Nuera, Kwan) choose to record their rhymes in English, the majority use Finnish. The first recordings were released in the late 1980s but the real boom of Finnish hip hop came in the late 1990s. Since then, the number of crews recording has increased dramatically. The best-selling crew has been Fintelligens with several top 10 albums and singles. The best-selling solo artist has been Pikku G, a 18-year-old boy whose debut album has sold more than 120 000 copies (quadruple platinum album) in Finland.

Iceland

The first major hip hop crew from Iceland was Quarashi, who were a hip-hop group that was marketed in the US as being inspired by the rock hybrid music of The Beastie Boys and Rage Against the Machine. Quarashi broke up in 2005. Around the same time Quarashi released their first album a lot of rap groups were formed such as Subterranean which are considered to have released Icelandic hiphops biggest classic, Central Magnetizm. Other groups were Team 13 (later became Twisted Minds), Multifunctionals, Bounce Brothers and Hip Hop Elements (later named Kritikal Mazz). They all rapped in English except for one song from Multifunctionals called "Númer 1". They were later followed by performers like XXX Rottweiler (formerly known as 110 Rottweilerhundar) who along with Sesar A had the first all Icelandic hip hop albums published in Iceland (2001). Later (2002) they were followed by a decent amount of rappers following their lead and rapping exclusively in Icelandic. Bæjarins bestu, the freestyle battle champs of Iceland in one unit, Móri, a gangsta rapper who uses Icelandic, Afkvæmi Guðanna (The Offspring of the Gods), Bent og 7Berg (Bent and 7Berg) and, most recently, Hæsta Hendin (The Highest Hand). Icelandic lyrics are usually very direct and aggressive, with battle raps forming a sizeable portion of Icelandic hip hop.

Ireland

Hip hop culture arrived in Ireland in the 1980s and has enjoyed a steady underground scene ever since. By the early 1990s, the scenes in Dublin, Cork and Belfast included such performers as Third Eye Surfers, Marxman, Messiah J. and The Expert, Homebrew and Scary Éire. Despite this, it has never had the same worldwide recognition that British hip hop has seen in recent years.Currently hip-hop in Ireland is still going strong.Dublin hosts names such as Messiah J and The Expert (formerly Creative Controle) (winners of the Nokia Best Dance/Electronica/Hip Hop award) [citation needed] , DJ Flip (World ITF Champion) [citation needed] , and Lisa Dee.

Norway

Hip hop would spread to all of Scandinavia, including Norway, in the early 1980s. With breakdancing and graffiti art growing increasingly popular, a number of underground hip hop musicians gained fame among the genre's limited fanbase in the late 1980s. These included A-Team (later Bolt Warhead) and Tommy Tee, who also put out a prominent hip hop magazine/fanzine called Fat Cap and a radio show Strictly Hip Hop (later The National Rap Show).

The early to mid-nineties saw acts like Warlocks, Ellers Det, Captain Anarad and Dream Of Utopia struggle for recognition (to little effect). In the late 1990s and into the beginning of the 21st century, performers like Opaque, Darkside of the Force and Gatas Parliament became prominent. Tungtvann, Apollo, Klovner i Kamp, Spetakkel, Jaa9&OnklP, Karpe Diem and other Norwegian-language hip hop crews, achieved some mainstream popularity after the turn of the millennium. Norwegian Hip-Hop acts such as MC Isfjell & MackaRonny Iceberg have followed the precedent of Gatas Parliament by fusing politics & Hip-Hop to reach a much wider society in Norway.

Sweden

Swedish hip hop emerged in the first half of the 1980s and crossed into the mainstream a decade later. Some early rappers and crews were Per Cussion, Grandmaster Funk, Quincy Jones III and the Ice Cold Rockers. Groups that achieved mainstream popularity in the early 1990s include Just D, Infinite Mass and The Latin Kings. In the late 1990s there was a second breakthrough and artists like Petter, Ken Ring, Thomas Rusiak, Timbuktu and Looptroop became well-known. More recent acts worth mentioning are Promoe, Snook, Ison & Fille, Advance Patrol, Million Stylez, Lazee, Fronda, and Adam Tensta.

