- Real estate appraisal
Real estate appraisal, property valuation or land valuation is the practice of developing an opinion of the value of real property, usually its Market Value. The need for appraisals arises from the heterogeneous nature of property as an investment class: no two properties are identical, and all properties differ from each other in their location - which is the most important determinant of their value. So there cannot exist a centralised
Walrasian auctionsetting for the trading of property assets, as there exists for trade in corporate stock. The absence of a market-based pricing mechanism determines the need for an expert appraisal/valuation of real estate/property.
A real estate appraisal is performed by a licensed or certified appraiser (in many countries known as a "property valuer" or "land valuer" and in British English as a "valuation surveyor". If the appraiser's opinion is based on Market Value, then it must also be based on the Highest and Best Use of the
real property. For mortgage valuations of improved residential property in the US, the appraisal is most often reported on a standardized form, such as the Uniform Residential Appraisal Report. [ [https://www.efanniemae.com/sf/formsdocs/forms/pdf/sellingtrans/1004.pdf Uniform Residential Appraisal Report (Form 1004): PDF ] ] Appraisals of more complex property (e.g. -- income producing, raw land) are usually reported in a narrative appraisal report.
Types of value
There are several types and definitions of value sought by a real estate appraisal. Some of the most common are:
*Market Value – The price at which an asset would trade in a competitive
Walrasian auctionsetting. Market Value is usually interchangeable with "Open Market Value" or "Fair Value". International Valuation Standards (IVS) define Market Value as:
::"Market Value" is the estimated amount for which a property should exchange on the date of valuation between a willing buyer and a willing seller in an arms-length transaction after proper marketing wherein the parties had each acted knowledgably, prudently, and without compulsion." [IVS 1 - Market Value Basis of Valuation, Seventh Edition]
Value-in-use– The net present value (NPV) of a cash flow that an asset generates for a specific owner under a specific use. Value-in-use is the value to one particular user, and is usually below the market value of a property.
Investment value- is the value to one particular investor, and is usually higher than the market value of a property.
Insurable value- is the value of real property covered by an insurance policy. Generally it does not include the site value.
Liquidation value-- may be analyzed as either a forced liquidation or an orderly liquidation and is a commonly sought standard of value in bankruptcy proceedings. It assumes a seller who is compelled to sell after an exposure period which is less than the market-normal timeframe.
Price versus value
It is important to distinguish between Market Value and
Price. A price obtained for a specific property under a specific transaction may or may not represent that property's market value: special considerations may have been present, such as a special relationship between the buyer and the seller, or else the transaction may have been part of a larger set of transactions in which the parties had engaged. Another possibility is that a special buyer may have been willing to pay a premium over and above the market value, if his subjective valuation of the property (its "investment value" for him) was higher than the Market Value. An example of this would be the owner of a neighbouring property who, by combining his own property with the subject property, could thereby obtain economies-of-scale. Such situations often arise in corporate finance, as for example when a merger or acquisition is concluded at a price which is higher than the value represented by the price of the underlying stock. The usual rationale for these valuations would be that the 'sum is greater than its parts', since full ownership of a company entails special privileges for which a potential purchaser would be willing to pay. Such situations arise in real estate/property markets as well. It is the task of the real estate appraiser/property valuer to judge whether a specific price obtained under a specific transaction is indicative of Market Value.
Market value definitions in the USA
In the US, appraisals are performed to a certain standard of value (e.g. -- foreclosure value, fair market value, distressed sale value, investment value). The most commonly used definition of value is Market Value. While USPAP does not define Market Value, it provides general guidance for how Market Value should be defined:
:"...a type of value, stated as an opinion, that presumes the transfer of a property (i.e., a right of ownership or a bundle of such rights), as of a certain date, under specific conditions set forth in the definition of the term identified by the appraiser as applicable in an appraisal."
