- Ayaan Hirsi Ali
name = Ayaan Hirsi Ali
image_size = 200px
birth_date = birth date and age|1969|11|13|mf=y
known_for = "Submission" "
The Caged Virgin" "Infidel"
People's Party for Freedom and Democracy
John Stuart Mill, Friedrich Hayek, Simone de Beauvoir, Karl Popper, Herman Philipse
religion = Atheist
Ayaan Hirsi Ali (audio|Nl-Ayaan Hirsi Ali.ogg|pronunciation; _so. "Ayaan Xirsi Cali"; born Ayaan Hirsi Magan
13 November 1969in Mogadishu, Somalia) [ cite web|url=http://pen.org/page.php/prmID/1167|title=Ayaan Hirsi Ali|accessdate=2007-01-07
publisher=PEN American Center|quote=Ayaan Hirsi Ali was born in Somalia on
November 13, 1969.] is a Dutch feminist, writer, and politician. She is the estranged daughter of the Somali scholar, politician, and revolutionary opposition leader Hirsi Magan Isse. She is a prominent critic of Islam, and her screenplay for Theo Van Gogh's movie "Submission" led to death threats. Since van Gogh's murderby a Muslimin 2004, she has lived in seclusion under the protection of Dutch authorities.
When she was eight, her family left Somalia for
Saudi Arabia, then Ethiopia, and eventually settled in Kenya. She sought and obtained political asylum in the Netherlandsin 1992, under circumstances that later became the center of a political controversy. In 2003 she was elected a member of the Tweede Kamer(the Lower Houseof the Dutch parliament), representing the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy(VVD). A political crisis surrounding the potential stripping of her Dutch citizenship led to her resignation from the parliament, and led indirectly to the fall of the second Balkenende cabinet.
She is currently a
fellowat the American Enterprise Institute, a think tanklinked to neoconservatism, working from an unknown location in the Netherlands. [cite news | title = Ayaan Hirsi Ali terug in Nederland | url = http://www.nrc.nl/binnenland/article778723.ece/Ayaan_Hirsi_Ali_terug_in_Nederland | publisher = NRC Handelsblad| date = 2007-10-01] [cite news | title = A Bitter Dutch Treat | url = http://www.tcsdaily.com/article.aspx?id=111307D | publisher = TCS Daily| date = 2007-11-14] In 2005, she was named by "Time" magazine as one of the 100 most influential people in the world. [ [http://www.time.com/time/subscriber/2005/time100/leaders/100ali.html The 2005 TIME 100: Ayaan Hirsi Ali ] ] She has also received several awards for her work, including Norway's Human Rights Service's Bellwether of the Year Award, the Danish Freedom Prize, the Swedish Democracy Prize, and the Moral Courage Award for commitment to conflict resolution, ethics, and world citizenship. [ [http://www.theglobalist.com/AuthorBiography.aspx?AuthorId=947 The Globalist | Biography of Ayaan Hirsi Ali ] ]
Ayaan Hirsi Ali was born in Somalia. Her first name, Ayaan, means "lucky person" or "luck" in Somali.fact | date = March 2008|Please, see discussion entry on this topic. Her father,
Hirsi Magan Isse, was a prominent member of the Somali Salvation Democratic Frontand a leading figure in the Somalian Revolution. Shortly after she was born, her father was imprisoned due to his opposition to Somalia's Siad Barre government.cite news|last=Linklater|first=Alexander|title=Danger woman
The Guardian"|date= 2005-05-17|Retrieved June 15 2008] ["A critic of Islam: Dark secrets." " The Economist". Volume 382. Number 8515. (February 10th-16th 2007): Page 87.: "The family's troubles began in 1969, the year Ms Hirsi Ali was born. That was also the year that Mohammed Siad Barre, a Somali army commander, seized power in a military coup. Hirsi Magan was descended from the traditional rulers of the Darod, Somalia's second biggest clan. Siad Barre, who hailed from a lesser Darod family, feared and resented Ms Hirsi Ali's father's family, she says. In 1972, Siad Barre had Hirsi Magan put in prison from which he escaped three years later and fled the country."]