United Kingdom

British hip hop originated in the early 1980s, having been hugely influenced by the New York scene. Just like in the United States, specifically New York, British Hip Hop emerged graffiti and break dancing. After such work of arts, DJ's started to take over dance clubs and this was the start of the hip hop scene in Britain. More interestingly, unlike American Hip hop, British hop hop artists were of all different ethnicities because different races were not segregated in Britain. [Chang, Jeff. “Future Shock.” Village Voice, 19 January 2004.] As a result, an influx of ideas and music cross cultured making Hip Hop a music of all in Britain. [cite article |title="Urban Breakbeat Culture: Repercussions of Hip-Hop in the United Kingdom" Pp. 86-101 in Global Noise: Rap and Hip Hop Outside of the USA, edited by Tony Mitchell. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.|first=David|last=Hesmondhalgh|] However, hip hop still was not accepted in British society until the make of Gun Shot's tune "No Sell Out" in 1992. As a result, various hip hop artists became popular as well as the hip hop scene.However, due to this influence, many British artists adopted American accents when recording and it wasn't until a few years later that Britain gained the confidence to develop their own style, with "London Bridge" by Newtrament often cited as the first ever British hip hop tune. [http://www.low-life.fsnet.co.uk/ukhiphop/story/early_doors.htm Low Life/British hip hop, UK hip hop: the story (accessed 02 Nov 06)] ] Although record labels were starting to take note of the underground scene, radio play and publicity were still a major difficulty in helping the fledgling scene to grow. Instrumental in bringing the scene to the attention of the country at large were DJs like Dave Pearce and Tim Westwood, and particularly John Peel who often championed British hip hop.

However, things did look promising: "Hip Hop Connection"—the first major British hip hop magazine—was founded in 1989 and by the early 1990s, the British hip hop scene seemed to be thriving. Not only was there a firm base of rappers in London, but outside of the capital many cities were developing their own distinct scenes. Bristol produced The Wild Bunch (later better known as Massive Attack), and major groups like the Scratch Perverts and Smith & Mighty, and later became the home of trip hop; Nottingham was the birthplace of the Stereo MCs. As the scene grew, it became less and less common for British rappers to imitate American accents and British hip hop became much more assured of its own identity.

The birth of black music radio station BBC 1Xtra, in 2002 provided another outlet for hip hop artists, with the genre being a core part of the station's output [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/1xtra/hiphop/ BBC 1Xtra website: hip hop (accessed 02 Nov 06)] ] and the station showcases many UK acts. At the same time British hip hop also blossomed in new directions, with a new style of electronic music emerging in the early 2000s, influenced heavily by hip hop and UK garage, dubbed grime.

Further success followed as The Streets released their album "Original Pirate Material" (679 Records, 2002), and became one of the first of the new breed of British hip hop artists to gain respectable sales. This trend continued as Dizzee Rascal released his debut album, "Boy in Da Corner", to huge critical acclaim. [ [http://www.metacritic.com/music/artists/rascaldizzee/boyindacorner?q=dizzee Metacritic: Various reviews of Boy In Da Corner (accessed 09 Dec 06)] ] Sway also came into the public eye after winning a MOBO award in September 2005 for Best Hip Hop Actref|Grauniad, defeating heavyweight hip hop artists 50 Cent and The Game to collect the award. Lady Sovereign achieved mainstream success both in Britain and America in 2005 after signing with Def Jam Recordings after impressing Jay-Z, as well as achieving chart success with singles released from her debut album Public Warning.

The U.K.'s Panjabi MC created a style integrated with Indian-based music and created the single "Beware of the Boys". Once Jay-Z added a couple of verses, it became a hit in the United States.