Thus, the definition of value used in an appraisal analysis and report is a set of assumptions about the market in which the subject property may transact. It becomes the basis for selecting comparable data for use in the analysis. These assumptions will vary from definition to definition but generally fall into three categories:
# The relationship, knowledge, and motivation of the parties (i.e., seller and buyer);
# The terms of sale (e.g., cash, cash equivalent, or other terms); and
# The conditions of sale (e.g., exposure in a competitive market for a reasonable time prior to sale).
In the US, the most common definition of Market Value is the one promulgated for use in Federally regulated residential mortgage financing:
: "The most probable price which a property should bring in a competitive and open market under all conditions requisite to a fair sale, the buyer and seller, each acting prudently, knowledgeably and assuming the price is not affected by undue stimulus. Implicit in this definition is the consummation of a sale as of a specified date and the passing of title from seller to buyer under conditions whereby: (1) buyer and seller are typically motivated; (2) both parties are well informed or well advised, and each acting in what he or she considers his or her own best interest; (3) a reasonable time is allowed for exposure in the open market; (4) payment is made in terms of cash in U. S. dollars or in terms of financial arrangements comparable thereto; and (5) the price represents the normal consideration for the property sold unaffected by special or creative financing or sales concessions granted by anyone associated with the sale." ["The Appraisal of Real Estate", 12th Ed. (Chicago: The Appraisal Institute)]
For example, adjustments must be made to the
comparablessales prices for special or creative financing or sales concessions. No adjustments are necessary for those costs which are normally paid by sellers as a result of tradition or law in a market area; these costs are readily identifiable since the seller pays these costs in virtually all sales transactions. Special or creative financing adjustments can be made to the comparable property by comparisons to financing terms offered by a third party institutional lender that is not already involved in the property or transaction. Any adjustment should not be calculated on a mechanical dollar for dollar cost of the financing or concession but the dollar amount of any adjustment should approximate the market’s reaction to the financing or concessions based on the appraiser’s judgment. [FNMA form 1025, March 2005]
Three approaches to value
There are three general groups of methodologies for determining value. These are usually referred to as the "three approaches to value":
sales comparison approachand
However, the recent trend of the business tends to be clining to the scientific methodology of appraisal which lies on the foundation of quantitative-data cite journal
last = Lins
first = Marcos Pereira Estellita "et al."
title = Real Estate Appraisal: A Double Perspective Data Envelopment Analysis Approach
journal = Annals of Operations Research
volume = 138
issue = 1
pages = 79 - 96
publisher = Springer
year = 2005
doi = 10.1007/s10479-005-2446-1
accessdate = 15 September
accessyear = 2008 ] , risk and geographical based approaches cite journal
last = Adair
first = Alastair
coauthors = Norman Hutchison
title = The reporting of risk in real estate appraisal property risk scoring
journal = Journal of Property Investment & Finance
volume = 23
issue = 3
pages = 254 - 268
publisher = Emerald Group Publishing
year = 2005
doi = 10.1108/14635780510599467
accessdate = 15 September
accessyear = 2008 ] , cite web
last = Chica-Olmo
first = Jorge
title = Prediction of Housing Location Price by a Multivariate Spatial Method: Cokriging
url = http://business.fullerton.edu/Finance/Journal/papers/abstract/past/av29n01/Vol29n01a05.htm
accessdate = 15 September
accessyear = 2008 ] . Pagourtzi "et al." have provided a review on the methods used in the industry by comparison between conventional approaches and advanced ones cite journal
last = Pagourtzi
first = Elli "et al."
title = Real estate appraisal: a review of valuation methods
journal = Journal of Property Investment & Finance
volume = 21
issue = 4
pages = 383 - 401
Emerald Group Publishing
year = 2003
doi = 10.1108/14635780310483656
accessdate = 15 September
accessyear = 2008 ] .
The appraiser using three approaches will determine which one or more of these approaches may be applicable, based on the scope of work determination, and from that develop an appraisal analysis. Costs, income, and sales vary widely from one situation to the next, and particular importance is given to the specific characteristics of the subject.
