- Houtman Abrolhos
The Houtman Abrolhos (often informally called the Abrolhos Islands) is a chain of 122 islands, and associated
coral reefs, in the Indian Oceanoff the west coast of Australia. Nominally located at coord|28|43|S|113|47|E|scale:1000_region:AU_type:isle|display=inline,titleGazetteer of Australia | name = Houtman Abrolhos | id = 270693] , it lies about eighty kilometres (50 mi) west of Geraldton, Western Australia.cite web | url = http://www.ga.gov.au/bin/distancedraw2?rec1=270693&placename=Houtman+Abrolhos&place1=GERALDTON&place1long=114.614441&place1lat=-28.779169 | title = Great Circle Distance between GERALDTON and HOUTMAN ABROLHOS | work = As the Cocky Flies | publisher = Geoscience Australia, Australian Government | accessdate = 2007-11-15] It is the southernmost true coral reef in the Indian Ocean, and one of the highest latitude reef systems in the world. It is one of the world's most important seabirdbreeding sites, and is the centre of Western Australia's largest single species fishery, the Western Rock Lobsterfishery. It is also well known as the site of numerous shipwrecks, the most famous being the Dutch ships "Batavia", which was wrecked in 1629, and " Zeewijk", wrecked in 1727.
The Houtman Abrolhos is made up of three island groups, the
Wallabi Group, Easter Groupand Pelsaert Group.
The most northerly group, the Wallabi Group, consists of an island clump about 17 kilometres (10 mi) by 10 kilometres (6 mi), and also takes in the outlying North Island, located 14 kilometres to the northwest. The main islands of the Wallabi Group are North Island,
West Wallabi Island, East Wallabi Islandand Beacon Island.cite web | title = Houtman Abrolhos | work = oceandots.com | url = http://www.oceandots.com/indian/houtman/ | accessdate = 2007-10-13] The group is best known for the shipwreck of the "Batavia" on Morning Reefnear Beacon Island in 1629,Western Australian Shipwrecks Database | name = Batavia | id = 1316] and the subsequent mutinyand massacre that took place among the marooned survivors.cite book | first = Mike | last = Dash | year = 2002 | title = Batavia's Graveyard | location = Great Britain | publisher = Weidenfeld & Nicolson | isbn = 0-575-07024-2]
The Easter Group lies to the southeast of the Wallabi Group, from which it is separated by a 9 kilometres (5 mi) wide channel named
Middle Channel. It is about 20 kilometres by 12 kilometres, and consists of a number of islands including Rat Island, Wooded Island, Morley Island, Suomi Islandand Alexander Island.
Further to the southeast, across
Zeewijk Channel, lies the Pelsaert Group, the most southerly true coral reef in the Indian Ocean. The main islands of this group are Middle Island, Square Island, Long Island, Pelsaert Island, Basile Islandand the Mangrove Group. A great many ships have been wrecked in the Pelsaert Group, most notably the " Zeewijk", which was wrecked on the Half Moon Reefin 1727, the survivors staying on Gun Islandfor some time afterwards.cite book | first = Hugh | last = Edwards | authorlink = Hugh Edwards | year = 1970 | title = The Wreck on the Half Moon Reef | location = Australia | publisher = Angus & Robertson | isbn = 0-207-13275-5] Other wrecks include the "Ocean Queen", wrecked on the Half Moon Reef in 1842; the "Ben Ledi", wrecked off Pelsaert Island in 1879; and the "Windsor", wrecked on the Half Moon Reef in 1908.Australia 1:100000 Topographic Survey, Map sheet 1640 (Edition 1): Abrolhos Special]
Discovery and naming
According to the surviving historical record, the first sighting of the Houtman Abrolhos was by the Dutch VOC ships "Dordrecht" and "Amsterdam" in 1619, only three years after
Dirk Hartogmade the first authenticated sighting of what is now Western Australia, and only 13 years after the first authenticated voyage to Australia, that of the " Duyfken" in 1606. Discovery of the islands was credited to Frederick de Houtman, Captain-General of the "Dordrecht", as it was Houtman who later wrote of the discovery in a letter to the directors of the Dutch East India Company:
The word "abrolhos" is of Portuguese origin, making the Houtman Abrolhos one of only two Australian places with a Portuguese name, the other being Pedra Branca in
Tasmania.cite book | first = Kenneth | last = McIntyre | year = 1977 | title = The secret discovery of Australia | publisher = Souvenir Press | location = South Australia | isbn = 0-285-62303-6] The term is commonly reported to be a contraction of the Portuguese expression "abro olhos" ("open the eyes") or "abri vossos olhos" ("keep your eyes open"), but this has been shown to be a false etymology. In the Portuguese language of the time, "abrolhos" meant "spiked obstructions", and served not only as a word for offshore reefs, but also as their word for caltrops and chevaux de frise. To Spanish ears, however, the word sounded like "abre ojos" ("open your eyes"), so they imputed this meaning, and this false etymology was later borrowed by English, Dutch and French writers.cite journal | first = John | last = Forsyth | year = 1957 | title = Visit of the yacht Grootenbroeck to the coast of the South-land in 1631 | journal = Early Days| volume = V | issue = III | pages = 17–26]
Another explanation has been proferred by Philippe Godard. He reports, without citation, that some authors have claimed that the word "abrolhos" comes from a 15th century Portuguese nobleman named Frederico de Abrolhos. Godard notes, however, that there is no trace of such a person in
Lusitanian archives, and that "Abrolhos" is not known as a family name in Portugal, making this an unconvincing explanation.cite book | first = Philippe | last = Godard | year = 1993 | title = The first and last voyage of the Batavia | locatio = Perth | publisher = Abrolhos Publishing | isbn = 0646105191]
Why Houtman named the islands using a Portuguese word remains a subject of debate. John Forsyth states that the islands are named after the
Abrolhos Archipelagooff the east coast of Brazil, which was discovered and named by Portuguese navigators early in the 16th century. This position is supported by the fact that Houtman was familiar with the Abrolhos Archipelago, having sailed through it in 1598. Others assert that "abrolhos" was a Portuguese lookout's cry which, like many other Portuguese maritime terms, was taken up by sailors of other nationalities,cite book | last = Richardson | first = W. A. R. | journal = The Globe | issue = 19 | issn=0311 3930 | title = Is Jave La Grande Australia? The Linguistic Evidence concerning the West Coast | pages = 12-13] becoming by Houtman's time a Dutch loan wordfor offshore reefs.e.g. cite book | first = Mike | last = Dash | year = 2002 | title = Batavia's Graveyard | location = London | publisher = Weidenfeld & Nicolson | isbn = 0-575-07024-2] Finally, it has been argued by proponents of the theory of Portuguese discovery of Australiathat the Portuguese name is evidence that the islands were charted by Portuguese navigators in the 16th century. Kenneth McIntyre, for example, claimed that Houtman was in possession of Portuguese maps of the west coast of Australia, and that he named the islands "abrolhos" in accordance with the name on his map. Charting of the islands was previously credited to Jorge de Menezes, but the notion that Menezes visited Australia is now thoroughly discredited, and no other candidate has been proffered.Fact|date=February 2008
