13 December 1859- 24 November 1925) was the last queen of Burmawho reigned in Mandalay(1878-1885), born to King Mindon Minand Queen of Alenandaw (literally Middle Palace, also known as Hsinbyumashin or Lady of the White Elephant).cite web|url=http://www.royalark.net/Burma/konbau18.htm|title=The Royal Ark - Burma:The Konbaung Dynasty|first=Christopher|last=Buyers] She was married to her half-brother, Thibaw Min, who became the last king of the Konbaung dynastyin 1878, upon Mindon Min's death. She is best known for engineering a of 80 to 100 royal family members, to prevent potential rivals from usurping Thibaw's power cite web|url=http://www.irrawaddymedia.com/article.php?art_id=3011|title= The Last Queen of Burma|first=Kenneth|last=Champeon|publisher=" The Irrawaddy"|month= July | year= 2003|accessdate=2006-12-08] , although she had always denied any knowledge of the plot, which may have been hatched by her mother together with some of the ministers, including the chancellor Kinwon Min GyiU Kaung.cite web|url=http://www.irrawaddymedia.com/article.php?art_id=6872|title=The Tragic Queen|author=Khin Maung Soe|publisher=" The Irrawaddy"|month=February | year=2007|accessdate=2007-02-05] cite web|url=http://www.irrawaddymedia.com/article.php?art_id=6871|title=A Teatime Tete-à-Tete|author="The Bandoola" Journal|publisher=" The Irrawaddy"|month=February | year=2007|accessdate=2007-02-05]
Princess Hteik Supayalat aka Princess of Myadaung, with the official title of Sri Suriya Prabha Ratna Devi, was the second of three daughters ("lat" means second or middle) born to Mindon and Hsinbyumashin, daughter of
Bagyidaw(Mindon's uncle) and Nanmadaw Me Nu, and the third of Mindon's four highest ranking queens. The three other queens of Mindon had no children, and Hsinbyumashin became more powerful after the death of the chief queen Setkya Devi. Thibaw, on the other hand, was the son of a middle-ranking queen, Queen of Laungshe. He was however learned in the Buddhist scriptures and also educated by the missionary Dr. Marks [cite web|url=http://anglicanhistory.org/asia/burma/forty/18.html|title= Forty Years in Burma|last=Marks|first= John Ebenezer|year=1917|publisher=Hutchinson & Co.|location=London|accessdate=2007-03-09] , and became one of Mindon's favourite sons. The ambitious Hsinbyumashin, after putting him on the throne, offered her oldest daughter Hteik Supayagyi, Princess of Mong Nawng, to be his queen, but during the royal wedding ceremony Supayalat pushed in next to her sister to be anointed queen at the same time, breaking ancient custom. Her sister's marriage was never consummated, and Supayalat was said to have forced monogamy on a Burmese king for the first and the last time in history, even though Thibaw also subsequently married her youngest sister Hteik Supayalay, Princess of Yamèthin. Supayalat was only 19 and Thibaw 20 when they ascended the lion throne ("Thihathana palin").
Their reign lasted just seven years when Thibaw Min was defeated in the
Third Anglo-Burmese Warand forced to abdicate by the British in 1885. On 25 November 1885 they were taken away in a covered carriage, leaving Mandalay Palaceby the southern gate of the walled city along the streets lined by British soldiers and their wailing subjects, to the River Irrawaddywhere a steamboat called "Thuriya" (Sun) awaited. Thibaw was 27 and Supayalat 26.
Supayalat never lost her composure, and was said to have asked a British tommy by the wayside for a light to smoke a Burmese
cheroot. [cite web|url=http://assets.cambridge.org/97805217/80216/excerpt/9780521780216_excerpt.pdf|title=The Making of Modern Burma|author=Thant Myint U|publisher=Cambridge University Press|pages=1|format=PDF] She was pregnant and accompanied by her husband, their two daughters, her two sisters, and her mother; the rest of their party followed on foot. The troops had nicknamed her 'Soup Plate', and in the commotion and haste that attended their abduction, some of the crown jewels had disappeared including a large ruby called "Nga Mauk" that Colonel Sladen had insisted on being handed over for safekeeping. [cite web|url=http://www.myanmar.gov.mm/Perspective/persp2004/5-2004/rub.htm|title=Rubies of Myanmar|author=Dr. Sein Tu] Thibaw saw an opportunity in 1911 when King George V visited India, and wrote for the return of the Burmese crown jewels, but only received a reply that Col. Sladen had died in 1890. Nga Mauk was believed to have subsequently turned up as the largest ruby on the British crown; it was recognised by Princess of Kyundaung in whose charge the ruby used to be. [cite web|url=http://www.myanmars.net/myanmar-history/royal-ruby.htm|title=The Royal Ruby (Padamyar Ngamauk)|author= ShweboMi Mi Gyi - translated from Burmese|publisher=Myanmar's Net Inc.|accessdate=2007-03-10]
On 10 December 1885 the royal family, minus the queen mother and Supayagyi who were sent to
Dawei, was taken to Madraswhere their third daughter was born, and in April the next year they were moved to Ratnagirion the west coast where they could no longer look across the Bay of Bengalto the land they had been forced to leave. Supayalat gave birth to her fourth and youngest daughter in 1887; they were not given a proper residence commensurate with their status until 1911 when "Thibaw Palace" was built by the government. In 1914 the royal princesses had an ear-piercing ceremony ("nahtwin mingala") according to Burmese custom. Some of the family members, court officials and entertainers including the famous orchestra of Sein Beida and the harpist "Deiwa Einda" Maung Maung Gyi from Burma were permitted to attend the ceremony. Although Supayalat's first born was a boy he did not survive infancy, and she had also lost another daughter.