Eastern Europe

Belarus

Bulgaria

Bulgaria during the late '90s saw the formation of the crews "Amnistia", X-team, Sunrise Project, DRS, Nokaut, Sensei, Blackmouth and RBL, Junior MC, Rap Nation, 187, Fars, Logopet, Kingsize, SoundTrack, Atila, Ragga One and "Rubber Heads" (Gumeni Glavi) the latter of which included Misho Shamara, Dreben G, Konsa and more. "Rubber Heads"'s label was called R'nB and was very popular. They even had their own clothing line. In 2000 another Bulgarian hip hop label was created and it was called Sniper Records, including famous names like Spens, DJ Stancho, Slim, Shosho and more. A lot of hardcore rap is produced in Bulgaria from bands like Nokaut, Sunrise Project, RBL, X-Team, Kingsize and many more.

Czech Republic

Czech hip hop is a hip hop musical subculture in the Czech Republic. Its history began after the Velvet Revolution in 1989. Since that time began the creation of this subculture with lot of bands, clubs and hip hop festivals appearing all around the country.

Hungary

Popular Hungarian hip hop is especially popular among the large Roma population in Hungary, some of whom have a folk tradition of oral percussion. Performers include a gangsta rap pioneer, Ganxsta Zolee és a Kartel, his local fellow Dopeman, LL Junior and Sub Bass Monster.

Poland

The Polish hip hop scene began in 1990, when American pop-rappers like MC Hammer ("Please Hammer Don't Hurt 'Em") and Vanilla Ice ("To the Extreme") were popular. The first album by a Polish performer was "East on the Mic" by PM Cool Lee, which featured two songs in the Polish language. Lee was from Kielce, but Warsaw soon emerged as a center for hip hop, after KOLOR, a radio station, began broadcasting "Kolor Shock", hosted by Bogna Świątkowska, Paul Jackson, an African American expatriate, Sylvia Opoku from London, and DJ Volt, whose crew, IKHZ, became performing stars in their own right in 1995. Volt also founded the first Polish independent hip hop label, Beat Records. Though the label didn't last long, it did introduce groups like Trzyha and Molesta.

Romania

Romanian hip hop is currently growing in popularity in Romania. The sound is similar to that of Spanish and most Latin acts. The main theme is politics, based on anti-system protest, and social, underlining the rich-poor gap and the low quality of the new, post-Communist, enriched class. Bucharest is the main center, since most of other bands/rappers from outside the city would still come there for recording.

Once dominated by BUG Mafia (Bucharest Underground Mafia), the market is currently the fiefdom of Paraziţii. An important moment in Romanian hip hop history was the support Morometzii gave to Traian Băsescu and his centrist political alliance during 2004, through the anti-system (in fact against the then-ruling Social Democratic Party) songs "România, trezeşte-te!" (English "Romania, wake up!") and "În luptǎ cu Puterea" (English "Fighting the Power").

2006 was a great year for Romanian hip hop, especially for the underground scene. Independent labels as Hades Records or Facem Records finally got out of the box with albums that soon reached the stores at a national level. Also a big step in the evolution of Romanian hip hop was the Summer Jam 2006 hip hop festival that took place in Bucharest. Created and supervised by Hades Records/Hades Events, Summer Jam was the first of its kind and size in Romania, uniting more than 20 artists and bands over 2 days of show, including DJ contests, breakdance shows, streetball contests and a lot of high quality hip hop. The producers of the show said that much more is to be expected for 2007's edition. Some notable artists include:BUG Mafia , Parazitii , R.A.C.L.A. , La Familia and Bitza.

Russia

Russian rap is quite similar to old school rap in North America. The artist is concentrated on lyrics, not as much as on the rhythm or the beat. Because of the limited resources of the artists the beats are often produced using music programs like Cubase as opposed to having a DJ spin records. Bootleg versions of these programs can be purchased from black market street vendors for only a few dollars or downloaded from the internet. The first more or less known pioneers of Russian rap was a group called Malchishnik (Мальчи́шник), but the recognition of the rap genre came with the rise of a Moscow team Bad B., with their album "Naletchiki Bad B." being released in 1994.

