- Vienna Awards
The Vienna Awards are two arbitral awards by which arbiters of
Germanyand Italysought to enforce peacefully the claims of Hungaryon territory it had lost in 1920 when it signed the Treaty of Trianon. The First Vienna Awardoccurred in 1938 and the Second in 1940.
The awards sanctioned Hungary's annexation of territories in present-day
Slovakia, Ukraineand Romaniawhich Hungary had sought to regain in the period between the two World Wars.
They are also known by various such names as the Vienna Arbitration Awards, Vienna Arbitral Awards, Viennese Arbitrals, Viennese Arbitrages, which are all variation of the same and express no different value judgement on its content. There is, however, also the substantially different name Vienna Diktats expressing the point of view of the countries which stood to lose territory as a result.
The awards were overturned following the defeat of Germany in 1945, and Hungary lost again the territory it had gained.
First Vienna Award
By this award, Germany and Italy compelled
Czechoslovakiato give/return southern Slovakiaand southern Subcarpathia (now in Ukraine) to Hungaryon 2 November 1938.
Second Vienna Award
By this award, Germany and Italy compelled
Romaniato cede half of Transylvania(an area henceforth known as Northern Transylvania) to Hungaryon 30 August 1940. This decision was taken not so much to do justice as to win Hungary for German war aims.Fact|date=February 2007 In reversing a major element of the Treaty of Trianon, it, like Trianon, granted a multiethnic area to another country, caused massive migration of populations from both sides, and sundered old socioeconomic units.
In addition to the Second Vienna Award, on 7 September 1940 the
Cadrilateror "Quadrilateral" (southern Dobrudja) was returned by Romaniato Bulgariaunder the Treaty of Craiova. It had been been part of Romania since 1913, after Bulgaria's defeat in the Second Balkan War.
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