The primary piece of evidence for the claim of Portuguese priority is the 16th century
Dieppe maps, some of which are said to show the west coast of Australia, including an island at the position of the Houtman Abrolhos. This island is unlabelled on most of the Dieppe maps, but on Pierre Desceliers' 1550 map, it is labelled "Arenes". In 1895, George Collingridgesuggested that "Arenes" was a corruption of "Abrolhos",cite book | first = George | last = Collingridge | title = Discovery of Australia | year = 1895 | edition = [http://www.gutenberg.net.au/ebooks06/0605401h.html Project Gutenberg of Australia edition] | publisher = Hayes Brothers | location= Sydney] but this was mocked by Heeres in 1898,cite book | first = J. E. | last = Heeres | year = 1898 | title = Abel Janszoon Tasman's Journal | publisher = Frederik Muller and Co | location = Amsterdam | edition = [http://www.gutenberg.net.au/ebooks06/0600571h.html Project Gutenberg of Australia edition] and according to J. S. Battye"this suggestion can scarcely be regarded seriously. It certainly does not in any way add to the merit of the Portuguese claim".cite book | first = James Sykes | last = Battye | year = 1924 | title = Western Australia: A history from its discovery to the inauguration of the Commonwealth | publisher = Oxford at the Clarendon Press | edition = [http://www.gutenberg.net.au/ebooks05/0500301h.html Project Gutenberg of Australia edition]
Setting aside the Portuguese claims, the Houtman Abrolhos first appears on a published map in 1622, on a little-known
portolanby Hessel Gerritsz. They are unlabelled, however, being marked merely as a group of small circles. They are first named in print in Gerritsz' 1627 map " Caert van't Landt van d'Eendracht", where they bear the label "Fr. Houtman's abrolhos". On a map produced by him the following year, they are labelled "Houtman's Abrolhos".cite book | first = Henrietta | last = Drake-Brockman | authorlink = Henrietta Drake-Brockman | title = Voyage to disaster | edition = 2nd edition | publisher = University of Western Australia Press | isbn = 1-920694-72-2]
On British Admiralty charts, the islands are labelled "Houtman's Rocks".Fact|date=January 2008
Wreck of the "Batavia"
In 1629 and 1630 some of the islands were the scene of a spectacular shipwreck and mutiny. The Dutch ship "Batavia" under the command of
Francisco Pelsaertran aground and Pelsaert and some men went in an open boat to the town of Batavia (now Jakarta) in order to get help. A group of the men who stayed on some of the islets decided to terrorise and massacre many others, including women. When Pelsaert came back many culprits were executed.
Wreck of the "Zeewijk"
Zeewijk" was the last of the four Dutch East Indiamen to be wrecked on the west coast of Australia. The Ship's Council having made the inexplicable decision to disregard sailing orders and actually seek out the west coast of Australia, the ship ran onto the Half Moon Reef at about 7:30pm on 9 June 1727. It did not break up immediately, and the heavy swell made evacuation impossible until 18 June. The longboatwas launched on that day, and the crew and stores were thereafter gradually transferred to nearby Gun Island. Later, the men landed ten chests of money, containing 315,836 guilders and weighing a total of three tons.cite book | first = Hugh | last = Edwards | authorlink = Hugh Edwards | year = 1970 | title = The wreck on the Half Moon Reef | location = Adelaide | publisher = Rigby | isbn = 0-851-79108-5]
The crew of the "Zeewijk" would be marooned in the Pelsaert Group for ten months, during which time they lived off seals, seabirds, eggs, and victuals salvaged from the wreck. They obtained some water from rainfall, but were forced to explore throughout the group in search of further supplies. A great many men died on the islands, including two boys who were accused of
sodomyand marooned on separate islands of the Mangrove Group.
On 10 July the longboat, fitted for a voyage and crewed with eleven men, was sent to
Bataviato obtain help. It never arrived there, and nothing is known of its fate. Four months later the castaways began building a convert|60|ft|m|sing=on boat, sufficient to carry all the men and the money chests. Completed in March 1728 and affectionately named the " Sloepie" ("little sloop"), it was the first ocean-going vessel built in Australian history. On 26 March 1728, the surviving men set sail for Batavia, arriving in Sunda Straitlate the following month.
During admiralty surveys of the north west coast in 1840, crew from HMS "Beagle" discovered a brass gun of about three pounds calibre, an iron swivel on which paint still adhered as well as numerous other artefacts signifying European occupation, on the largest island in the Pelsart Group. The commander,
John Clements Wickham, named the place Gun Islandand the passage between the Easter and Pelsart Groups, Zeewijk Channel. [kimberly 1897 p. 15] Later during the 19th century many islets were used by men collecting guano.
Tenure, governance and management
The Houtman Abrolhos is Australian territory. There is no dispute about this, although it has been suggested that Australia claims the island chain under the
UNCLOSby extending their continental baseline to encompass it, a breach of Article 7 of the Convention.
The islands are a part of Western Australia. They are part of the
Electoral district of Geraldton, and the Shire of Northampton.
Management is vested in the
Department of Fisheries.
Some of the islands are considered to be remnants of the mainland isolated by rising sea level during the last 8,000 to 10,000 years. Others were more recently formed from
The Houtman Abrolhos lays in the
Indian Oceanabout 60 kilometres (40 mi) off the coast of Western Australia, near the edge of Australia's continental shelf. At less than 50 metres (160 ft) deep, the shelf is quite shallow. It is also fairly level, the depth increasing to the west at a modest gradient of about 1.3 metres per kilometre (7 ft/mi). About five kilometres (3 mi) to the east of the Houtman Abrolhos lies the shelf break, beyond which the seabed falls away much more steeply, averaging around 50 metres per kilometre (260 ft/mi).cite book | first = A. F. | last = Pearce | year = 1997 | chapter = The Leeuwin Current and the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia | editor = Wells, F. E. | title = The Marine Flora and Fauna of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, Volume 1 | pages = 11–46 | publisher = Western Australian Museum | location = Perth]
The islands of each island group arise from a single
carbonate platform, so the waters within an island group are mostly shallow. The channels between groups, however, are 40 to 50 metres deep, and therefore no impediment to the exchange of offshore and inshore waters.