Only a few Russian rap artists have achieved commercial success: Detsl (Децл), Bad Balance/Bad.B (Плохо́й Ба́ланс/Бад Би), Kasta (Ка́ста) and the Belarusian artist Seryoga (Сере́га), who combined original rap with the native Russian satiric song genre "chastushka" which some critics consider a new branch in the rap genre: rap-chastushka. Although most of rap fans believe he does not belong to the Russian rap scene, the musician won the nomination for best Russian rap in 2005 on the RMA (Russian Music Awards).Numerous Russian hip-hop musicians hold full time jobs or are enrolled as full-time college students, making rap their part-time hobby. Timati is a also a huge figure, being the first Russian rapper to work with American producer Scott Storch and American rapper Fat Joe.

Ukraine

Ukrainian hip hop (Ukra-hop) is a major part of the Ukrainian music scene.

Although some groups, like the crew Tanok Na Maydani Kongo ("The Dance on the Congo Square"), rap in the Ukrainian language (specifically the Slobozhanshchyna dialect) and mix hip hop with indigenous Ukrainian elements, many others do not, preferring instead to rap in Russian.

In 2005, Ukraine's entrant in the Eurovision Song Contest, GreenJolly's "Together We Are Many", was also the unofficial anthem of the recent Orange Revolution. Eurovision demanded the lyrics to be changed for the contest (because it did not correspond to contests rules due to political content). Also this song was remade by Polish hip hop artists.

Southern Europe

Albania / Kosova

In Albania and Kosovo, hip hop is very popular. Rap groups such as Ritmi i Rruges, 2die4, The Bloody Alboz, Etno Engjujt, WNC, 2Po2, and others have striven to portray the real Albanian attitude of today. Albanian rappers like Memli Krasniqi, UnikkatiL, krem Gj., Lyrical Son, Tingulli 3 & Spinxak are examples of some successful acts. One could also mention hip hop groups like, Ritmi i Rruges, 039 Records, Baba Records, Gramafon Entertainment, The Bloody Alboz, Faraon Records, Infinit Records Lonolog, ArdiGold, On-X etc.

*Current successful rappers include Unikkatil, Getoar, Lyrical Son, Spinxak . etc.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Hip hop is quite a new style of music for Bosnia and Herzegovina, but it has nevertheless proven very popular. The majority of Bosnian and Herzegovinian rappers are from the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (the Bosnian Muslim / Bosnian Croat dominated half of the country), although more and more are coming out of the Serb Republic. The vibrant underground scene has coalesced around several major portals on the Internet.

The most famous rapper in Bosnia-Herzegovina is Edo Maajka and others include Frenkie, Hamza, Amon Ra, Sove, Dibidus etc. The most popular rap group in Bosnia-Herzegovina is Disciplinska Komisija with Edo Maajka as the leader of the group.

Due to the war in 1992-1995 (where many were seeking refuge in other European countries and the United States) many Bosnian and Herzegovinan Hip Hop artists are also spread out all around the world including the United States, Germany, Sweden, Austria, Denmark, Netherlands etc.

Most famous rappers that live in the countries mentioned above are Cekic, Admalish, Joki, Seik Ba, Prah, RNel, AzRim, Infuzija, RimaD, Daez, etc.Bosnian hip hop is the most popular in the Balkans And guilty is on the Top of European hip hop Bosnian hip hop is starting to be very popular in the youth of Bosnia its been featured in Films Like Summer in the Golden Valleyputting Bosnian hip hop on the main stream on the Balkans and on featured films.

Croatia

The 1990s were marked by the emergence of Croatian rap music. The Ugly Leaders released the first ever Croatian Hip-Hop album, and gained a strong following in and around Rijeka. In 1991, the Croatian Liberation Front released two widely popular protest singles. The first rap band to gain widespread and lasting acclaim was The Beat Fleet (TBF) from Split, whose members took inspiration from harsh economic and social conditions of war-torn Dalmatia, not that different from American inner cities. Their act was followed by multitude of artists and groups in Zagreb, taking inspiration from American gangsta rap. The Zagreb rappers Bolesna Braća (also called "Sick Rhyme Sayazz") and Tram 11 became particularly popular, and to an extent also the duo Stoka & Nered.

The Croatian rap gained much from the fact Edo Maajka signed on to a label in Zagreb. The Zagreb band Elemental also burst into the scene featuring one of the few Croatian female rappers.