Hirsi Ali's father had studied abroad and was opposed to
female genital cutting, but while he was imprisoned, Hirsi Ali's grandmother had the traditional procedure performed on five-year-old Hirsi Ali.cite news|last=Linklater|first=Alexander|title=Danger woman
The Guardian"|date= 2005-05-17|Retrieved January 7 2007]
They settled in the capital,
Nairobi, where Hirsi Ali attended the English-language Muslim Girls' Secondary School. By the time she reached her teens, Saudi-funded religious education was becoming more influential among Muslims in other countries, and a charismatic religious teacher who had been trained under this aegis joined Hirsi Ali's school. She inspired the teenaged Ayaan, as well as some fellow students, to adopt the more rigorous Saudi Arabian interpretations of Islam, as opposed to the more relaxed versions then current in Somalia and Kenya. Hirsi Ali had been impressed by the Qur'an before she could even read, and had lived "by the Book, for the Book" throughout her childhood. [ [http://www.smh.com.au/news/opinion/to-submit-to-the-book-is-to-exist-in-their-hell/2007/06/03/1180809336515.html "To submit to the Book is to submit to their Hell", extract of speech in " Sydney Morning Herald" 4 June 2007] ] She sympathized with the Islamist Muslim Brotherhood, and wore a " hijab" together with her school uniform, which was unusual at the time but gradually became more common. She agreed with the " fatwa" against British writer Salman Rushdiethat was declared in reaction to the publication of his controversial novel " The Satanic Verses". [ interviewed by David Cohen, published 2 February 2007[http://www.lawcf.org/index.asp?page=Evening+Standard+article+on+Islam+in+Britain] and identically here [http://www.islamophobia-watch.com/islamophobia-watch/2007/2/7/violence-is-inherent-in-islam-it-is-a-cult-of-death.html] Retrieved March 24, 2007.] After completing secondary school, she attended a secretarial course at Valley Secretarial College in Nairobi for one year [ [http://www.asiantribune.com/index.php?q=node/175 Controversial Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Muslim turned atheist, to resign from Dutch Parliament | Asian Tribune ] ] . It was in books she read there that Ayaan would be exposed to Western culture and values for the first time, including the Nancy Drewseries, which portrayed a fictional female character who solved mysteries and operated freely as an equal to her male counterparts. According to Hirsi Ali, these stories would play a pivotal role in her redefining what it meant to be a Westerner. [ [http://movies.nytimes.com/2007/02/14/books/14grim.html?fta=y Infidel - Ayaan Hirsi Ali - Books - Review - New York Times ] ]
Hirsi Ali arrived in the Netherlands in 1992. There is some lack of clarity about the events leading up to her arrival, and she has admitted to making false statements in her application for asylum to enhance her chances of staying in the Netherlands. [http://www.ft.com/cms/s/c0d30b34-07d4-11db-9067-0000779e2340.htmlHirsi Ali dispute brings down Dutch government] , Financial Times,
June 30, 2006] Hirsi Ali states that in 1992 her father arranged to marry her to a distant cousin. She also claimed that she objected to this both on general grounds (she states that she dreaded being forced to submit to a stranger, someone with "the Holy Book on his side" who could force himself on her sexually. [ [http://www.smh.com.au/news/opinion/to-submit-to-the-book-is-to-exist-in-their-hell/2007/06/03/1180809336515.html "To submit to the Book is to submit to their Hell", extract of speech in " Sydney Morning Herald" 4 June 2007] ] ) and on specific objections to this particular cousin, saying that he was a "bigot" and an "idiot". [Hirsi Ali, Ayaan, "Infidel", 2007, page 173.] ) It is not disputed that in 1992 she travelled from Kenyato visit family in Düsseldorfand Bonn, Germany. It was planned that she would join her husband in Canada after obtaining a visa while in Germany. Members of her family have disputed the story of her forced marriage. ["", Klausen, J., New York: Oxford University Press, 2005; "She wasn't forced into a marriage. She had an amicable relationship with her husband, as well as with the rest of her family. It was not true that she had to hide from her family for years."] According to Hirsi Ali, she spent her time in Germany frantically trying to devise a way to escape her unwanted marriage. Ultimately, she decided that she would claim to want to visit a relative in the Netherlands, but, once she had arrived, seek help from that relative and claim asylum. [Hirsi Ali, Ayaan, "Infidel", 2007, page 188.]
Once in the Netherlands, she requested
political asylumand received a residence permit. It is not known on what grounds she received political asylum, though she has admitted that she had lied by devising a false story about having to flee Mogadishuand spending time in refugee camps on the border between Somalia and Kenya. In reality, she did spend time in those camps, but in order to help relatives who were trapped there; she was already safely settled in Kenya at the time open warfare erupted in the Somali capital. She gave a false name and date of birth to the Dutch immigration authorities, something she says was necessary in order to escape retaliation by her clan. [ [http://www.vvd.nl/index.aspx?FilterId=974&ChapterId=1147&ContentId=4977 VVD] Ayaan Hirsi Ali's statement to the press] She is known in the West by her assumed name, Hirsi Ali, instead of her original name, Hirsi Magan. Hirsi Ali received a residence permit within three weeks of her arrival in the Netherlands.
After receiving asylum, she held various short-term jobs, ranging from cleaning to mail sorting.fact | date = March 2008 She states that she had been an avid reader from childhood, and access to new books and ways of thought stretched her imagination and frightened her at the same time. She states that
Freud's work, placed her in contact with an alternative moral system, one that was not based on religion. [ ["To submit to the Book is to submit to their Hell", extract of speech in " Sydney Morning Herald" 4 June 2007] ] During this time, she took courses in Dutch and a one-year course in social work. She states that she was impressed with how well Dutch society seemed to function and, [ ["To submit to the Book is to submit to their Hell", extract of speech in " Sydney Morning Herald" 4 June 2007] ] in an effort to better understand how this system had developed, studied political scienceat the Leiden Universityuntil 2000. Between 1995 and 2001, she also worked as an independent Somali-Dutch interpreter and translator, frequently coming in contact with Somali women in asylum centers, hostels for battered women, and the National Migration Service (NMS). While working for the NMS, she saw inside the workings of the Dutch immigration system and became critical of the way it handled asylum seekers [ [http://www.asiantribune.com/index.php?q=node/175 Controversial Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Muslim turned atheist, to resign from Dutch Parliament | Asian Tribune ] ] . As a result of her education and experiences, Ali speaks six languages: English, Somali, Arabic, Swahili, Amharic and Dutch.
After earning a
master's degreein political science from Leiden University, Hirsi Ali became a fellow at the Wiardi Beckman Foundation, a scientific institute linked to the center-left Labour Party (PvdA), of which Leiden University Professor Ruud Koole was steward.
