Argos


Argos

Infobox Greek Dimos
name = Argos
name_local = Άργος



caption_skyline = A view of Argos showing the remains of the ancient theatre
periph = Peloponnese
prefec = Argolis
population = 24239
population_as_of =2001
area =
pop_municipality = 29228
area_municipality = 138.138
elevation = 42
elevation_min =
elevatino_max =
lat_deg = 37
lat_min = 37
lon_deg = 22
lon_min = 43
postal_code = 21200
area_code = 2751
licence = AP
mayor = Vasilios Mpoures
since =
party =
website = [http://www.argos.gr www.argos.gr]

Argos (Greek: Ἄργος, "Árgos," IPA2|ˈaɾɣos) is a city in Greece in the Peloponnese near Nafplio, which was its historic harbor, named for Nauplius.

Name

The region of Argos is called the Argolis or Argolid. The inhabitants of Argos were called polytonic|Ἀργεῖοι or "Argīvī" in Latin, rendered "Argives" in English.

The name might be of pre-Greek ("Pelasgian") derivation; the name of its acropolis, Larissa certainly is. Aitiology derives it from a mythological founder, Argos son of Zeus and Niobe (see also Danaus).

History

Ancient Argos

A Neolithic settlement was located near the central sanctuary of Argolis, removed 45 stadia from Argos, closer to Mycenae. The sanctuary was dedicated to "Argivian Hera". The main festival of that temple were the Hekatombaia, one of the major festivals of Argos itself. Walter Burkert ("Homo necans", p. 185) connected the festival to the myth of the slaying of Argus Panoptes by Hermes. There have been speculations that Hermes' epitheton "Argeiphontes", which was understood as "Argus-slayer" very early, is in fact related to the adjective "argós" "shimmering" or "quick", from a root "arg-" (PIE "PIE|*arǵ-", hence also "argyros", silver), with a meaning "shining brightly" or similar, and only secondarily connected with the toponym or mythological Argus.

Argos was a major stronghold of Mycenaean times, and along with the neighboring acropoleis of Mycenae and Tiryns became very early settlements because of their commanding positions in the midst of the fertile plain of Argolis.

In Homeric times it belonged to a follower of Agamemnon and gave its name to the surrounding district; the "Argolid" which the Romans knew as "Argeia". The importance of Argos was eclipsed by nearby Sparta after the 6th century BC.

Because of its refusal to fight or send supplies in the Greco-Persian Wars, Argos was shunned by most other city-states. Argos remained neutral or the ineffective ally of Athens during the 5th century BC struggles between Sparta and Athens.

Mythological kings of Argos include : Inachus, Phoroneus, Argos, Agenor, Triopas, Iasus, Crotopus, Sthenelas, Pelasgus (aka Gelanor), Danaus, Lynceus, Abas, Acrisius, Proteus, Megapénthês, Perseus, Argeus, and Anaxagoras.

After this there were three kings ruling Argos at any time, one descended from each of Bias, Melampus, and Anaxagoras. Melampus was succeeded by his son Mantius, then Oicles, and Amphiaraus, and his house of Melampus lasted down to the brothers Alcmaeon and Amphilochus, who fought in the Trojan War.

Bias was succeeded by his son Talaus, and then by his son Adrastus who, with Amphiaraus, lead the disastrous Seven Against Thebes.

Anaxagoras was succeeded by his son Alector, and then Iphis. Iphis left his kingdom to his nephew Sthenelus, the son of his brother Capaneus. This house lasted longer than those of Bias and Melampus, and eventually the kingdom was reunited under its last member, Cyanippus.

Medieval Argos

In the 12th century, a castle was built on Larissa Hill - the site of the ancient Acropolis - called "Kastro Larissa." Argos fell to the Crusaders then the Venetians, and was taken by the Ottomans in 1463. Morosini captured it for Venice in 1686 but it was retaken by the Ottomans in 1716.

At the beginning of the Greek War of Independence, when many petty local republics that were formed in different parts of the country, the "Consulate of Argos" was proclaimed on 26 May, 1821, under the Senate of the Peloponnese. It had a single head of state, styled Consul, 28 March 1821 - 26 May 1821: Stamatellos Antonopoulos.

Later, Argos accepted the authority of the unified Provisional Government at the First National Assembly at Epidaurus, and eventually became part of the Kingdom of Greece.

Modern Argos

The city of Argos is the seat of the province of the same name, one of the three subdivisions of the Argolis prefecture. According to the 2001 Greek census, the city has a population of 27,550. It is the largest city in the prefecture, one of the few prefectures in Greece where the largest city in population is larger than the prefectural capital.