Greece

Some of the most important early hip-hop groups in Greece were Terror-X-Crew (members: Αρτέμης, Ευθύμης, DJ ALX), FFC (members: Ρυθμοδαμαστής, DJ Everlast, Πετσούκης, plus many guests) and Active Member.

This differentiation caused a lot of tension among the Greek hip-hop fans. Between the years of 1995–2000, there was a lot of conflict, relatively speaking. Things escalated from there when the Battle rap era in Greece begun with the group ZN (Ζωντανοί Νεκροί - The Living Dead) that started ing Active Member and other hip hop groups. ZN was composed of 5 members. They followed the Wu-Tang model and have been accused of biting the Wu-Tang Clan. They first released an EP and then a group album, followed by releasing solo albums. Their one and only album (due to feuding) as a group was "O Protos Tomos" (The First Volume) in 1997.

As American hip hop lyrics, as part of the gangsta rap genre, became more widely violent, so did international hip hop lyrics, and Greece was no exception. Rapping about guns, drugs, violence and sex became the norm. Hardcore Greek rap had swept the genre, and commercial hip hop followed suit.

Commercial hip-hop in Greece has become hugely successful, with acts like Imiskoumbria, Terror X Crew and Goin' Through blazing the trails. Imiskoumbria and Terror X Crew both were the first to have their records going gold. Goin' Through became a massive success after their last album, La Sagrada Familia, was granted gold status as of 2006.

Goin' Through has also established Greece's big name hip-hop label, Family, where some other acts are signed.

Some of the more noted acts of Family are Taraxias, Thirio (Beast), NEVMA, Ominus & DJ S.

It should be noted that the group Imiskoumbria, is widely credited as one of the Greek rap acts that made Greek hip hop a household thing. Before this, Greek hip hop was considered to be a fad or a novelty of sorts.

Italy

Italian hip hop started in the early 1990s. One of the first hip hop crews to catch the attention of the Italian mainstream was Milan's Articolo 31, then and still today produced by Franco Godi, who had written the soundtrack to the animated TV series "Signor Rossi" in the 1970s. The European Music Office's report on "Music in Europe" claimed that, in general, hip hop from the south of Italy tends to be harder than that from the north. In the early '80s, hip hop spread to Italy, along side Jamaican raggamuffin, especially in centri sociali, alternative centers where several left-wing young people regularly meet. The first star, however, was Jovanotti, who used rapping in otherwise traditional Italian pop. Some of his tracks were however pure hip hop, e.g. "Il rap" which sampled Public Enemy's Chuck D.

Articolo 31 started out as a mainly East Coast rap-inspired hip hop duo, but changed to a more commercial style during their career and eventually evolved into a punk/pop/crossover group. Other important crews and rappers include Bologna's Camelz in Effect with their unforgettable early hit "Slega la Lega", Sangue Misto with their 1994 album SMX, the political crew 99 Posse whose music have influences from world music to trip hop. Gangsta rap crews include Sa Razza, La Fossa from Sardinia and Flaminio Maphia from Rome. Probably the most famous Italian rappers apart from Articolo 31 are Sottotono from Varese, Neffa from Napoli and Piotta who represents Rome and became famous through an ironic interpretation of the "coatto" (The stereotypical Italian boy with an attitude). Caparezza is often referred to as the Italian Eminem because his records sold many copies from 2000 on. Frankie Hi-NRG MC is often referred to as the Italian NAS, since his rhymes are very complex and intellectual. Turi from Calabria and Colle der Fomento from Rome are considered hardcore rappers by many. Italian hip hop also has a tradition of political-minded lyrics, e.g. 99 Posse and Assalti Frontali.

There are also some crews rapping in the local dialects or languages, e.g. La Famiglia in napoletano; Sa Razza (partly) in Sardinian and DLH Posse that raps in Friulian, as well as in Italian. 99 Posse also use Italian as well as Neapolitan while La Pooglia Tribe and Sud Sound System rap in both Italian and dialect from the Puglia region. In the last few years, new groups like Cor Veleno, Brusco, Gli Inquilini and La Squadra from Rome, Club Dogo and Vacca from Milan, Co'Sang from Naples or Stokka & Madbuddy from Palermo have emerged in the Italian hip hop scene.