During her studies, she was becoming increasingly disenchanted with Islam. Her identification as a Muslim suffered a strong blow after
9/11. After listening to videotapes of Osama bin Ladenciting "words of justification" in the Qu'ran for the attacks, she writes, "I picked up the Quran and the hadith and started looking through them, to check. I hated to do it, because I knew that I would find Bin Laden's quotations in there." [Hirsi Ali, Ayaan, "Infidel", 2007, page 271.] She decided that, despite her upbringing, she had to regard the Quran as relative—it was a historical record and "just another book". [ ["To submit to the Book is to submit to their Hell", speech quoted in part in the Sydney Morning Herald4 June 2007] ] The final blow to her faith was her reading of " The Atheist Manifesto" ("Atheistisch Manifest") of Leiden philosopher Herman Philipse. She renounced Islam and became an atheist in 2002. During this period, she began to formulate her critique of Islam and Islamic culture, published many news articles, and became a frequent speaker on television news programs and public debate forums. She wrote up her ideas in a book entitled "De Zoontjesfabriek" ("The Son Factory"). It was at this time that she first began to receive death threats.Fact|date=April 2007
In November 2002, after some disagreements with the PvdA about her security measures, she sought advice from
Cisca Dresselhuys, the editor of the feminist magazine " Opzij" how to raise funds for protection from the government. Her party having recently lost the election, Hirsi Ali would soon be unable to receive government-funded protection. Dresselhuis introduced Hirsi Ali to Gerrit Zalm, the parliamentary leader of the center-right People's Party for Freedom and Democracy(VVD), and party member Neelie-Smit Kroes, European Commissioner for Competition. At their urging, Hirsi Ali agreed to switch to the VVD and stood for election to Parliament. Between November 2002 and January 2003, she lived abroad and was put on the payroll as an assistant of the VVD.
During her tenure in Parliament, Hirsi Ali made a number of controversial statements about Islam. In a interview in the Dutch newspaper Trouw she said that by Western standards, Muhammad would be considered a pedophile. A discrimination complaint was filed against her on
April 24, 2003. The Prosecutor's office decided not to initiate a case, because her critique did "not put forth any conclusions in respect to Muslims and their worth as a group is not denied". [ Ayaan Hirsi Ali niet vervolgd, Volkskrant, April 24, 2003]
Going into hiding
Hirsi Ali wrote the script and provided the voice-over for "Submission", [ [http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=846339861805446088&q=submission+Van+Gogh Submission] , on
Google Video2005-04-29] a film produced by Theo van Gogh, which criticized the treatment of women in Islamic society. Juxtaposed with passages from the Qur'anwere scenes of scantily clad actresses portraying Muslim women who are suffering abuse. The film also features an actress that is provocatively dressed in a semi-transparent " burqa" and has texts from the Qur'anwritten on her skin. These texts are often interpreted as justifying the subjugation of women. The film's release sparked much furore; the controversy became violent when Mohammed Bouyeri, a member of the Hofstad Group, murdered Van Gogh in an Amsterdamstreet on November 2, 2004. A letter pinned to Van Gogh's body with a knife was primarily a death threat to Hirsi Ali. After this incident, the Dutch secret service raised the level of security that they provided to her. [ [http://www.expatica.com/source/site_article.asp?subchannel_id=48&story_id=29964&name=Battling+the+racists Klausen, J Battling the racists] , " Expatica", May 12, 2006Retrieved March 24 2007.] In an interview to journalist David Cohen, Hirsi Ali has said that although she deeply regrets the murder of van Gogh, she is proud of the film and does not regret having made it. "To feel otherwise would be to deny everything I stand for." [ interviewed by David Cohen, published 2 February 2007[http://www.lawcf.org/index.asp?page=Evening+Standard+article+on+Islam+in+Britain] and identically here [http://www.islamophobia-watch.com/islamophobia-watch/2007/2/7/violence-is-inherent-in-islam-it-is-a-cult-of-death.html] Retrieved March 27, 2007.] At his televised funeral, Van Gogh's own mother not only echoed this sentiment, she urged Hirsi Ali to continue the work that she and Van Gogh had done together. [Hirsi Ali, Ayaan, "Infidel", 2007, page 325.]
Earlier that year, the group The Hague Connection produced a rap song, "
Hirsi Ali Dis", and distributed it on the Internet. The lyrics included violent threats against her life. The rappers were prosecuted under Article 121 of the Dutch criminal code, because they hindered the execution of her tasks as politician. In 2005, they were sentenced to community service and a suspended prison sentence. [ [http://www.nu.nl/news.jsp?n=474058&c=15 Werkstraf voor 'Hirsi Ali-rappers'] , nu.nl, 27 January 2005]
After the murder of van Gogh, Hirsi Ali went into hiding. Government security services moved her around to many locations in the Netherlands, and eventually moved her to the United States for several months. On
January 18, 2005, she returned to parliament. On February 18, 2005, she revealed the location of herself and her colleague Geert Wilders, who had also been in hiding. She demanded a normal, secured house, which she was granted one week later.
In January 2006, Hirsi Ali used her acceptance speech for the "
Reader's Digest" "European of the Year" award to urge action to prevent Iranfrom developing nuclear weapons and to say that Mahmoud Ahmadinejadmust be taken at his word in wanting to organize a conference to investigate objective evidence of the Holocaust. "Before I came to Europe, I'd never heard of the Holocaust. That is the case with millions of people in the Middle East. Such a conference should be able to convince many people away from their denial of the genocide against the Jews." [ [http://www.standaard.be/Artikel/Detail.aspx?artikelid=G4SN8CRU Geen Iraanse atoombom toelaten] , De Standaard. (Dutch)] She also said that "so-called Western values" of freedom and justice are universal; that Europe has done far better than most areas of the world at providing justice, because it has guaranteed the freedom of thought and debate that are required for critical self-examination; and that communities cannot reform themselves unless "scrupulous investigation of every former and current doctrine is possible." [ [http://www.standaard.be/Artikel/Detail.aspx?artikelId=G4SN8CNR Ayaan Hirsi Ali betreurt zelfcensuur Europa] , "De Standaard". (Dutch)]
In March 2006 she co-signed a letter entitled "". The most notable of the eleven other signatories was British writer
Salman Rushdie, whose " fatwa" Hirsi Ali had supported as a teen. The letter was published in response to protests in the Islamic worldsurrounding the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy.