The Houtman Abrolhos lies almost directly in the path of the
Leeuwin Current, which draws warm, low-saline water of tropicalorigin southwards along the coast of Western Australia. This current flows all year round, but is strongest during southern hemispherewinter months. In general the Leeuwin Current runs along the shelf break, and thus passes close by the western edge of the Abrolhos. It meanders, however, sometimes passing well out to sea, and sometimes passing directly through the island chain, bathing it in warm tropical water; Although the direction of the Leeuwin Current is predominantly southerly, Shark Bayand the Houtman Abrolhos together act as a topographical trigger for the forming of eddies,cite journal | first = A. M. | last = Waite | year = 2007 | title = The Leeuwin Current and its eddies: An introductory overview | journal = Deep Sea Research II | volume = 54 | pages = 789–796 | doi = 10.1016/j.dsr2.2006.12.008] so the Abrolhos can experience currents from any direction, even when the Leeuwin Current is flowing strongly.
Unlike most other major ocean currents, there is no large-scale
coastal upwellingassociated with the Leeuwin Current. There is limited evidence for some sporadic, localised upwelling in the vicinity of the Abrolhos, but if so it appears to have little effect on the extremely low levels of nutrients in the water.
Temperature and salinity
Sea temperature at the islands varies according to a diurnal cycle, with the water at its coldest between six and eight in the morning, and at its warmest between three and four in the afternoon. In summer the daily temperature range is around 1°C (2°F); in winter it is about half that.
There is also an annual cycle, with sea temperature varying by a little less than 4°C (7°F) over the year, peaking at nearly 24°C (75°F) in March, and falling to around 20°C (68°F) in September. This variability is much less than in nearby coastal waters, which reaches a similar peak in summer but drops as low as 18°C (64°F) in winter. The relatively low variability in sea temperatures at the Abrolhos is largely attributable to the Leeuwin Current, which bathes the islands in warm tropical water during winter months.
A similar annual pattern occurs in
salinity. There is a clear seasonal variation, with values ranging from a summer high of around 35.7 ppt, to a winter low of around 35.4 ppt. As with water temperatures, the variability in salinity is much smaller than in coastal waters, where summer salinity reaches 36.4 ppt. This difference is partly due to the low-salinity waters of the Leeuwin Current, but there are a number of other factors involved, including high evaporation of coastal waters in summer.
Temperatures can also vary substantially from year to year. Annual mean temperatures vary by as much as 1°C (2°F); with cooler years usually cooler throughout the year. There is evidence that annual mean temperatures are related to
El Niño-Southern Oscillationevents.
water columnis generally well-mixed, with no evidence of a significant haloclineor thermocline. Mean differences in water temperature between sea surface and sea bed range from only half a degree (Celsius; 1°F) in summer to almost zero in winter, and differences in salinity are very small even when the Leeuwin Current is at its strongest.
As with the rest of southwestern Australia,
tides at the Houtman Abrolhos are small and irregular. There is little tidal data available for the islands, but what there is accords very closely with the data for Geraldton. Geraldton tides follow a diurnal pattern, with maximum tidal ranges of around 1 metre (3 ft).
Mean sea levels at Geraldton show seasonal fluctuations, being higher in winter when the Leeuwin Current is at its peak. There are also variations from year to year, which are strongly associated with the
El Niño-Southern Oscillation(ENSO) cycle. Apparently, ENSO events induce a weaker Leeuwin Current, which results in lower sea levels.
There is no published information on wave heights in the Abrolhos. In the open ocean, waves are typically a little over two metres high all year round. Nearer the mainland, they are usually less than 1.2 metres, with a calmer period in March and April, and another in October and November.
As of 2007, the Australian
Bureau of Meteorologyhas not published climatic data for the Houtman Abrolhos. However, an automatic weather stationhas been installed on North Island since 1990, and hourly measures of precipitation, air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidityand atmospheric pressurehave been publicly available since then. Based on this and other data, researchers have put together a picture of the Abrolhos' climate.
The islands have a
Mediterranean climate, with warm dry summers and cooler, wet winters. Mean temperatures range from 9.3°C to 19.5°C in July, and from 19.1°C to 32.4°C in February. These temperatures have a substantially smaller range than on the mainland: the summer temperature is typically a degree cooler, while winter temperatures are a good deal warmer. This is due to the influence of the ocean, and to the Leeuwin Current.
86% of the rain falls between April and September; on average there are 89 raindays, resulting in 469 millimetres of rain. The wettest month is June, when over 100 millimetres typically falls. In contrast, only about 70 millimetres can be expected to fall between October and March.
It is nearly always windy. During summer a high pressure ridge lies to the south, causing persistent winds from the southeast or southwest, at speeds exceeding 17 knots almost half the time. During autumn and winter, the ridge moves northwards, increasing the atmospheric pressure over the islands, resulting in highly variable winds. Winter tends to produce both the strongest gales and the most frequent periods of calm.
In addition to these winds, there is daily pattern of land breezes in the morning, followed by the onset of south-westerly sea breezes in the afternoon. This pattern is caused by temperature differences between the land and the ocean, and is not as strong in the Houtman Abrolhos as on the mainland, but is present nonetheless.
Three classes of storm have been identified for the region. Brief squalls may occur between December and April. A
tropical cycloneoccurs in the area about once in three years, between January and April; these may generate extremely high wind speeds that are potentially destructive. During winter, extra-tropical cyclones sometimes pass south of Geraldton, generating winter gales with gusts of up to 35 metres per second, the wind direction from the northwest initially, then gradually moving around to southerly.
Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia(IBRA), the islands of the Houtman Abrolhos fall within the Geraldton Hillssubregion of the Geraldton Sandplainsregion.cite paper | author = Environment Australia| title = Revision of the Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia (IBRA) and Development of Version 5.1 - Summary Report | publisher = Department of the Environment and Water Resources, Australian Government | url = http://www.deh.gov.au/parks/nrs/ibra/version5-1/summary-report/index.html | accessdate = 2007-01-31] [http://www.deh.gov.au/parks/nrs/ibra/version6-1/index.html IBRA Version 6.1] data] The main biogeographic significance of the islands is their isolation, allowing them to provide refugiafor such threatened fauna as Tammar Wallabies ("Macropus eugenii"), Australian Sea Lions ("Neophoca cinerea") and rare breeding seabirds.cite book | first = Anthony | last = Desmond | coauthors = Alanna Chant | year = 2001 | chapter = Geraldton Sandplains 2 (GS2 — Geraldton Hills subregion) | chapterurl = http://www.naturebase.net/pdf/science/bio_audit/geraldton_sandplains02_p265-292.pdf | accessdate = 2008-03-02 | title = A Biodiversity Audit of WA | url = http://www.naturebase.net/content/view/960/1397/ | publisher = Department of Environment and Conservation | location = Western Australia]
In marine terms, the Houtman Abrolhos is located within the
Southwest Shelf Transition, an Integrated Marine and Coastal Regionalisation of Australia(IMCRA) biotonethat takes in the continental shelf from Perth to Geraldton. This province is defined as the area of shelf where tropical waters intergrade into temperate, thus supporting both tropical and temperate biota.cite paper | title = Interim Marine and Coastal Regionalisation for Australia: an ecosystem-based classification for marine and coastal environments | url = http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/mbp/publications/imcra/pubs/imcra3-3.pdf | accessdate = 2008-02-19 | author = IMCRA Technical Group | publisher = Environment Australia, Department of the Environment, Australian Government] IMCRA 4.0 data] In addition, this area contains the highest concentration of west coast endemics.cite book | first = Fred E. | last = Wells | year = 1997 | chapter = Introduction to the marine environment of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia | pages = 1–10 | editor = Wells, F. E. (ed.) | title = The marine flora and fauna of the Houtman Abrolhos islands, Western Australia, Volume 1 | publisher = Western Australian Museum]
Consistent with this, the Houtman Abrolhos contains a mix of tropical, temperate and west coast endemic fauna, resulting in unusual associations such as the occurrence of tropical corals in close association with temperate macro-algae. The proportions of tropical, temperate and west coast endemic biota vary from taxonomic group to group, but in general the biota is dominated by tropical species. This is attributable to the location of the Houtman Abrolhos at the northern limit of the Southwest Shelf Transition, together with the warming influence of the Leeuwin Current.
Under IMCRA, the Southwest Shelf Transition divides into two meso-scale bioregions. One is named "Abrolhos Islands", and covers the shelf waters surrounding the Houtman Abrolhos, with an area of 6,645 square kilometres. The other bioregion,
Central West Coast, covers the remaining area.
The flora of the Houtman Abrolhos islands is generally the same as the coastal flora of the adjacent mainland, with the exception of the islands' mangrove, saltbush and salt lake vegetation.cite journal | author = Harvey, J. M., Alford, J. J., Longman, V. M. and Keighery, G. J. | year = 2001 | title = A flora and vegetation survey of the Houtman Abrolhos, Western Australia | journal = CALMScience | volume = 3 | issue = 4 | pages = 521–623]
The vascular flora of the Houtman Abrolhos has been thoroughly surveyed, and species lists have been published for 119 islands. As of 2001, these lists totaled 239 species from 68 families. A further six species have been collected in the Houtman Abrolhos, but cannot be allocated to islands because insufficient location information was recorded. There have also been collections of
mosses, liverworts and lichens, but no information has been published on these non-vascular groups.
The islands with the greatest floristic diversity are East and West Wallabi Islands, with 124 and 97 species respectively. 54 species occur in all three island groups. The most widely distributed species are "
Nitraria billardierei" (Nitre Bush), which has been recorded on 106 islands; the exotic " Mesembryanthemum crystallinum" (Iceplant), on 88 islands; " Threlkeldia diffusa" (Coast Bonefruit), on 72 islands; and " Atriplex cinerea" (Grey Saltbush), on 70 islands. On the other hand, " Eucalyptus oraria" (Ooragmandee) and " Acacia didyma" occur only on East Wallabi Island.
As of 2001, 5 species of priority flora occurred on the islands. One, "
Acacia didyma", is no longer considered a priority species.FloraBase | name = "Acacia didyma" A.R.Chapman & Maslin | id = 13079] The remaining priority species are " Chthonocephalus tomentellus", which is rated Priority Two under the Department of Environment and Conservation's Declared Rare and Priority Flora List;FloraBase | name = "Chthonocephalus tomentellus" (F.Muell.) Benth. | id = 7934] " Calocephalus aervoides" and " Galium migrans", both Priority Three;FloraBase | name = "Calocephalus aervoides" (F.Muell.) Benth. | id = 7887] FloraBase | name = "Galium migrans" Ehrend. & McGill. | id = 322] and " Lepidium puberulum", Priority Four.FloraBase | name = "Lepidium puberulum" Bunge | id = 3043]
95 exotic species from 29 families have been recorded. In general, islands that have or had human settlements are the weediest. Of greatest concern is the noxious weed "
Lycium ferocissimum" (African Boxthorn), which has long spines that can trap birds. This weed was recorded on the islands as early as 1970. Efforts to eradicate it began in 1990,; there was a lull in eradication in the late 1990s, but the program was later reinstated, and in July 2007, the Department of Environment and Conservation reported that the species had been eradicated from 14 of the 18 islands on which it had been recorded.cite web | title = African boxthorn eradication close | work = NatureBase | publisher = Department of Environment and Conservation, Government of Western Australia | url = http://www.naturebase.net/content/view/2828/770/ | accessdate = 2008-01-01] Other noxious weeds include " Opuntia stricta" (Prickly Pear), " Verbesina encelioides" and " Echium plantagineum" (Paterson's Curse).
The vegetation is mostly chenopod shrubs.
The Houtman Abrolhos is home to around 100 species of bird; for a complete list, see
list of birds of the Houtman Abrolhos. Six species are land birds, and three are shore birds. The remainder, the vast majority, are seabirds. Most seabird species have a tropical distribution, but some occur in both tropical and warm-temperate seas, and a small number are warm-temperate only.cite journal | author = Storr, G. M., Johnstone, R. E. and Griffin, P. | year = 1986 | title = Birds of the Houtman Abholhos, Western Australia | journal = Records of the Western Australian Museum | issue = Supplement No. 24]
When numbers of individuals are taken into account, the tropical birds overwhelmingly dominate. The islands are one of the most important breeding sites for tropical seabirds in Australia. They contain by far the largest colonies of
Wedge-tailed Shearwaterin the eastern Indian Ocean, with over a million breeding pairs recorded there in 1994.cite journal | author = Fuller, P. J.; Burbidge, A. A.; Owens, R. | year = 1994 | title = Breeding seabirds of the Houtman Abrolhos, Western Australia | journal = Corella | volume = 18 | issue = 4 | pages = 97–113] They also contain Western Australia's only breeding colonies of the Lesser Noddy, and the largest colonies in Western Australia of the Little Shearwater, White-faced Storm Petrel, Common Noddy, Caspian Tern, Crested Tern, Roseate Ternand Fairy Tern. In addition, they contain important breeding areas for the Eastern Reef Heron, Pacific Gull, Bridled Tern, White-bellied Sea Eagleand Osprey.