Republic of Macedonia

Portugal

Portuguese hip hop ("Hip hop português") mostly known as Hip Hop Tuga is the Portuguese variety of hip hop music, although different because it is mixed with African music from Lusophone Africa and reggae. It is often performed by African-Portuguese, descendants from African immigrants that came to Portugal after the independence of the former African colonies. The past 5 years have been productive and names such as [http://dlm.no.sapo.pt/ Dealema] , [http://mindagap.be/ Mind Da Gap] , Greguz du Shabba, [http://www.myspace.com/valete115/ Valete] , [http://profile.myspace.com/samthekid/ Sam The Kid] (rapper & producer), Micro, Matozoo and [http://www.myspace.com/djguilhotina/ Bomberjack] gathered many followers in the underground subculture. Graffiti artist's names include, among others, Mosaik, Caos, Colman, Uber, Que? and Kayo. Portuguese rapper group 'DaWeasel' has also become significantly popular amongst Portuguese youths both nationally & internationally in establishing Portuguese Hip-Hop.

Serbia

Serbian hip hop started in the early 80's, with the birth of b-boy crews and their battles which have spread over the country in no time. The first sound recording of the Serbian hip hop is the Degout EP by the band named The Master Scratch Band, which was released through Jugoton in the year 1984. - 5-tracker presenting b-boy electro-breakbeat tracks with a bit of rapping. In the late 80's, bands such are Budweiser, Green Kool Posse, Who Is The Best and Robin Hood started the first demo scene. The music spread slowly until 1995, when the first significant album was released: Da li imaš pravo? by Gru. This release marked the beginning of the first wave of Serbian hip hop, which reached its peak in 1997-98, when many new groups started to break out from the underground: Voodoo Popeye, Full Moon, Straight Jackin, Sunshine, Bad Copy, Belgrade Ghetto, CYA, 187. Monteniggers, from Montenegro (at the time in a union with Serbia), were another popular rap group. Just as the scene was taking off, the flood of new talent slowed to a trickle, probably due to the economic effects of the Kosovo War of 1999, which resulted in only a few hip hop albums released in 1999–2001. However, in 2002 the silence was shown to be temporary with the founding of the Bassivity label, which made Serbian, Bosnian and Croatian hip hop widely available in record stores. Their first release, V.I.P. - Ekipa Stigla, was one of the two albums which marked the beginning of the second wave of Serbian hip hop. The other was BSSST...Tišinčina by the Belgrade group Beogradski Sindikat. The same group also released the highly controversial political single Govedina in late 2002, which greatly aided the popularisation of hip hop in Serbia.

Since 2002, Bassivity Music has released many more records and Beogradski Sindikat have followed up their debut with 2005's Svi Zajedno, having founded their own label, Prohibicija, due to their dissatisfaction with Automatik Records. One of the group's members, Škabo, has also released several solo albums.

Slovenia

Slovenian hip hop can be traced back to 1978 but all rappers were forgotten or they disappear it's still secret,how it is known there were some illegal album releases.In the mid 80s were marked as the break-through of rap music in Slovenian music. Ali-En released first national rap album, that immediately became a classic, in 1989. The hip hop culture was heavily popularized by skier Jure Košir who also released an album with his Rap Team. In 1997 Dandrough, a rap duo, released Ko pride Bog ('when God comes'). The next few years there was a small hole in hip hop scene, with only a couple of albums in 2000 Klemen Klemen released Trnow Stajl, possibly the most influential mainstream album in Slovenian Hip Hop history of south style, at Menart Records. About the same time a first compilation of Slovenian Hip Hop artists was released at Radyoyo: "Za narodov Blagor - 5'00" of fame", including various unknown rappers, that were just yet to pop up onto the scene.