Consideration is also given to the market for the property appraised. Appraisals of properties that are typically purchased by investors (e.g. - skyscrapers) may give greater weight to the income approach, while small retail or office properties, often purchased by owner-users, may give greater weighting to the sales comparison approach. While this may seem simple, it is not always obvious. For example, apartment complexes of a given quality tend to sell at a price per apartment, and as such the sales comparison approach may be more applicable. Single family residences are most commonly valued with greatest weighting to the sales comparison approach, but if a single family dwelling is in a neighborhood where all or most of the dwellings are rental units, then some variant of the income approach may be more useful.
The cost approach
The cost approach was formerly called the summation approach. The theory is that the value of a property can be estimated by summing the land value and the depreciated value of any improvements. The value of the improvements is often referred to by the abbreviation RCNLD (reproduction cost new less depreciation or replacement cost new less depreciation). Reproduction refers to reproducing an exact replica. Replacement cost refers to the cost of building a house or other improvement which has the same utility, but using modern design, workmanship and materials. In practice, appraisers use replacement cost and then deduct a factor for any functional disutility associated with the age of the subject property.
In most instances when the cost approach is involved, the overall methodology is a hybrid of the cost and sales comparison approaches. For example, while the replacement cost to construct a building can be determined by adding the labor, material, and other costs, land values and depreciation must be derived from an analysis of comparable data.
The cost approach is considered reliable when used on newer structures, but the method tends to become less reliable for older properties. The cost approach is often the only reliable approach when dealing with special use properties (e.g. -- public assembly, marinas).
The sales comparison approach
The sales comparison approach examines the price or price per unit area of similar properties being sold in the marketplace. Simply put, the sales of properties similar to the subject are analyzed and the sale prices adjusted to account for differences in the comparables to the subject to determine the value of the subject. This approach is generally considered the most reliable if adequate comparable sales exist. In any event, it is the only independent check on the reasonability of an appraisal opinion.
Note that this approach develops value from a purely pricing scheme, and as such is an example of a revealed preference model. An interesting perspective on the relationship between relatively subjective human estimation as compared with that obtained by purely mathematic modeling is contained in "Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart" by Gerd Gigerenzer. Dr. Gigerenzer, a psychologist, asked people to estimate some real world facts based simply on their knowledge, experience and impressions. Common knowledge and some simple rules created models which were close to those produced by multiple regression analysis (MRA) and neural networks. The predictive value of the human models applied to a new sample was a bit better than the mathematical models, suggesting that the mathematical models may have described the data better but missed the predictive relationships. Similarly automated valuation models frequently find building size (square feet or meters) predictive of value, even when that information is not explicitly advertised. This is similar to the example in "The Wisdom of Crowds", Surowiecki, in which the scientist Francis Galton observed a crowd at a fair to, on average, accurately estimate the size of an ox.
The income capitalization approach
The income capitalization approach (often referred to simply as the "income approach") is used to value commercial and investment properties. Because it is intended to directly reflect or model the expectations and behaviors of typical market participants, this approach is generally considered the most applicable valuation technique for income-producing properties, where sufficient market data exists to supply the necessary inputs and parameters for this approach.
In a commercial income-producing property this approach capitalizes an income stream into a value indication. This can be done using revenue multipliers or
capitalization rates applied to the first-year Net Operating Income. The Net Operating Income (NOI) is gross potential income (GPI), less vacancy and collection loss (= Effective Gross Income) less operating expenses (but excluding debt service, income taxes, and/or depreciation charges applied by accountants).
Alternatively, multiple years of net operating income can be valued by a
discounted cash flowanalysis (DCF) model. The DCF model is widely used to value larger and more expensive income-producing properties, such as large office towers. This technique applies market-supported yields (or discount rates) to future cash flows (such as annual income figures and typically a lump reversion from the eventual sale of the property) to arrive at a present value indication.
UK valuation methods
In the UK, valuation methodology has traditionally been classified into five methods:
:1. Comparable method. Used for most types of property where there is good evidence of previous sales. This is analogous to the sales comparison approach outlined above.
