Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution


Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution

Amendment XXIII was the twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution which permits the District of Columbia to choose Electors for President and Vice President. The amendment was proposed by Congress on June 17, 1960, and ratified by the states on March 29, 1961.

Text

Section 1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct:"

"A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment."

"Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation."

Proposal and ratification

Congress proposed the Twenty-third Amendment on June 17, 1960. [cite web| url = http://www.usconstitution.net/constamrat.html#Am23| title = Ratification of Constitutional Amendments| accessmonthday = Oct 11| accessyear = 2008| last = Mount| first = Steve| year = 2007| month = Jan] The following states ratified the amendment:
#Hawaii (June 23, 1960)
#Massachusetts (August 22, 1960)
#New Jersey (December 19, 1960)
#New York (January 17, 1961)
#California (January 19, 1961)
#Oregon (January 27, 1961)
#Maryland (January 30, 1961)
#Idaho (January 31, 1961)
#Maine (January 31, 1961)
#Minnesota (January 31, 1961)
#New Mexico (February 1, 1961)
#Nevada (February 2, 1961)
#Montana (February 6, 1961)
#South Dakota (February 6, 1961)
#Colorado (February 8, 1961)
#Washington (February 9, 1961)
#West Virginia (February 9, 1961)
#Alaska (February 10, 1961)
#Wyoming (February 13, 1961)
#Delaware (February 20, 1961)
#Utah (February 21, 1961)
#Wisconsin (February 21, 1961)
#Pennsylvania (February 28, 1961)
#Indiana (March 3, 1961)
#North Dakota (March 3, 1961)
#Tennessee (March 6, 1961)
#Michigan (March 8, 1961)
#Connecticut (March 9, 1961)
#Arizona (March 10, 1961)
#Illinois (March 14, 1961)
#Nebraska (March 15, 1961)
#Vermont (March 15, 1961)
#Iowa (March 16, 1961)
#Missouri (March 20, 1961)
#Oklahoma (March 21, 1961)
#Rhode Island (March 22, 1961)
#Kansas (March 29, 1961)
#Ohio (March 29, 1961)
*Ratification was completed on March 29, 1961. The amendment was subsequently ratified by the following states:
#New Hampshire (March 30, 1961, rescinded later that same day)
#Alabama (April 16, 2002)The amendment was rejected by the following state:
#Arkansas (January 24, 1961)

Notes

References

* [http://sources.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_the_United_States_of_America "Constitution of the United States."]
* [http://www.gpoaccess.gov/constitution/browse.html Kilman, Johnny and George Costello (Eds). (2000). "The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation."]

See also

*D.C. Statehood
*District of Columbia voting rights

External links

* [http://www.archives.gov/national-archives-experience/charters/constitution_amendments_11-27.html#23 National Archives: 23rd Amendment]
* [http://www.law.cornell.edu/anncon/html/amdt23toc_user.html CRS Annotated Constitution: 23rd Amendment]


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