April 27, a Dutch judge ruled that Hirsi Ali had to abandon her house—a highly secured secret address in the Netherlands. Her neighbors had complained that living next to her was an unacceptable security risk to them, although the police had testified in court that it was one of the safest places in the country due to the large number of personnel they had assigned there. [ [http://www.slate.com/id/2141276/ The Caged Virgin—Holland's shameful treatment of Ayaan Hirsi Ali] , Christopher Hitchens, May 8, 2006. Retrieved March 24 2007.] In early 2007, she stated that the Dutch state spent about 3.5 million eurosproviding armed guards for her, and the threats made her live "in fear and looking over my shoulder", but she was willing to endure this for the sake of speaking her mind. [ interviewed by David Cohen, published 2 February 2007[http://www.lawcf.org/index.asp?page=Evening+Standard+article+on+Islam+in+Britain] and identically here [http://www.islamophobia-watch.com/islamophobia-watch/2007/2/7/violence-is-inherent-in-islam-it-is-a-cult-of-death.html] ]
A private trust, the
Foundation for Freedom of Expressionwas established to help fund protection of Ayaan Hirsi Ali and other Muslim dissidents.
In May 2006, the television program "
Zembla" reported that Hirsi Ali had given false information about her real name, [ [http://omroep.vara.nl/tvradiointernet_detail.jsp?maintopic=424&subtopic=4177&detail=321864 De heilige Ayaan] , Zembla, May 11, 2006(Includes streaming video)] her age and the country she arrived from when originally applying for asylum. The program also presented evidence that she was untruthful about the main reason for her asylum application being forced marriage. Hirsi Ali admitted that she had lied about her full name, her date of birth and the manner in which she had come to the Netherlands. However, several sources, including her first book "The Son Factory", which had been published in 2002, stated her real name and date of birth, and she had also publicly stated these in a September 2002 interview published in the political magazine " HP/De Tijd". [ [http://www.expatica.com/source/site_article.asp?subchannel_id=19&story_id=29954&name=Liberals+don't+care+Hirsi+Ali+lied+to+get+asylum+in+1992 Liberals don't care Hirsi Ali lied to get asylum in 1992] , Expatica, May 12, 2006Retrieved March 24, 2007.] [ [http://www.spiegel.de/politik/ausland/0,1518,druck-416242,00.html Hirsi Ali verlässt die Niederlande] , Der Spiegel, May 15, 2006] [ [http://www.tagesschau.de/aktuell/meldungen/0,1185,OID5527658_REF1,00.html Hirsi Ali will die Niederlande verlassen] , Tagesschau, May 15 2006] and in an interview in the "VARA gids" (2002). [ [http://www.zemblabla.nl/VARA%20TV%20MAGAZINE.pdf Astrid ontmoet Ayaan (PDF)] , "VARA TV Magazine", December 7, 2002] Accordingly, these details were considered by many to be public knowledge. Furthermore, Hirsi Ali has asserted that she made full disclosure of the matter to VVD officials when she was invited to run for parliament in 2002. [cite book
last = Hirsi Ali
first = Ayaan
title = Infidel
year = 2007
publisher = Free Press
isbn = 978-0-7432-8968-9
pages = 298, 338
Media speculation arose that she could lose her Dutch citizenship because of this "identity fraud", rendering her ineligible for parliament. At first, Minister
Rita Verdonk[ [http://www.nos.nl/nos/artikelen/2006/05/art000001C6765328EBF3B3.html Onderzoek bepleit naar Hirsi Ali] , NOS, May 13] said she would not look into the matter, but after Member of Parliament Hilbrand Nawijnofficially asked her for her position, she declared that she would investigate Hirsi Ali's naturalization process. This investigation took three days. The findings were that Hirsi Ali had not legitimately received Dutch citizenship, because she had lied about her name and date of birth. Rita Verdonk moved to outlawHirsi Ali by annulling her citizenship, a move that was later overridden on the urging of Parliament. [cite book
last = Hirsi Ali
first = Ayaan
title = Infidel
year = 2007
publisher = Free Press
isbn = 978-0-7432-8968-9
pages = 343
May 15, 2006, after the broadcast of the "Zembla" documentary, news stories erupted saying that Hirsi Ali was likely to move to the United States in September, and was expected to write a book entitled "Shortcut to Enlightenment" and work for a conservative think tank, the American Enterprise Institute. [ [http://www.expatica.com/source/site_article.asp?subchannel_id=19&story_id=30003&name=Hirsi+Ali+to+leave+Netherlands+for+job+with+US+think+tank+ Hirsi Ali to leave Netherlands for job with US think tank] , "Expatica", May 15]
May 16, Hirsi Ali resigned from Parliament after admitting that she had lied on her asylum application. On that day, she gave a press conference, [ [http://www.vvd.nl/index.aspx?FilterId=974&ChapterId=1147&ContentId=4977 Press conference Ayaan Hirsi Ali] , VVD Website, May 16, 2006] in which she restated that, although she felt it was wrong to be granted asylum under false pretences, the facts had been publicly known since 2002 when they had been reported in the media and in one of her publications. In the press conference, she also restated that she had spoken the truth about the reason for seeking asylum, which had been the threat of a forced marriage, despite a claim to the contrary on the "Zembla" program by some of her relatives. Her stated reason for resigning immediately was not the continuous threats, making her job as a parliamentarian "difficult" but "not impossible", but the news that the Minister would strip her of her Dutch citizenship.