:2. Investment/income method. Used for most commercial (and residential) property that is producing future cash flows through the letting of the property. If the current Estimated Rental Value (ERV) and the passing income are known, as well as the market-determined
equivalent yield, then the property value can be determined by means of a simple model. Note that this method is really a comparison method, since the main variables are determined in the market. In standard US practice, however, the closely related capitalising of NOI is confounded with the DCF method under the general classification of the income capitalization approach (see above).
:3. Accounts/profits method. Used for trading properties where evidence of rates is slight, such as hotels, restaurants and old-age homes. A three-year average of operating income (derived from the profit and loss or
income statement) is capitalised using an appropriate yield. Note that since the variables used are inherent to the property and are not market-derived, therefore unless appropriate adjustments are made, the resulting value will be Value-in-Use or Investment Value, not Market Value.
:4. Development/residual method. Used for properties ripe for development or redevelopment or for bare land only.
:5. Contractor's/cost method. Used for only those properties not bought and sold on the market. Both the development/residual method and the contractor's/cost method would be grouped in the US under the
cost approach(see above).
cope of work
While USPAP has always required appraisers to identify the scope of work needed to produce credible results, it became clear in recent years that appraisers did not fully understand the process for developing this adequately. In formulating the scope of work for a credible appraisal, the concept of a "limited" versus "complete" appraisal and the use of the Departure Rule caused confusion to clients, appraisers, and appraisal reviewers. In order to deal with this, USPAP was updated in 2006 with what came to be known as the Scope of Work project. In short, USPAP eliminated the Departure Rule and the concept of a limited appraisal and created a new Scope of Work rule. In this, appraisers were to identify six key parts of the appraisal problem at the beginning of each assignment:
*Client and other intended users
*Intended use of the appraisal and appraisal report
*Definition of value (e.g. -- market, foreclosure, investment)
*Any hypothetical conditions or extraordinary assumptions
*The effective date of the appraisal analysis
*The salient features of the subject property
Based on these factors, the appraiser must identify the scope of work needed, including the methodologies to be used, the extent of investigation, and the applicable approaches to value. The rule provided the explicit requirement that the minimum standards for scope of work were:
*Expectations of the client and other users
*The actions of the appraiser's peers who carry out similar assignments
The Scope of Work is the first step in any appraisal process. Without a strictly defined Scope of Work an appraisal's conclusions may not be viable. By defining the Scope of Work an appraiser can begin to actually develop a value for a given property for the intended user, which is the intended use of the appraisal.
Highest and best use
Highest and Best Use (HABU) is a term of art in the appraisal process. It is a process to determine the use of the property which produces the highest value for the land, as if vacant. There are four steps to the process. First, the appraiser determines all uses which are legally permissible for the property. Second, of the uses which are legally permissible, which ones are physically possible. Of those, which ones are financially feasible (sometimes referred to as "economically supported"). Of those uses which are feasible, which one and only use is maximally productive for the site. In a simple context, the appraiser must do this twice, comparing the results -- as if the land is vacant and in the as-is-improved state, taking into account the costs of demolishing any existing improvements. The outcome of this process is the highest and best use for the site. An appraisal of market value must explicitly assume that the owner or buyer would employ the property in its highest and best use, and therefore value the site accordingly.
In more complex appraisal assignments (e.g. -- contract disputes, litigation, brownfield or contaminated property valuation), the determination of highest and best use may be much more complex, and may need to take into account the various intermediate or temporary uses of the site, the contamination remediation process, and the timing of various legal issues. [See, for example,
John A. Kilpatrick, Valuation of Brownfield Properties, Chapter 29 in LexisNexisMatthew Bender's Brownfield Law and Practice, 2007]
Types of ownership interest
Implicit in the analysis of the subject property is a determination of the interest in the property being appraised. For most common situations (e.g. -- mortgage finance) the
fee simpleinterest is explicitly assumed since it is the most complete bundle of rights available. However, in many situations, and in many societies which do not follow English Common Law or the Napoleanic Code, some other interest may be more common. While there are many different possible interests in real estate, the three most common are:
*Fee simple value (known in the UK as freehold) - The most complete ownership in real estate, subject in common law countries to the powers reserved to the state (taxation, escheat, eminent domain, and police power)
*Leased fee value - This is simply the fee simple interest encumbered by a lease. If the lease is at market rent, then the leased fee value and the fee simple value are equal. However, if the tenant pays more or less than market, the residual owned by the leased fee holder, plus the market value of the tenancy, may be more or less than the fee simple value.