In 2001, the first freestyle rap championship was organized, launching 6pack Čukur, who placed 2nd, into the mainstream stars. The competition became a tradition and it's held every second year since then. The next year rap duo Murat & Jose released V besedi je moč becoming again of the ultimate rap albums in Slovenia and Southern Europe. Following championship was said to be the best. It spawned 2 champions, both releasing albums as an awards through Nika Records. N'toko, an alternative rapper released it the same year as he became champion, 2003, Trkaj's album followed the next.

Hip hop culture was heavily popularized by then and artists like Samo Boris, Valterap, N'toko, released some of the most important albums in small history of Slovenian rap music.

2004 - 2006 were the most productive years, spawning more albums then all years before that together. Though the quality oscillated from album to album, mostly because of the unofficial releases and noting that the demo scene produced better tracks, some new names like Eyeceeou and Mrigo came up with excellent material, both with newly founded indie labels.

Spain

Spanish hip hop music began in the late 1980s. Break dance crews used mainly American recordings, while local rappers practised for very small underground audiences. A few rock bands, like Os Resentidos, Kortatu and TDK tried and recorded some approaches to hip hop music, but kept most of their hard rock background.

In 1989 Troya Dscs&Rcrs label released the first Spanish hip hop LP: "Madrid Hip Hop", a compilation of four bands from the province of Madrid: DNI, Estado Crítico, Sindicato del Crimen and QSC. The record presented two cuts of each band.

Later in 1989, Ariola major label tried a new push to establish some hip hop stars, with a new compilation of Madrilene hip hop music: "Rappin Madrid", introduced more soloists and groups, like MC Randy & D.J. Jonco.

Both attempts mostly failed, but helped to establish a viable scene in Madrid.
Zona Bruta, the first Spanish hip hop specialised label, was founded in 1994.

Other

Western Europe

Austria

Belgium

Belgian hip hop music has a few rappers stemming from Africa. Belgium, like France, controlled African countries like the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire), Rwanda, and Burundi until the early 1960s. Like in France, immigrants from these countries started to study and live in Belgium.

The Belgian hip hop scene started in the late 1980s with a U.S.-based techno/hip hop group called Technotronic. In the group was an emcee named Ya Kid K from the Democratic Republic of the Congo who later led the group into international fame with hits like "Pump up the Jam" and "Shake tTat Body". In 1990, she also joined the group Hi-Tek 3 who were heard on the "Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles" movie soundtrack.

However, the first major pop rapper from Belgium was Benny B, who had a very mainstream and commercial sound. According to the European Music Office's report on "Music in Europe", this was the first of many pop acts that helped inspire a backlash and the creation of an underground hip hop scene [http://www.icce.rug.nl/~soundscapes/DATABASES/MIE/Part2_chapter08.html] .

In the early 1990s the Brussels' rap crew De Puta Madre started rapping in French and Spanish. They became an underground success and are still highly respected in the Belgian hip hop scene.

In the late 1990s, Rwandan hip hop pioneer J.C. Matata moved to Belgium and created a hip hop/reggae/zouk group called ZAMZAM.

Also in the late 1990s in the Walloon south of the country, French speaking/rapping Starflam was the biggest name in hip hop. In the Flemish north Dutch speaking/rapping groups like 't Hof van Commerce, St Andries MC's, and ABN were popular, rapping in their regional dialects.

France

France has one of the most established hip hop scenes in Europe.Fact|date=August 2007 By 1982, a number of hip hop radio stations had appeared, including Rapper Dapper Snapper, and the future star DJ Dee Nasty made his first appearance. That same year saw the first major hip hop concert, the New York City Rap Tour, sponsored by Europe 1 and featuring Afrika Bambaataa, Grandmixer DST, Fab 5 Freddy, Mr Freeze and the Rock Steady Crew. Dee Nasty's "Paname City Rappin'", released in 1984, was the first French hip hop record.

Similar to Britain, the popularity of French hip hop has increased dramatically over the past decade, with artists such as Assassin, and Lunatic or NTM all achieving some amount of success in their own country. Other notable artists include Booba, Sinik, Diam and Rohff. A select few artists have also gained worldwide popularity, such as Saïan Supa Crew who appeared on The World According to RZA - a compilation of worldwide hip hop created by RZA. One of the most popular French rappers is Senegalese-born MC Solaar, who is known for his complex and poetic lyrics.