There are two subspecies of bird endemic to the islands. The
Abrolhos Painted Button-quailoccurs only on five islands in the Wallabi Group, and is protected as rare under the " Wildlife Conservation Act 1950". Also gazetted as rare, the Australasian subspecies of the Lesser Noddy, "Anous tenuirostris melanops", breeds only on Wooded Island, Morley Islandand Pelsaert Island.
Only two species of land mammal are indigenous to the Houtman Abrolhos, the
Tammar Wallaby("Macropus eugenii") and the Bush Rat("Rattus fuscipes"). Both are native only to West and East Wallabi Islands,cite journal | author = Abbott, I. and Burbidge, A. A. | year = 1995 | title = The occurrence of mammal species on the islands of Australia: A summary of existing knowledge | journal = CALMScience | volume = 1 | issue = 3 | pages = 259–324] although "R. fuscipes" has not been collected on East Wallabi Island since August 1967, and is probably extinct there.cite journal | author = Cooper, N.K.; How, R.A.; Desmond, A. | year = 2006 | title = Probable local extinction of the Bush Rat, "Rattus fuscipes", on East Wallabi Island in the Houtman Abrolhos | journal = Western Australian Naturalist| volume = 25 | issue = 2 | pages = 61–71] The Tammar Wallabi was seen on West Wallabi Island by survivors of the 1628 "Batavia" shipwreck, and recorded by Francisco Pelsartin his 1629 "Ongeluckige Voyagie". This represents the first recorded sighting of a macropodby Europeans,cite paper | first = Michael | last = Pearson | year = 2005 | title = Great Southern Land: The maritime exploration of Terra Australis | publisher = Department of the Environment and Heritage, Government of Australia | url = http://www.environment.gov.au/heritage/publications/pubs/great-southern-land.pdf | accessdate = 2007-12-21 | isbn = 0642551855] and probably also the first sighting of an Australian mammal.cite journal | first = Glen | last = Storr | year = 1965 | title = The physiography, vegetation and vertebrate fauna of the Wallabi Group, Houtman Abrolhos | journal = Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia | volume = 48 | issue = 1 | pages = 1–14] Tammar Wallabies were introduced to North Island from East Wallabi Island by fishermen, probably in the 1950s, but failed to establish. In 1987 they were reintroduced again, this time successfully. By the 2000s, there were over 400 wallabies on the island, resulting in overgrazing of native vegetation and increased erosion. Research into the effectiveness of controlling population levels by the use of implanted contraceptives was begun in 2005,cite web | title = 'Pill' plan for growing wallaby population | url = http://www.abc.net.au/news/items/200506/1393522.htm | publisher = ABC News Online | accessdate = 2007-12-21] but in July 2007 the research was discontinued and the population culled instead.cite paper | title = Science Division annual research activity report 2006 – 2007 | chapter = Management of overabundant marsupials – North Island tammar wallaby case study | pages = 83–84 | publisher = Department of Environment and Conservation, Government of Western Australia | url = http://www.naturebase.net/images/stories/nature/science/plans/research-activity-2006-2007.pdf | accessdate = 2007-12-21]
Two introduced mammals are established on the islands. The
Domestic Cat("Felis silvestris catus") was introduced to Rat Island around 1900, and the House Mouse("Mus musculus") was introduced onto North Island in the 1970s, presumably with food. In 1995 the House Mouse was reported as also present on Rat Island for many years before 1987, but a recent report makes no mention of this.cite paper | author = Burbidge, A. A. | year = 2004 | title = Introduced mammals on Western Australian islands: Improving Australia's ability to protect its island habitats from feral animals | edition = Final report for the Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage | publisher = Department of Conservation and Land Management, Government of Western Australia | url = http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/publications/wa-islands/index.html | accessdate = 2007-12-21] In addition, three introduced mammals were previously established in the Houtman Abrolhos, but have since been eradicated. The Black Rat("Rattus rattus") was established on Pigeon and Rat Islands, but has been eradicated by poisoning. The European Rabbit("Oryctolagus cuniculus") has been introduced at various times onto Leo Island, Middle Island, Morley Island, Pelsaert Island and Wooded Island. In the case of Pelsaert Island, it is not clear whether it ever established; in all other cases, established populations have been eradicated by poisoning. The Domestic Goat("Capra aegagrus hircus") is also reported to have been present on East Wallabi Island, but is no longer.
23 terrestrial reptile species are known to occur on the islands of the Houtman Abrolhos.cite journal | author = How, R. A., Pearson, D. J., Desmond, A. and Maryan, B. | year = 2004 | title = Reappraisal of the reptiles on the islands of the Houtman Abrolhos, Western Australia | journal =
The Western Australian Naturalist| volume = 24 | isue = 3 | pages = 172–178] This relatively low biodiversity is apparently due to the homogeneity of habitat on the islands, which provide few distinct ecological niches.cite journal | author = Kitchener, D. J. and How, R. A. | year = 1982 | title = Lizard species in small mainland habitat isolates and islands off south-western Western Australia | journal = Australian Wildlife Research| volume = 9 | pages = 357–363 | doi = 10.1071/WR9820357] The most significant terrestrial reptile species are the Spiny-tailed Skink (" Egernia stokesii stokesii") and the Carpet Python (" Morelia spilota imbricata"), both of which are listed as rare and therefore afforded special protection under the " Wildlife Conservation Act 1950"; and the Abrolhos Dwarf Bearded Dragon (" Pogona minor minima"), a Houtman Abrolhos endemic that is listed as a Priority 4 species by the Department of Environment and Conservation. For a full list of species, see list of reptiles of the Houtman Abrolhos.
Specimens of the Pobblebonk ("
Limnodynastes dorsalis") and the Turtle Frog (" Myobatrachus gouldii") were collected from the Houtman Abrolhos during the Percy Sladen Trust Expedition of 1913 and 1915, but no amphibians have been recorded on the islands since that time.