*Leasehold value - The interest held by a tenant. If the tenant pays market rent, then the leasehold has no market value. However, if the tenant pays less than market, the difference betweent the present value of what is paid and the present value of market rents would be a positive leasehold value. For example, a major chain retailer may be able to negotiate a below-market lease to serve as the anchor tenant for a shopping center. This leasehold value may be transferrable to another anchor tenant, and if so the retail tenant has a positive interest in the real estate.
Mass appraisal and automated valuation models
Automated valuation models (AVMs) are growing in acceptance. These rely on statistical models such as multiple regression analysis or geographic information systems (GIS). [ [http://www.rics.org/Property/Residentialproperty/leading_edge_series.htm "Valuation"] , RICS Organization] While AVMs can be quite accurate, particularly when used in a very homogeneous area, there is also evidence that AVMs are not accurate in other instances such as when they are used in rural areas, or when the appraised property does not conform well to the neighborhood. AVM's have also gained favor in class action litigation, and have been substantiated in numerous cases, both in Federal and state courts, as the appropriate method for dealing with large-scale real estate litigation problems, such as contaminated neighborhoods [ [http://www.greenfieldadvisors.com/publications/classcert.pdf Real Estate Issues in Class Certification, Class Action Reporter, October, 2004] ]
Governing authorities and professional organizations
The various US and international professional organizations have started collaborating in recent years towards the development of
International Valuation Standardswhich will facilitate global real estate appraisal, a much-needed adjunct to real estate investment portfolios which transcend national boundaries.
The IVSC - The
International Valuation Standards Committee, is a Non-governmental Organisation (NGO) member of the UN, with membership that encompasses all the major national valuation standard-setters and professional associations from 41 different countries (including the Appraisal Institute, the RICSand the Appraisal Institute of Canada). IVSC have published the International Valuation Standards (IVS), now in their 8th edition.
Germany, real estate appraisal is known as real estate valuation ("Immobilienbewertung"). Real estate appraisers ("Immobilienbewerter" or "Gutachter") can qualify to become a "Öffentlich bestellter und vereidigter Sachverständiger" (officially appointed and sworn expert). However, this formerly very important title has lost a lot of its importance over the past years, but still is of some value in court procedures. The title is not generally required for appraisals.
The real estate appraisal practice in Germany is partly codified by law. The federal
Baugesetzbuch(abbr. BauGB, "German statutory code on building and construction'") contains guidelines on governing authorities, defines the term market value and refers to continuative rules (chapter 3, articles 192 ff.). Each municipality (city or administrative district) has to form a "Gutachterausschuss" (appraisal committee), consisting of a chairman and honorary members [ [http://bundesrecht.juris.de/bbaug/__192.html Article 192 BauGB] ] . The committee gathers information on all real estate deals (it is mandatory to send a copy of each notarial purchase contract to the "Gutachterausschuss") and includes it in the "Kaufpreissammlung" (purchase price database). Most committees publish an official real estate market report every two years, in which besides other information on comparables the land value is determined. The committees also perform appraisals on behalf of public authorities.
The BauGB defines the "Verkehrswert" or "Marktwert" (market value, both terms with identical meaning) as follows: "The market value is determined by the price that can be realised at the date of valuation, in an arm's length transaction, with due regard to the legal situation and the effective characteristics, the nature and lay of the premises or any other subject of the valuation" [ [http://bundesrecht.juris.de/bbaug/__194.html Definition of market value in German] ] (non-official translation). The intention, as in other countries, is to include all objective influences and to exclude all influences resulting from the subjective circumstances of the involved parties.