Considerable remains of the city survive and are a popular tourist attraction. Agriculture, however, is the primary economic activity in the area, with citrus fruits the predominant crop. Olives are also popular here.

Argos has a railway station (Kalamata - Tripoli - Corinth), and a junior soccer team. The Argos Archaeological Museum houses ancient artifacts recovered not only from the principal archaeological sites of the city, including the theater and agora but also from Lerna. [http://www.culture.gr/2/21/211/21104m/e211dm03.html]

Greek mythology on film

In the film "Clash of the Titans", Zeus orders the city of Argos destroyed after Acrisius arranges for his own daughter Danae and her son Perseus, who is also the natural son of Zeus, to be cast into the sea in a wooden chest to drown. Poseidon releases a sea monster known as the Kraken (singular instead of plural in the film), which causes a tidal wave to devastate the city and kill Acrisius. Danae and Perseus survive and end up on Seriphos.

Notable people

*Ageladas (6th-5th century BC)
*Polykleitos (5th-4th century BC) sculptor
*Polykleitos the Younger (4th century BC) sculptor

ee also

*Communities of Argolis
*Communities of Argos
*Argos (dog) Mythology: Dog of Odysseus

References

External links

* [http://www.argos.gr Official site]
* [http://www.whitman.edu/theatre/theatretour/argos/introduction/argos.intro1.htm The Theatre at Argos, The Ancient Theatre Archive, Theatre specifications and virtual reality tour of theatre]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Argos — (griechisch Άργος, vermutlich etwa „hell“ bedeutend, anfangsbetont im Unterschied zum endbetonten αργός „träge“) ist der Name folgender geografischer Objekte: Argos (Stadt), die Hauptstadt der Argolis und ein Zentrum der mykenischen Kultur Argos… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • ARGOS — Cité grecque du nord est du Péloponnèse, l’un des sites les plus anciennement occupés de la région, puisqu’on y trouve des traces d’un établissement dès le premier âge du bronze. Argos fut aux ARGOS XIVe et ARGOS XIIIe siècles un des centres de… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Argos — (n. calif.; con mayúsc. o minúsc.) m. Del nombre de un rey de Argos mitológico que tenía cien ojos, se aplica a la persona que *vigila con mucha eficacia. * * * argos. (Por alus. a Argos, personaje mitológico a quien se representa con cien ojos) …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Argos — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Argos puede hacer referencia a: Argos, una ciudad griega de las más antiguas, al noreste del Peloponeso, cuna de muchos personajes y héroes que participaron en la Guerra de Troya; Argos, el nombre de varios… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Argos — • A titular see of Peloponnesian Greece, from the fifth to the twelfth century Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Argos     Argos     † …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Argos [2] — Argos (eigentlich Ebene; daher ebene Länder überhaupt), 1) (Argolis, a. Geogr.), Land, nach der Hauptstadt Argos benannt, auf der nordöstlichen Landspitze des Peloponnes; etwa 27 QM. groß; begrenzt nördlich von Korinth u. Sikyon, nordöstlich vom… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Argos [1] — Argos, 1) Sohn des Apis (Zeus u. der Niobe), König. von Argos (s.d.); durch Euadne Vater des Iasos, Piranthos, Epidauros u. Kriasos. 2) Argos Panoptes (d.i. der Ganzäugige, Umsichtige), Sohn Arestors, war von ungeheuerer Stärke u. hatte am ganzen …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Argos [1] — Argos (Argolis, Argeia), Landschaft des Peloponnes, begriff ursprünglich nur das Gebiet der Stadt A., die rings von Bergen umgebene Talebene des Inachos; unter römischer Herrschaft verstand man darunter auch die ins Vorgebirge Skyltäon… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • argos — ARGÓS adj. m. [Grecism; despre preoţi] Căruia i s a interzis pentru câtva timp să slujească în biserică. – ngr. argos. Trimis de tavi, 23.01.2008. Sursa: DLRM  argós adj. – Oprit, suspendat. ngr. [ίερεύς] ἀργός [preot] care nu are de lucru , cf …   Dicționar Român

  • Argos — Argos, IN U.S. town in Indiana Population (2000): 1613 Housing Units (2000): 669 Land area (2000): 0.678234 sq. miles (1.756617 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.678234 sq. miles (1.756617 sq.… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Argos, IN — U.S. town in Indiana Population (2000): 1613 Housing Units (2000): 669 Land area (2000): 0.678234 sq. miles (1.756617 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.678234 sq. miles (1.756617 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places


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