260 species of
benthic algaehave been recorded at the Houtman Abrolhos. This figure comprises 178 species of red algae(Rhodophyta), 50 species of brown algae(Phaeophyta) and 32 species of green algae(Chlorophyta). Both temperate and tropical species are present, in many cases near the northern or southern extent of their range.cite book | author = Huisman, John M. | year = 1997 | chapter = Marine benthic algae of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia | pages = 177–237 | editor = Wells, F. E. | title = The marine flora and fauna of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia: Volume 1 | publisher = Western Australian Museum | isbn = 0-7309-8553-9] For a full list, see list of algae of the Houtman Abrolhos.
Only ten species of seagrass have been recorded at the Houtman Abrolhos. Seven of these are temperate species at or near the northern limit of their range; the other three have a tropical distribution. That there are so few tropical species may be due to periods of low sea temperatures, or the small areas of suitable habitat at the Abrolhos; alternatively it may be that more collecting effort is needed in habitats that suit tropical species. The seagrass species recorded at the Houtman Abrolhos islands are:cite book | author = Brearley, Anne | year = 1997 | chapter = Seagrasses and isopod borers from the Wallabi Islands, Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia | pages = 63–73 | editor = Wells, F. E. | title = The marine flora and fauna of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia: Volume 1 | publisher = Western Australian Museum | isbn = 0-7309-8553-9]
At last count, a total of 389 species of fish have been recorded from the Houtman Abrolhos. 16 species occur in very large numbers; in decreasing order of abundance, these are:cite book | author = Hutchins, J. Barry | year = 1997 | chapter = Checklist of fishes of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia | title = The Marine Flora and Fauna of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, Volume 1 | editor = Wells, F. E. | publisher = Western Australian Museum | pages = 239-253]
Pomacentrus milleri" (Miller's Damsel)
Scarus schlegeli" (Schlegel's Parrotfish)
Stethojulis strigiventer" (Stripebelly Wrasse)
Coris auricularis" (Western King Wrasse)
Kyphosus cornelii" (Western Buffalo Bream)
Choerodon rubescens" (Baldchin Groper)
Chromis westaustralis" (West Australian Puller)
Thalassoma lutescens" (Green Moon Wrasse)
Scarus ghobban" (Blue-barred Orange Parrotfish)
Abudefduf sexfasciatus" (Scissortail Sergeant)
Thalassoma lunare" (Moon Wrasse)
Stegastes obreptus" (Western Gregory)
Halichoeres brownfieldi" (Brownfield's Wrasse)
Amblygobius phalaena" (White-barred Goby)
Asterropteryx semipunctatus" (Starry Goby)
Anampses geographicus" (Scribbled Wrasse)Commercially important species include " Pagrus auratus" (Pink Snapper), "Choerodon rubescens" (Baldchin Groper), " Glaucosoma hebraicum" (Westralian Dhufish) and " Plectropomus leopardus" (Coral Trout). For a complete list of fish species recorded at the Houtman Abrolhos, see list of fishes of the Houtman Abrolhos.
About two thirds of the total number of species are tropical in distribution, the remainder being subtropical or warm-temperate. This ratio also holds for the most abundant species, eleven of the sixteen species being tropical. On the other hand, over 70% of tropical species occur in extremely low numbers, so low in fact that they are thought not to maintain breeding populations at the Abrolhos; rather, populations are maintained by
larvaecarried to the islands by the Leeuwin Current from populations further north.cite book | author = Hutchins, J. Barry | year = 1997 | chapter = Recruitment of tropical reef fishes in the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia | title = The Marine Flora and Fauna of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, Volume 1 | editor = Wells, F. E. | publisher = Western Australian Museum | pages = 83-87]
The Houtman Abrolhos maintains a breeding population of
Australian Sea Lions ("Neophoca cinerea"), probably numbering between 75 and 100. Historical data suggests numbers were previously much higher;cite journal | first = Ian | last = Abbott | title = The past and present distribution and status of sea lions and fur seals in Western Australia | journal = Records of the Western Australian Museum | volume = 7 | issue = 4 | pages = 375–390] for example, in 1727 survivors of the "Zeewyk" shipwreck killed over 150 sea lions in the Southern Group alone. This has led to a 1727 population estimate of between 290 and 580 animals for the entire Houtman Abrolhos. Populations apparently fell dramatically between the 1840s and the 1880s, largely due to extensive commercial sealing in the area. In addition to direct killing of the animals, it is likely that much of the mangrovehabitat on the islands was cleared as fuel for trypots, and this may have affected the survival of young pups. Populations are thought to have been fairly stable for the last fifty years, although the lack of genetic diversity in the smaller population remains of concern, as does climate change.cite paper | first = R. | last = Campbell | year = 2005 | title = Historical distribution and abundance of the Australian sea lion ("Neophora cinerea") on the west coast of Western Australia | edition = Fisheries Research Report No. 148 | publisher = Department of Fisheries, Government of Western Australia]
Sea lions come ashore to rest on leeward beaches throughout the island chain, but only a small number of these "haulout sites" are used for breeding. Breeding has been observed on
Serventy Island, Gilbert Island, Alexander Island, Suomi Island, Keru Island, Square Island, Stick Island, Gibson Island, Gun Island, Morley Islandand Wooded Island. All but the last three of these are considered current breeding sites, and are therefore considered by the Department of Fisheries to have a high conservation value.cite paper | title = Inventory of the Land Conservation Values of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands | month = October | year = 2003 | edition = Fisheries Management Paper No. 151 | id = ISSN|0819-4327 | publisher = Department of Fisheries, Government of Western Australia]
Little information is available on other marine mammals at the Abrolhos, as no direct research on this subject has been undertaken. Sightings of the
Humpback Whale("Megaptera novaeangliae") are common between April and October, when the whales are migrating. Other marine mammals sometimes sighted at the islands include Pygmy Bryde's Whale("Balaenoptera edeni"), Bottlenose Dolphin("Tursiops aduncus") and Striped Dolphin("Stenella coeruleoalba").cite paper | title = Towards an assessment of the natural and human use impacts on the marine environment of the Abrolhos Islands, Volume 1: Summary of existing information and current levels of human use | version = Fisheries Research Report No 134 | year = 2002 | publisher = Department of Fisheries, Government of Western Australia | url = http://www.fish.wa.gov.au/docs/frr/frr134/frr134_v1.pdf | accessdate = 2007-12-01]
Green Turtle("Chelonia mydas") and the Loggerhead Turtle("Caretta caretta") both live in the waters off the Houtman Abrolhos, albeit in low numbers. Neither species breeds in the area, as water temperatures are too low.