This federal law is supported by the "Wertermittlungsverordnung" (abbr. WertV, "regulation on the determination of value") [ [http://www.lgnapp.niedersachsen.de/vkv/allgemein/gesetze/b3200171.htm German text of the WertV] ] . The WertV defines the codified valuation approaches and the general valuation technique. German codified valuation approaches (other apporaches such as DCF or residual approach are also permitted, but not codified) are the:
*"Vergleichswertverfahren" (sales comparison approach) - used where good evidence of previous sales is available and for owner-occupied assets, especially condominiums and single-family houses;
*"Ertragswertverfahren" (German income approach) - standard procedure for property that produces future cash flows from the letting of the property;
*"Sachwertverfahren" (German cost approach) - used for specialised property where none of the above approaches applies, e. g. public buildings.
WertV's general regulations are further supported by the "Wertermittlungsrichtlinie" (abbr. WertR, "directive on the determination of value") [ [http://www.lgnapp.niedersachsen.de/vkv/allgemein/gesetze/b3200010.htm German text of the WertR] ] . The WertR provides templates for calculations, tables (e. g. economic depreciation) and guidelines for the consideration of different influences. WertV and WertR are not binding for appraisals for nonofficial use, nonetheless they should be regarded as
best practiceor Generally Accepted (German) Valuation Practice (GAVP).
Comments on German GAVP
In most regards Generally Accepted (German) Valuation Principles is consistent with international practice. The investment market weighs the income approach most heavily. However, there are some important differences:
*Land and improvements are treated separately. German GAVP assumes that the land can be used indefinitely, but the buildings have a limited lifespan; This coincides with the balancing of the assets. The value of the land is determined by the sales comparison approach in both the income and cost approaches, using the data accumulated by the "Gutachterausschuss" which is then added to the building value.
*In order to account for the usage of the land, the
net operating incomeis reduced by the "Liegenschaftszins" (interest paid to the land-owner by the owner of the building, i.e. ground rent). The "Liegenschaftszins" is the product of the land value and the "Liegenschaftszinssatz" (interest rate for land-use). The "Liegenschaftszinssatz" is the equivalent of the yield - with some important differences - and is also determined by the "Gutachterausschuss".
*Unlike the All Risks Yield (ARY) in UK practice, the "Liegenschaftszinssatz" (abbr. LZ) does not include an allowance for default (not to be confused with structural vacancy), therefore this needs to be subtracted from
gross operating income. As a result, the "Liegenschaftszinssatz" will usually be lower than the All Risks Yield.
*Based on the assumption that the economic life of the improvements is limited, the yield and remaining economic life determine the building value from the net operating income.
*It should also be observed that contracts in Germany generally prescribe that the landlord bears a higher portion of maintenance and operating costs than their counterparts in the US and UK.
Mathematically the distinction between land and improvements in the income approach will have no impact on the overall value when the remaining economic life is more than thirty years. For this reason it has become quite common to use the "Vereinfachtes Ertragswertverfahren" (simplified income approach), omitting the land value and the "Liegenschaftszins". However, the separate treatment of land and buildings leads to more precise results for older buildings, especially for commercial buildings, which typically have a shorter economic life than residential buildings.
An advantage of the comparatively high degree of standardization practiced by professional appraisers, is the greater ability to check an appraisal for inconsistency, accuracy and transparency.
The Federal German Organisation of Appointed and Sworn Experts ("Bundesverband Deutscher Sachverständiger und Fachgutachter", abbr. BDSF) [ [http://www.bdsf.de/ German Homepage of the BDSF] ] is the main professional organisation encompassing the majority of licensed appraisers in Germany. In recent years, with the move towards a more global outlook in the valuation profession, the
RICShas gained a foothold in Germany, somewhat at the expense of the BDSF.
With special focus on hypothecary value, in 1996, German banks with real estate financing activities formed the "HypZert GmbH" [ [http://www.hypzert.de/ German page of HypZert GmbH] ] , an association for the certification of real estate valuers. A "HypZert" qualification is regarded as mandatory for their appraisers by many German banks.