After a long and emotional debate in the Dutch Parliament, all major parties supported a motion, requesting the Minister to explore the possibility of special circumstances in Hirsi Ali's case. Although Verdonk remained convinced that the applicable law did not leave her any room to consider such circumstances, she decided to accept the motion. During the debate, she astonished MPs by claiming that Hirsi Ali still had Dutch citizenship during the period of reexamination. Apparently the "decision" she had made public had been merely a report of the current position of the Dutch government. Hirsi Ali at that point had six weeks to react to the report before any final decision about her citizenship was taken. Verdonk was heavily criticized for not acting more prudently in a case that had so many political implications.Fact|date=April 2007
Apart from a Dutch passport, Hirsi Ali retained a Dutch
residency permit(similar to a Permanent Resident Card) on the grounds that she was a political refugee. According to the Minister, this permit could not be taken away from her since it was granted more than 12 years ago, in 1992.
In a reaction to the announced move, former VVD leader
Hans Wiegelstated that her departure "would not be a loss to the VVDand not be a loss to the Tweede Kamer". [ [http://www.elsevier.nl/nieuws/politiek/nieuwsbericht/asp/artnr/98711/index.html Moslims blij met vertrek Ayaan Hirsi Ali] , Elsevier, May 15] He said that Hirsi Ali was a brave woman, but that her opinions were polarizing. Former parliamentary leader of the VVD, Jozias van Aartsen, was more positive about Hirsi Ali, saying that it is "painful for Dutch society and politics that she is leaving the Tweede Kamer". [ [http://www.telegraaf.nl/binnenland/42398021/Van_Aartsen:_Vertrek_pijnlijk_voor_Nederland.html Van Aartsen: Vertrek pijnlijk voor Nederland] , "Telegraaf"] Another VVD MP, Bibi de Vries, claimed that if something were to happen to Hirsi Ali, some people in her party would have "blood on their hands." Christopher DeMuth, President of the AEI, confirmed that this controversy would not affect the appointment. On May 16, he stated that he was still looking forward to "welcoming her to AEI, and to America." United States Deputy Secretary of State Robert Zoellicklater stated that "we recognise that she is a very courageous and impressive woman and she is welcome in the US." [ [http://www.expatica.com/source/site_article.asp?subchannel_id=19&story_id=30119&name=America+to+welcome+Hirsi+Ali+with+open+arms America to welcome Hirsi Ali with open arms] , "Expatica", May 18 2006]
May 23, 2006, Ayaan Hirsi made available to the " The New York Times" some letters she believed would provide insight into her 1992 asylum application. [ [http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FA0B16F63B5A0C778EDDAC0894DE404482&n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2fSubjects%2fR%2fReligion%20and%20Belief Somali in The Hague Faces a More Personal Attack] , New York Times, May 23, 2006] [ [http://www.nu.nl/news/740969/11/rss/Brieven_bevestigen_risico%27s_Hirsi_Ali.html Brieven bevestigen risico's Hirsi Ali] , nu.nl, May 30] In one letter, her sister, Haweya, warned her that the entire extended family was searching for her (after she had fled to the Netherlands), and in another letter her father denounced her.
June 27, 2006, the Dutch government announced that Hirsi Ali would keep her Dutch citizenship. [ [http://www.justitie.nl/actueel/nieuwsberichten/archief-2006/60627Brief-Hirsi-Ali.aspx?cp=34&cs=2017 Brief minister Verdonk over naturalisatie mevrouw Ayaan Hirsi Ali] , Rita Verdonk, June 27, 2006] On the same day a letter was disclosed in which Hirsi Ali expressed regret that she had misinformed Minister Verdonk. Hirsi Ali was allowed to retain her name because the Dutch government believes that Somalis are allowed to carry the name of their grandfather according to Somali family law, and her grandfather had used the last name Ali until his thirties and only then switched to Magan. The fact that this grandfather was born in 1845 complicated the investigation (her grandfather was a powerful warlord, and Hirsi Ali's father was the youngest of his children, born when he was close to 70). [cite book
last = Hirsi Ali
first = Ayaan
title = Infidel
year = 2007
publisher = Free Press
isbn = 978-0-7432-8968-9
pages = 15
Infidel (book)] Also, the issue of the false date of birth was not that important, according to the Minister.