Germany

German Hip Hop began as an underground music scene in the early 1980s. Traditional music, from immigrants that migrated from Northern Africa, Turkey, Morocco, etc., mixed with the American hip hop scene to form the beginning of Germany's hip hop music. Nevertheless, film played a major impact in the beginning of the musical genre. [ Bennett, Andy. "Hip-Hop am Main, Rappin' on the Tyne: Hip-hop Culture as a Local Construct in Two European Cities." In That's the Joint!: The Hip-hop Studies Reader, p. 181-2. New York; London: Routledge, 2004. ] Films such as, Beat Street and Wild Style, formed the first wave of hip hop fans. As a result, German youth began to graffiti and break dance which lead to underground hip hop music and development. In particular, one music group, Advance Chemistry sparked a huge interest in speaking out for the youth of Germany, especially the immigrants ["Puppetmastaz Website." 26 March 2008 http://www.puppetmastaz.com/] . Moreover, more and more people loved the hip hop scene in Germany until it reached its peak in 2001. After that time period of rapping about life in Germany, "New Schoolers" rapped about crime and violence. Till this day, hip hop plays a significant role in Germany's music scene. Germany produced the well-known Optik Army and its frontman Kool Savas as well as several other rap combos like Aggro Berlin, Die Fantastischen Vier, Ersguterjunge, Fettes Brot or Amstaff. Several solo artists like Bushido, Fler, Samy Deluxe and Azad are also well-known across Europe.

Netherlands

The Osdorp Posse was the first successful rap-crew in Holland. Osdorp Posse's frontman, who goes by the name Def P, is well-known for his political awareness and social analyses. The song "Origineel Amsterdams" ended up in the top of the charts, a lucrative mainstream-career was just around the corner now. Instead, O.P realized that credibility lasts longer than fame. So they avoided selling out, and remained loyal to a smaller scene.

In 1986, Dutch rap duo MC Miker G & DJ Sven (Lucien Witteveen and Sven van Veen) had a top 10 hit across Europe with "Holiday Rap", which sampled Madonna's "Holiday".

One particularly proficient Dutch-language rapper is Extince. Other notable acts include Ali B. (who has been featured on other artists' tracks, most significantly with Marco Borsato on the song "Wat zou je doen?" for the charity War Child) who achieved solo success with "Leipe mocro flavour". Together with his nephew Yes-R he made an international remix of "Ghetto" together with Akon.; the duo Lange Frans & Baas B with their patriotic but introspective "Het Land Van"; and Yes-R but these people have got the biggest hits, but not the best rap skills (wordplay, "flow" which means a rhyme schedule that sounds good together with the beat, originality). Most notable for rap skills in Holland these days is the rap group "Opgezwolle" (rapper Sticky Steez, rapper Phreako Rico and DJ Delic) and most of all Brainpower. Rapper Jawat, won the "Grote prijs van Nederland" 2006, and has a very original and unique style. Holland has got a fast growing "underground scene" and rapping in Dutch is very popular.

Switzerland

The Swiss hip hop scene began in the early nineties, much like French, German and Italian rap. Early Swiss German rappers started rapping in English, but after the bilingual track "Murder by Dialect" by P-27 featuring Black Tiger, rappers switched to their native Swiss German dialects. Rappers from the French-speaking part (where the traditional dialects died out in most parts) and from the Italian-speaking part (where most people mix dialects and Standard Italian freely) only rap in the standard languages.

The European Music Office's report on "Music in Europe" claimed that Switzerland's hip hop scene is "particularly innovative and advanced", featuring Unik Records (the first European indie rap label) [ [http://www.icce.rug.nl/~soundscapes/DATABASES/MIE/Part2_chapter08.html] .]

References

http://www.villagevoice.com/news/0327,chadha,45230,1.html

External links

* [http://rasik.de Hip-Hop Radio rasik.de]
* [http://www.europeanhiphop.eu/ europeanhiphop.eu]


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