Israel, the real estate appraisal profession is regulated by the Council of Land Valuers, an organ of the Ministry of Justice; the largest professional organisation, encompassing the majority of appraisers/land valuers is the Association of Land Valuers. Valuers must be registered with the Council, which is a statutory body set up by law, and which oversees the training and administers the national professional exams that are a prerequisite for attaining registration. In 2005 the Council set up a Valuation Standards Committee with the purpose of developing and promulgating Standards that would reflect best practice; these have tended to follow a rules-based approach.
Historically, most valuations in Israel were statutory valuations (such as valuations performed for purposes of Betterment Tax - a tax administered on any gains accruing to the property by way of changes to the local planning) as well as valuations performed for purposes of bank lending. This is now changing: since the adoption in Israel of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) (were adopted in 2006; will fully come into effect in 2008), the profession has been additionally engaged in performing valuations for purposes of financial reporting.
Japanese Association of Real Estate Appraisal, established in 1965, is the only certified association and is regulated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transportation and Tourism.
In the UK, real estate appraisal is known as "property valuation" and a real estate appraiser is a "land valuer" or "property valuer" (usually a qualified
chartered surveyorwho specialises in property valuation). Property valuation in the UK is regulated by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors(RICS), a professional body encompassing all of the building and property-related professions. The RICS professional guidelines for valuers are published in the "RICS Appraisal and Valuation Standards", commonly known as the "Red Book". While based in the UK, RICS is a global organization and has become very active in the US in recent years through its affiliation with the Counselors of Real Estate, a division of the National Association of Realtors.
Appraisal practice in the US is regulated by the various states. The Financial Institutions Reform and Recovery and Enforcement Act (FIRREA) of
1989demanded all the states to develop systems for licensing and certifying real estate appraisers. [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CE4D6133EF93AA2575BC0A966958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all Penny Singer, "Reappraising the Appraisal Industry", "New York Times", Aug 19, 1990] Retrieved 14 Feb 2008] To accomplish this, the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) was formed, with representatives from the various Federal mortgage regulatory agencies. [ [http://www.appraisalfoundation.org The Appraisal Foundation] ] Thus, currently all the real estateappraisers must be state-licensed and certified. But prior to the 1990s, there were no commonly accepted standards either for appraisal quality or for appraiser licensure. In the 1980s, an ad-hoc committee representing various appraisal professional organizations in the U.S. and Canada met to codify the best practices into what became known as the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP). The Savings and Loan Crisisin the U.S. resulted in increased Federal regulation of the mortgage lending process via the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1991. A portion of this act required federal lending regulators to adopt appraisal standards. A not-for-profit organization, the Appraisal Foundation(TAF), was formed by the same organizations which had developed USPAP, and the copyright for USPAP was signed over to TAF. Federal oversight of TAF is provided by the Appraisal Subcommittee, made up of representatives of various Federal lending regulators. TAF carries out its work through two boards: the Appraisal Standards Board promulgates and updates USPAP; the Appraisal Qualifications Board (AQB) promulgates minimum recommended standards for appraiser certification and licensure. During the 1990s, all of the states adopted USPAP as the governing standards within their states and developed licensure standards which met or exceeded the recommendations of TAF. Also, the various state and federal courts have adopted USPAP for real estate litigation and all of the federally lending regulators adopt USPAP for mortgage finance appraisal. [ [http://www.appraisalfoundation.org The Appraisal Foundation] ]
In addition, there are professional appraisal organizations, organized as private not-for-profits, which date to the
Great Depressionof the 1930s. One of the oldest in the U.S. is the American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers (ASFMRA), founded in 1929. [ [http://www.asfmra.org/ American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers Homepage (ASFMRA) ] ] Others were founded as needed and opportunity arose in specialized fields, such as the Appraisal Institute (AI) and the American Society of Appraisers (ASA) founded in the 1930s, the International Right of Way Association and the National Association of Realtors which were founded after World War II. These organizations all existed to establish and enforce standards, but their influence has waned as the government increases appraisal regulation. In March 2007, three of these organizations (ASFMRA, ASA, and AI) announced an agreement in principle to merge. NAIFA (National Association of Independent Fee Appraisers), a charter member of The Appraisal Foundation, helped to write Title XI, the Real Estate Appraisal Reform Amendments. It was founded in 1961.