Later the same day, Hirsi Ali, through her lawyer and in television interviews, made a statement declaring that she had signed the letter that was drafted by the Justice Department under duress. [ [http://babelfish.altavista.com/babelfish/trurl_pagecontent?lp=nl_en&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nos.nl%2Fnosjournaal%2Fartikelen%2F2006%2F6%2F28%2F280606_hirsi_ali_verklaring.html a translation of the letter] ] She felt she was pressured into signing the statement in exchange for the passport, but that she agreed to do it, swallowing her pride, in order not to complicate her pending visa application for the U.S. Currently, she still carries her Dutch passport. A close friend of Hirsi Ali,
Leon de Winter, presented in his weblog a detailed account of events taking place on June 27leading to Hirsi Ali signing the statement confirming, [ [http://www.elsevier.nl/opinie/weblog/asp/weblogId/4/knooppunt/1103/index.html Israël is de frontstaat in de oorlog tegen het islamitische fascisme] , Leon de Winter, August 8, 2006] in his view, the involuntary nature of her action. In a special parliamentary session on June 28, questions were raised concerning the alleged coercion of the Hirsi Ali statement by minister Verdonk, the dismissal by the minister of the false date of birth as a relevant issue, and whether Somali law prevails over Dutch law.Fact|date=April 2007 The ensuing political upheaval on June 29ultimately led to the fall of the Second Balkenende cabinet.Fact|date=April 2007
American Enterprise Institute
Hirsi Ali subsequently took up a position at the
American Enterprise Institute, [ cite web|url=http://www.aei.org/scholars/scholarID.117,filter.all/scholar.asp|title=AEI - Scholars & Fellows|accessdate=2007-01-07|publisher=American Enterprise Institute for Policy Research] published her autobiography, "Infidel", and is currently working on another book, "Shortcut to Enlightenment", a philosophical fantasy about a visit by Muhammad to the New York Public Library, in which he examines the ideas of various Enlightenment philosophers, compares them to the state of Islam today, and then comes to a number of important conclusions. [cite web|url=http://www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/0,1518,417478,00.html|title=Der Spiegel Online International|accessdate=2006-05-22|publisher="Der Spiegel"] Since her arrival in Washington, D.C., her security had to be upgraded once again. [cite web|url=http://www.expatica.com/actual/article.asp?subchannel_id=19&story_id=38109|title=Hirsi Ali under threat in US|accessdate=2007-03-27|publisher="Expatica"] On September 25, 2007, she received her green card. [cite web|url=http://www.uscis.gov/files/pressrelease/HirsiAliRlease25Sep07.pdf|title=Noted Author Ayaan Hirsi Ali Receives Her Green Card|accessdate=2007-10-02|publisher=U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services|format=PDF]
Since October 2007, she has continued her work for AEI from a secret address in the Netherlands. Her move back to the Netherlands is a result of the ruling of the Dutch minister of Justice, Hirsch Ballin; as of October 1, 2007, the Dutch government will no longer pay for her security while she is abroad. She declined an offer to live in
Denmark, and stated she intends to return to the United States. [cite web|url=http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/10/16/africa/dutch.php|title=Ayaan Hirsi Ali declines Denmark offer|accessdate=2008-01-31|publisher="International Herald Tribune"]
ocial and political views
Hirsi Ali is a member of the VVD, a Dutch political party that combines conservative views on the economy, foreign policy, crime and immigration with a liberal stance on drugs, abortion and homosexuality. She states that she is a great admirer of one of the party's ideological leaders,
Frits Bolkestein, a former Euro-commissioner. Ali received substantial criticism as a result of her defection from the Dutch Labour Party (PvdA) to the VVD. By way of response she asserted that she would show greater loyalty to the VVD.Fact|date=February 2007
She states that her personal views are for the most part inspired by her change from Islam to atheism. Hirsi Ali is very critical of Islam, especially of its prophet Muhammad and the position of women.
Hirsi Ali is very critical of the position of women in Islamic societies and the punishments demanded by
Islamic scholarsfor homosexuality and adultery. She considered herself a Muslim until 28 May 2002, when she became an atheist. [ [http://www.elsevier.nl/nieuws/politiek/dossier/asp/portal/0/sctr/0/dossier/290/hoofdstuk/2/sortering/False/artikel/12785/bt//index.html Dutch article link: 'Ik geloof niet meer'] ] In an interview with the Swiss magazine "Das Magazin" in September 2006, she said she lost her faith while sitting in an Italian restaurant in May 2002, drinking a glass of wine: "...I asked myself: Why should I burn in hell just because I'm drinking this? But what prompted me even more was the fact that the killers of 9/11 all believed in the same God I believed in." Despite that, in the television program "Rondom Tien" of 12 September 2002she called it "my religion". She has described Islam as a "backward religion", incompatible with democracy. In one segment on the Dutch current affairs program "Nova", she challenged pupils of an Islamic primary school to choose between the Qu'ranand the Dutch constitution.Fact|date=February 2007
In a "no-holds-barred polemic" interview in the London "
Evening Standard", [ interviewed by David Cohen, published 2 February 2007[http://www.lawcf.org/index.asp?page=Evening+Standard+article+on+Islam+in+Britain] and identically here [http://www.islamophobia-watch.com/islamophobia-watch/2007/2/7/violence-is-inherent-in-islam-it-is-a-cult-of-death.html] Retrieved March 24, 2007.] Hirsi Ali characterizes Islam as "the new fascism". "Just like Nazismstarted with Hitler's vision, the Islamic vision is a caliphate—a society ruled by Sharialaw—in which women who have sex before marriage are stoned to death, homosexuals are beaten, and "apostates like me are killed." Sharialaw is as inimical to liberal democracyas Nazism." In this interview, she also made it clear that in her opinion it is not "a fringe group of radical Muslims who've hijacked Islam and that the majority of Muslims are moderate. [...] Violence is inherent in Islam—it's a destructive, nihilistic cult of death. It legitimates murder."
Sydney Writers' Festivalin June 2007, she balanced her arguments, saying "I am a Muslim" because she understood why Muslims were silent when the Qur'an was "invoked to behead captured aid workers, journalists and other Western wanderers," as silence is "better than an argument with the author of the Holy Book who has given the command to behead infidels." Hirsi Ali stated that she was also "not a Muslim" as she had lost the fear of the Qur'an and of Hell and lost respect for "its author" and messenger; and that she felt a "common humanity" with those she once "shunned", such as Jews, Christians, atheists, gays, and sinners "of all stripes and colours." [ ["To submit to the Book is to submit to their Hell", speech quoted in part in the Sydney Morning Herald4 June 2007] ]
Hirsi Ali criticizes the central Islamic prophet on the grounds of both his morality and personality. In January 2003 she told the Dutch paper "
Trouw", " Muhammadis, seen by our Western standards, a pervert", as he married, at the age of 52, Aisha, who was six years old, and the time of consummation, nine.dubious These and other statements led to a lawsuit by a number of Muslims in 2005. The civil court in The Hague acquitted Hirsi Ali of any charges, but mentioned that she "could have made a better choice of words". [ [http://www.rechtspraak.nl/ljn.asp?ljn=AT0303 LJN: AT0303] , Rechtbank's-Gravenhage, KG 05/123: "Daarmee is zij in het kader van de haar toegestane overdrijving binnen de grenzen van het toelaatbare gebleven. Het is echter de vraag of een veelvuldig gebruik van deze of soortgelijke woorden nog wel zal vallen binnen de grenzen van de proportionaliteit en subsidiariteit. Hoewel gedaagde heeft aangevoerd dat het gebruik van deze termen precies illustreert dat de Koran géén praktischehandleiding is voor het dagelijkse leven, wordt geoordeeld dat zij deze zienswijze ook op andere (doeltreffender) wijze en met betere bewoordingen kan illustreren."]