The Houtman Abrolhos is unusual in having a luxuriant and diverse living coral reef at such a high latitude. 194 species in 50 genera have been recorded there,cite journal | author = Veron, J. E. N. and Marsh, L. M. | year = 1988 | title = Hermatypic corals of Western Australia: records and annotated species list | journal = Records of the Western Australian Museum | volume = Supplement 29 | pages = 1–136] all but two of which are tropical. This is a surprisingly high coral diversity, considering the high latitude of the reef, and the relatively low diversity of other biota.cite journal | author = Veron, J. E. N. and Marsh, L. M. | year = 1988 | title = Hermatypic corals of Western Australia: records and annotated species list | journal = Records of the Western Australian Museum | volume = Supplement 29 | pages = 1–136] For a full list, see
list of corals of the Houtman Abrolhos.
The coral reef community at the Houtman Abrolhos is unusual in having tropical coral growing alongside and in direct competition with, temperate
seaweed. As a result of this competition for light, space and nutrients, coral at the Houtman Abrolhos tends to grow more slowly and die younger than is usual. Reef production is to a large extent due to the production of carbon by coralline algaerather than by coral.Fact|date=December 2007
The most notable species of
crustaceanat the Houtman Abrolhos is the Western Rock Lobster("Panulirus cygnus"). 44 species of craband 9 species of amphipodwere recorded there by the Percy Sladen Trust Expedition of 1916.
492 species of marine
molluschave been recorded from the shallow waters of the Houtman Abrolhos. These are predominantly gastropods (346 species, 70%) and bivalves (124, 25%); the remaining 5% of species consist of cephalopods (14 species), chitons (5 species) and scaphopods (3 species). About two thirds of the species have a tropical distribution, temperate species account for 20%, and the remaining 11% are endemic to Western Australia.cite book | author = Wells, Fred E. and Bryce, Clay W. | year = 1997 | chapter = A preliminary checklist of the marine macromolluscs of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia | editor = Wells, F. E. | title = The marine flora and fauna of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Volume 2 | publisher = Western Australian Museum | isbn = 0-7309-8553-9 | pages = 363–383]
Southern Saucer Scallop("Amusium balloti") is the only commercially important species. This occurs in sheltered areas of medium-fine sand in deep water to the north-east of the reefs; it is usually the dominant species there.cite book | author = Glover, Emily A. and Taylor, John D. | year = 1997 | chapter = Diversity and distribution of subtidal molluscs from the outer continental shelf, Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia | editor = Wells, F. E. | title = The marine flora and fauna of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Volume 2 | publisher = Western Australian Museum | isbn = 0-7309-8553-9 | pages = 281–305]
Houtman Abrolhos has an extremely high diversity of
echinoderms, with 172 species having been recorded there. 63% of these are tropical species, 14% are temperate, and 22% are endemic to Western Australia. None is endemic to the Houtman Abrolhos.cite book | first = L. M. | last = Marsh | year = 1994 | chapter = Echinoderms of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia and their relationship to the Leeuwin Current | pages = 55-61 | editor = David, B., Guille, A., Feral, J.-P. and Roux, M. (eds) | title = Echinoderms through time | publisher = Balkema | location = Rotterdam] Published surveys have not included observations of the crown-of-thorns starfish("Ananthaster planci"), but individuals have occasionally been observed there. For a complete list of species, see list of echinoderms of the Houtman Abrolhos.
The sponges of the Houtman Abrolhos are poorly studied, although 109 species of
demospongehave been collected there. In the most recent survey, 77 species were collected, of which around half are probably new to science. Only two locations were surveyed in this study, however, so this figure is likely to represent only a small proportion of the total sponge fauna of the Houtman Abrolhos; the islands are therefore thought to harbour an extremely rich diversity of sponges. A preliminary assessment suggested that there were more temperate species than tropical, which stands in marked contrast to most other groups.cite journal | last = Fromont | first = J. | year = 1999 | title = Demosponges of the Houtman Abrolhos | journal = Memoirs of the Queensland Museum | volume = 44 | pages = 175–183]
marine worms identified at the Houtman Abrolhos include 22 species of the polychaetefamily Terebellidae,cite book | first = Christer | last = Erséus | year = 1997 | chapter = Marine Tubificidae (Oligochaeta) from the Montebello and Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, with descriptions of twenty-three new species | editor = Wells, F. E. | title = The marine flora and fauna of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Volume 2 | publisher = Western Australian Museum | isbn = 0-7309-8553-9 | pages = 389–458] and 16 species of the family oligochaetefamily Tubificidae.cite book | first = Pat | last = Hutchings | year = 1997 | chapter = The Terebellidae (F. Polychaeta) from the Wallabi Group, Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia | editor = Wells, F. E. | title = The marine flora and fauna of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Volume 2 | publisher = Western Australian Museum | isbn = 0-7309-8553-9 | pages = 459–501] For a list of species, see list of worms of the Houtman Abrolhos.
A total of 38
hydroidspecies have been collected at the Houtman Abrolhos. 34 of these are leptothecates, the remainder being anthoathecates. 92% of the species attach to temperate algae, the others to coral rubble.cite book | first = Jeanette E. | last = Watson | year = 1997 | chapter = The hydroid fauna of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia | editor = Wells, F. E. | title = The marine flora and fauna of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Volume 2 | publisher = Western Australian Museum | isbn = 0-7309-8553-9 | pages = 503–546] For a list of species, see list of hydroids of the Houtman Abrolhos.
The Houtman Abrolhos serves as a major resource for the local fishing industry.
Western rock lobster
It is the centre of the
Western Rock Lobsterfishery, the largest single-species fishery in Western Australia.