The best known professional organization of real estate appraisers in America is the
Appraisal Institute. It was formed in from the merger of the American Institute of Real Estate Appraisers and the Society of Real Estate Appraisers. Founded along with others in the 1930s, the two organizations merged in the 1990s to form the Appraisal Institute(AI). This group awards two professional designations: "SRA", to residential appraisers, and "MAI", to commercial appraisers. The Institute has enacted rigorous regulations regarding to the use and display of these designations. For example, contrary to popular belief, "MAI" does "not" stand for "Member, Appraisal Institute". According to the institute, the letters "do not represent specific words", and an MAI may not use the words "Member, Appraisal Institute" in lieu of the MAI mark. The primary motive for this rule is to prevent dilution of the trademark.
Other leading appraisal organizations include the
American Society of Appraisers, National Association of Independent Fee Appraisers, and the National Association of Master Appraisers, which were also founding sponsor-members of the Appraisal Foundation. [ [http://commerce.appraisalfoundation.org/html/2006%20USPAP/toc.htm 2006 "USPAP Online"] , Appraisal Foundation] The Massachusetts Board of Real Estate Appraisers(MBREA), founded in 1934, is the only state appraisal association that has been named a sponsor of the Appraisal Foundation. [ [http://www.mbrea.org Massachusetts Board of Real Estate Appraisers (MBREA)] ] In recent years, the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) has become highly regarded in the US, and has formed a collaboration with the Counselors of Real Estate, a division of the National Association of Realtors. RICS, which is headquartered in London, operates on a global scale and awards the designations "MRICS" and "FRICS" to Members and Fellows of RICS. The Real Estate Counseling Group of Americais a small group of the top appraisers and real estate analysts in the US who collectively have authored a disproportionately large body of appraisal methodology.
Auditing Standards Board
List of real estate topics
Verification and Validation
*Baum, A. and Mackmin, D. (1995) "The Income Approach to Property Valuation " (3rd Edition). Routledge, London
*Brown, G.R. and Matysiak, G.A. (1999) "Real Estate Investment: A Capital Market Approach". Financial Times, London
*Isaac, D. (2002) "Property Valuation Principles", Palgrave, London
*Kane, S., Linne, M. and Johnson, J. (2004) "Practical Applications in Appraisal Valuation Modeling". Appraisal Institute, Chicago
*Rees, W.H. and Hayward, R.E.H. (ed.) (2000) "Valuation: Principles into Practice" (5th edition). Estates Gazette, London
*Simons, Robert (2007) "When Bad Things Happen to Good Property" Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC
*The Appraisal Foundation, "Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice". Updated and published annually through the 2006 edition; henceforth, updated editions are to appear biannually.
*The Appraisal Institute, "The Appraisal of Real Estate" (12th Edition). An industry-recognized textbook.
* [http://www.aicanada.ca AIC] , Appraisal Institute of Canada
* [http://www.appraisers.org American Society of Appraisers]
* [http://www.appraisalinstitute.org Appraisal Institute]
* [http://www.appraisalfoundation.org Appraisal Foundation]
* [http://www.e-gayrimenkuldegerleme.com Turkey Society of Appraisers]
* [http://www.asc.gov Appraisal Subcommittee, Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council]
* [http://www.ivsc.org/ IVSC] , the International Valuation Standards Committee
* [http://www.fudousan-kanteishi.or.jp/english/ Japanese Association of Real Estate Appraisal]
* [http://www.rics.org/default.htm RICS] , the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors website
* [http://www.tegova.org/en/ TEGoVA] , The European Group of Valuers' Associations
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