She also has stated her opinions about his personality. When "Trouw" asked her about him, [ [http://www.trouw.nl/deverdieping/dossiers/article7566.ece/Ayaan+Hirsi+Ali De Verdieping - Ayaan Hirsi Ali] , "Trouw",
January 25, 2003: "Mohammed is, gemeten naar onze westerse maatstaven, een perverse man. Een tiran. Hij is tegen vrije meningsuiting. Als je niet doet wat hij zegt, loopt het verkeerd met je af. Dat doet mij denken aan al die megalomane machthebbers uit het Midden-Oosten: Bin Laden, Khomeini, Saddam. Vind je het vreemd dat Saddam Hoessein er is? Mohammed is zijn voorbeeld. Mohammed is een voorbeeld voor alle moslimmannen. Vind je het vreemd dat zoveel moslimmannen gewelddadig zijn?"] she answered, "Measured by our western standards, Muhammad is... a tyrant. He is against freedom of expression. If you don't do as he says, you will be punished. It makes me think of all those megalomaniacs in the Middle East: Bin Laden, Khomeini, Saddam. Do you think it strange that there is a Saddam Hussein? Muhammad is his example. Muhammad is an example for all Muslim men. Do you think it strange that so many Muslim men are violent?" In a 2003 interview with the Danish magazine "Sappho", she explains parallels she sees between the personality of Yasser Arafatand that of Muhammad. [ [http://www.sappho.dk/Den%20loebende/hirsi_english.htm Interview - It's Your Life or Your Thoughts] , "Sappho" November 23, 2003]
Clitorectomy and circumcision
Hirsi Ali opposes not just the genital cutting of girls, but also the practice of circumcision of boys as practiced by Jews and Muslims, as well as the routine infant circumcision practiced in the United States. [ [http://www.rtl.nl/(/actueel/rtlnieuws/)/components/actueel/rtlnieuws/2004/10_oktober/03/binnenland/1003_bijsnijdenis_hirshi_ali_2315.xml RTL] "Make circumcision for boys an offense",
October 4, 2004] In her autobiography, "Infidel", she writes: "Excision doesn't remove your desire or ability to enjoy sexual pleasure. The excision of women is cruel on many levels. It is physically cruel and painful; it sets girls up for a lifetime of suffering. And it is not even effective in its intent to remove their desire." [Ayaan Hirsi Ali, "Infidel" (New York: Free Press, 2007): page 140]
A quotation from her on the subject: "girls dying in child birth because they are too young [...] The rise of
radical Islamis an important part of this. I feel I have the moral obligation to discuss the source. I think if I think you are enriching the debate if you question it, you are not the enemy of Islam. We can look elsewhere using reason to discover answer to these problems, and we do not have to abolish religion. But we must do it by finding a balance." [ [http://www.rogerhouston.org/rogerhouston/2006/05/ayaan_hirsi_ali.html Journal] of Ayaan Hirsi Ali's lecture at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard ]
When in Dutch parliament, she has proposed obligatory annual medical checks for all uncircumcised girls, who originate from any country where female mutilation is practiced. If a girl turned out to have been circumcised, the state would report this to the police. The protection of the child would in this event prevail over respect for her privacy [nl"VVD: extra inspectie tegen besnijdenis", "de Volkskrant" newspaper, January 22, 2004, frontpage] .
August 31, 2006, while addressing the Dutch press on the occasion of her departure for the United States to work for the think tankthe American Enterprise Institute, Hirsi Ali said: "...with like-minded people one cannot discuss. With like-minded people one can only participate in a church service, and, as is widely known, I do not like church services." ["NOS Journaal", official Dutch newsrail, 8 pm, August 30, 2006. "Met gelijkgezinden kun je alleen maar een kerkdienst* houden, en zoals bekend, houd ik niet van kerkdiensten." "Kerkdienst" means church service of a Christian denomination, such as Mass (liturgy)and cannot be used in Dutch to describe a Muslim prayer service.]
Freedom of speech
Hirsi Ali is a proponent of
free speech. In a 2006 lecture in Berlin, [cite web|url=http://www.nrc.nl/opinie/article215732.ece|title=The Right to Offend|accessdate=2008-02-01|publisher="NRC Handelsblad"] she defended the right to offend, following the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy. She condemned the journalists of those papers and TV channels that did not show their readers the cartoons as being "mediocre of mind" and of trying to hide behind those "noble-sounding terms such as 'responsibility' and 'sensitivity'". She also praised publishers all over Europe for showing the cartoons and not being afraid of what she called the "hard-line Islamist movement", and stated "I do not seek to offend religious sentiment, but I will not submit to tyranny. Demanding that people who do not accept Muhammad’s teachings should refrain from drawing him is not a request for respect but a demand for submission."
Hirsi Ali supported the move by the Dutch courts to abrogate the party subsidy to a conservative
ProtestantChristian political party, the Political Reformed Party(SGP), which did not grant full membership rights to women and still withholds passive voting rights from female members. She stated that "any political party discriminating against women or homosexuals should be deprived of funding." [ [http://www.brusselsjournal.com/node/634 Paul Belien "What Can This 'European of the Year' Teach Us?" "Brussels Journal," 5 January 2006] Retrieved March 25 2007.]