The royal princesses were named as follows:
*# Hteiksu Myatpayagyi (1880 - 1947) married an Indian guard at Thibaw Palace.
*# Hteiksu Myatpayalat (1882 - 1956) married a Burmese courtier at Thibaw Palace; neither of these unions met with the royal parents' approval.
*# Hteiksu Myatpaya aka Madras Supaya (1886 - 1962) returned to Burma with her mother, and married a grandson of
Mindat Min, her great uncle and brother of King Mindon.
*# Hteiksu Myatpayalay (1887 - 1935), the youngest and brightest, was fluent in English and acted as the royal family's spokesperson airing their grievances in a document called "Sadutta thamidaw ayeidawbon sadahn" (The Fourth Royal Daughter Crisis Document); she married a Burmese lawyer, and was sent away by the colonial government to live in Moulmein where she spent the rest of her days.
Supayalay, who had remained childless, looked after her four royal nieces, and died in 1912. When King Thibaw died in 1916 at the age of 58 after 30 years in exile, Supayalat fought in vain for the right to take her husband's body back to be buried with proper funeral rites in Burma. She refused to give up the bodies of both her sister and her husband, buried in the grounds of their palace, to the authorities who eventually took them by force to be buried in Ratnagiri in 1919. The queen did not attend the funeral although she did send two of the royal princesses to the ceremony. The tombs of the king and Supayalay were later joined by that of "Pahtama thamidaw" (First Royal Daughter) who died in 1947.
Supayalat returned to Rangoon in 1919. She was not allowed to return to Mandalay, and when she died six years later in 1925 shortly before her 66th birthday, although the colonial government declared the day of her funeral a national holiday, the royal family's request for her to be buried in Mandalay was also refused. Her funeral was, however, held with pomp and ceremony as befitted a Burmese queen, organised by the
Saophas of Yaunghweand Thibaw. Her body lay in state, shielded under eight white royal umbrellas, attended by 90 Buddhist monks and the British Governor Sir Harcourt Butlerwith a guard of honour of the Mounted Police complete with a 30 gun salute.
She had lived on a pension and in her last days her closest adviser was
Thakin Kodaw Hmaing, the great writer and nationalist leader, who revered her for her defiant stand against colonialism and who had witnessed at the age of nine the fall of the monarchy and the abduction of the royal couple in Mandalay.cite web|url=http://www.irrawaddymedia.com/article.php?art_id=6434 |title= Burma's Tomb Raiders|author=Khin Maung Soe|publisher=" The Irrawaddy"|month=November | year=2006|accessdate=2007-03-09] Hmaing was a boarder at Myadaung Monastery built by the queen who never had the chance to conduct an opening ceremony ("yeizetcha", literally 'pour drops of water', in order to call on the goddess of earth to witness the good deed) as it had only been recently completed. She had never regarded herself as beholden to the British who she believed robbed her of her kingdom with all the wealth and riches therein. Supayalat lies buried at the foot of the Shwedagon Pagodain Kandawmin Gardens between the tombs of Aung San Suu Kyi's mother Khin Kyi and the former UN Secretary General U Thant.
upayalat in literature
* "The Lacquer Lady" - a novel by
F. Tennyson Jesse
* "The Glass Palace" - a novel by
* "The City of Gem" - a novel by
* "Mandalay" - a poem by
* [http://web.soas.ac.uk/burma/1.2%20PDF%20FILES/1.2%2011%20colbeck.pdf Mandalay in 1878-1879 - the letters of James Alfred Colbeck] SOAS
* [http://web.soas.ac.uk/burma/2.1%20pdf%20files/2.1%2011%20colbeck2.pdf Mandalay in 1885-1888 - the letters of James Alfred Colbeck] SOAS
* [http://web.soas.ac.uk/burma/2.1%20pdf%20files/2.1%2003%20sladen.pdf Colonel Sladen's Account of Myatheindan Pagoda at Mingun 1868] SOAS
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