After Shark Bay, the Houtman Abrolhos supports Western Australia's second largest
saucer scallopfishery.cite paper | title = Aquaculture Plan for the Houtman Abrolhos Islands | version = Fisheries Management Paper No. 137 | year = 2000 | publisher = Department of Fisheries, Government of Western Australia | url = http://www.fish.wa.gov.au/docs/mp/mp137/fmp137.pdf | accessdate = 2007-12-01] cite paper | title = Management of the Houtman Abrolhos System: A Draft Review 2007 – 2017 | version = Fisheries Management Paper No. 220 | year = 2007 | publisher = Department of Fisheries, Government of Western Australia | url = http://www.fish.wa.gov.au/docs/mp/mp220/fmp220.pdf | accessdate = 2007-12-01] This fishery is managed under the "Abrolhos Islands and Mid West Trawl Limited Entry Fishery Notice 1993". Only 17 licences have been issued, and no more will be made available, as the saucer scallop is considered fully exploited. Licensees are constrained to operate only during scallop season, which generally runs from 1 April to 30 June, and are also subject to restrictions on gear design, boat size and crew numbers.cite paper | year = 2005 | title = Assessment of the Abrolhos Islands and Mid West Trawl Managed Fishery | publisher = Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australian Government | url = http://www.environment.gov.au/coasts/fisheries/wa/abrolhos-island/index.html | accessdate = 2008-05-03]
Scallop fishers mainly operate east of the Houtman Abrolhos and between the island groups, in waters deeper than 30 metres. Activity is targeted at sheltered areas of bare sand, where scallops tend to settle. Catches vary greatly from year to year; from 2001 to 2003, for example, the total annual catch totalled 1182 tons, 195 tons and 5840 tons (whole weight) respectively. This variability is apparently related to the strength of the Leeuwin Current, as strong current is correlated with low scallop recruitment.
The Houtman Abrolhos is the site and some
The Department of Fisheries have issued a number of licences to cultivate
black-lip pearl oysters in the Abrolhos. The first recipient of a license was Abrolhos Pearls in 1996.cite web | title = Landline: 25/5/2003: Abrolhos producing real pearlers | url = http://www.abc.net.au/landline/stories/s861953.htm | author = Murphy, Sean | publisher = Australian Broadcasting Corporation| accessdate = 2007-12-01] By 2000, another license had been issued and four more applications had been received. A year later, there were 1,000 ha licensed for the culture of pearl oysters in the Abrolhos, of which about 21% was actually in use, carrying over 210,000 shell.cite web | work = State of the Fisheries Report 2000/2001 | title = Pearling and Aquaculture | url = http://www.fish.wa.gov.au/docs/sof/2000/sof20002001-0401.pdf | publisher = Department of Fisheries, Government of Western Australia | accessdate = 2007-12-01] Six licences had been issued by 2002, and by 2007 that number had grown to eight.
95% of the
pearl aquacultureis carried out in the Pelsaert Group. Most licenses are over areas of sand, but some areas contain small amounts of coral reef. The colour of the pearls produced is quite different to that of Pacific black pearls, and this is considered a potential marketing tool.
In addition to pearl aquaculture, a pilot sea cage
finfishfarm was licensed in 2004, although as of 2007 the license had not been exercised. Interest has also been expressed in the culture of live rockand coral for the aquariumindustry. The Department of Fisheries has identified a number of species as having potential for aquaculture in the Abrolhos, including the Shark Bay pearl oyster("Pinctata albina"), the maxima clam("Tridacna maxima"), rock oysters ("Saccostrea" sp.), the saucer scallop("Amusium balloti"), the western rock lobster, and a number of species of finfish, most of which are filter feeders.
Petroleum exploration wells were drilled in Abrolhos waters in the 1960s and 1970s, but were capped and abandoned. The Abrolhos was amongst the areas released for further exploration in 2002.
The Abrolhos provides some of the best
snorkeling, divingand deep sea fishing in the world, along with some of Australia's most significant historical sights, such as the shipwreckof the "Batavia".
Nowadays, many of the islets are used by fishermen. Although an important tourist destination, the tourists are not allowed to stay overnight.
The majority of cultural references to the Houtman Abrolhos relate to the islands' shipwrecks, particularly the "Batavia". The events surrounding the loss of the "Batavia" is one of the most celebrated episodes in Australian popular history; in the words of
Henrietta Drake-Brockman:quote|"In Australia, poets and schoolboys, artists and historians, have been inspired for half a century by the tragedy of an ancient shipwreck, a disaster that piled horror upon horror yet revealed so much of human fortitude as to invite comparison with the epic tales of Greece."The story has spawn a massive body of literature, both fiction and non-fiction, as well as numerous works in other media.Fact|date=March 2008
Other shipwrecks, notably the "Zeewijk", have also become the subject of books and other works. Shipwrecks aside, however, cultural references to the Houtman Abrolhos are rare. By far the best known book on the Houtman Abrolhos itself is
Malcolm Uren's "Sailormen's ghosts: The Abrolhos islands in three hundred years of romance, history, and adventure".Fact|date=March 2008 First published in 1940, this book saw numerous editions published in the 1940s, and was even republished in 1980 as a "West Australian classic".Fact|date=March 2008 In it, Uren tells both the history of the islands and the story of his own visit to the islands.cite book | first = Thomas | last = Wood | chapter = Introduction | editor = Uren, Malcolm | year = 1940 | title = "Sailormen's Ghosts" | location = Melbourne | publisher = Robertson & Mullens]
Other books include William Bede Christie's 1909 "Christmas on the briny: the innocents abroad, or, a holiday trip to the Abrolhos islands", and Alison Louise Wright's 1998 "Abrolhos Islands Conversations". The latter, a book of interviews and portraits of the people of the Abrolhos, won the Special Award in the 1999
Western Australian Premier's Book Awards. [Cite web|url=http://www.liswa.wa.gov.au/pbk99win.html|title=Western Australian Premier's Book Awards - 1999 Winners|date=11 June 2007|publisher= State Library of Western Australia|quote=Special Award: "Abrolhos Islands Conversations"]
The islands featured in the first episode of "
Surfing the Menu", an eight-part food and travel series produced for the ABC in 2003.cite web | title = "Surfing the Menu" Abrolhos Islands (2003) | url = http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1146854/ | accessdate = 2008-02-03 | work = Internet Movie Database(IMDB)] , and the following year were featured on " Getaway", Australia's longest-running and most popular holiday and travel television programme.cite web | title = Abrolhos Islands | url = http://getaway.ninemsn.com.au/article.aspx?id=17939 | accessdate = 2008-03-02 | work = Getaway Fact Sheets] They were the subject of a motion picture entitled "Eye opener", published by The Film Centre WA in 1981,Fact|date=March 2008 and of a piece of classical music entitled "Abrolhos: A ceremonial overture", written by William Stewart in 1988 under commission to the Geraldton Town Council.Fact|date=March 2008
* Collins, Lindsay. (1991) "The Abrolhos coral reefs - history and present management." Curtin gazette, Mar 1991, p. 5-11
* Myra Stanbury et al. (2000)"Abrolhos Islands archaeological sites : interim report", Fremantle, W.A. Australian National Centre of Excellence for Maritime Archaeology. Special publication no. 5. ISBN 1-876465-12-3
List of islands of Australia
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