Hirsi Ali has also stated that she wants the Belgian authorities to ban the
Vlaams Belangparty, claiming that "it hardly differs from the Hofstad Group. Though the VB members have not committed any violent crimes yet, they are just postponing them and waiting until they have an absolute majority. On many issues they have exactly the same opinions as the Muslim extremists: on the position of women, on the suppression of gays, on abortion. This way of thinking will lead straight to genocide." ["Gazet van Antwerpen" ( 1 February 2006)]
Vlaams Belang leaders and press statements reacted to her allegations by denying the party rejects in any way the rights of women or in any way promotes genocidal policies, instead pointing out Vlaams Belang's support for
Shoahand Armenian genocidecommemorations. Vlaams Belang party leader Frank Vanheckeresponded to Hirsi Ali's allegations by writing an open letter to Hirsi Ali, stating that she is "closer to the Vlaams Belang with her viewpoints than to the Flemish Liberals." He also rejected the likeness with the Hofstad Group, saying that his party "has never and nowhere called for violence." The Vlaams Belang reacted to the retirement of Hirsi Ali from Dutch politics by stating that the party has "respect for the way she has conducted and promoted the debate in the Netherlands with respect to Islam, female oppression and failed integration." [ [http://www.vlaamsbelang.org/index.php?p=0&id=1889 Hirsi Ali gaat, Bouyeri blijft] , Vlaams Belang, May 17, 2006]
Opposition to denominational or faith schools
In the Netherlands about half of all education is provided by sponsored religious schools, most of them Catholic or Protestant, for historical reasons. Ayaan Hirsi Ali stated in November 2003 that no religious school should receive government financing.Fact|date=April 2007 This brought her into conflict with
Hans Wiegel, a prominent former VVD leader.
She went further in an interview with the London newspaper the "
Evening Standard" in 2007, [ interviewed by David Cohen, published 2 February 2007[http://www.lawcf.org/index.asp?page=Evening+Standard+article+on+Islam+in+Britain] and identically here [http://www.islamophobia-watch.com/islamophobia-watch/2007/2/7/violence-is-inherent-in-islam-it-is-a-cult-of-death.html] Retrieved March 24, 2007.] saying "Close the Islamic faith schools today. [...] Britain is sleepwalking into a society that could be ruled by Sharia law within decades unless Islamic schools are shut down and young Muslims are instead made to integrate and accept Western liberal values. [...] We have to show the next generation of Muslims, the children, that they have a choice, and to do that — to have any hope whatsoever — we have to close down the Islamic faith schools." However, she argued, ‘I haven’t seen anybody coming out of a Catholic or Jewish school advocating violence against women or homosexuals, or wanting to murder innocent people in the name of their religion.’ [ interviewed by David Cohen, published 2 February 2007[http://www.lawcf.org/index.asp?page=Evening+Standard+article+on+Islam+in+Britain] and identically here [http://www.islamophobia-watch.com/islamophobia-watch/2007/2/7/violence-is-inherent-in-islam-it-is-a-cult-of-death.html] Retrieved March 24, 2007.]
The Netherlands has always been one of the most prominent countries that support aiding developing countries. As the spokesperson of the VVD in the parliament on this matter, Hirsi Ali said that the current development aid policy did not work to increase prosperity, peace and stability in the developing countries: "The VVD believes that Dutch international aid has failed until now, as measured by [the Dutch aid effects on] poverty reduction, famine reduction, life expectancy and the promotion of peace." [ [http://www.wereldomroep.nl/achtergronden/nederland/hulp031119.html Snijden in bilaterale ontwikkelingshulp] , Wereldomroep,
November 19, 2003: "De VVD is van mening dat het Nederlands ontwikkelingsbeleid tot op heden is mislukt, gemeten aan armoedebestrijding, bestrijding van honger, aan levensverwachting en het bevorderen van vrede."]
In the Dutch newspaper "
De Volkskrant" of April 8, 2006she proposed the special screening of any Muslim applying for any job for possible links with terrorist groups. [ [http://ayaanhirsiali.web-log.nl/ayaanhirsiali/2006/04/ayaan_confronta.html Confrontatie, geen verzoening] , Ayaan Hirsi Ali, "De Volkskrant", April 8, 2006]
In 2003 Hirsi Ali worked together with fellow VVD MP
Geert Wildersfor several months. They questioned the government about immigration policy. In reaction to the UNDPArab Human Development Report Hirsi Ali asked the following question of Minister of Foreign Affairs Jaap de Hoop Schefferand the Minister without Portfoliofor Development Cooperation Agnes van Ardenne. Together with parliamentarian Geert Wildersshe asked the government to pay attention to the consequences for Dutch policy concerning the limitation of immigration from the Arab world to Europe, and in particular The Netherlands.
Although she always publicly supported the policy of VVD minister
Rita Verdonkregarding limited immigration, privately she was not supportive, as she explained in an interview for "Opzij".Het Nieuwe Leven van Ayaan, [http://www.opzij.nl/opzij/show/id=18755 Opzij] , June 2006] In parliament, she supported the way Verdonk handled the Pasic case, [ [http://www.elsevier.nl/nieuws/politiek/nieuwsbericht/asp/artnr/89153/index.html Hirsi Ali stoort zich aan ophef Taïda] , Elsevier, March 3, 2006] although privately she felt that Pasic should have been allowed to stay. On the night before the debate, she phoned Verdonk to tell her that she herself had lied when she fled to the Netherlands, just like Pasic. Verdonk responded that if she had been minister at that time, she would have deported Hirsi Ali. Subsequent actions of Verdonk led to the possibility of revoking Hirsi Ali's Dutch citizenship. The ensuing political upheaval ultimately led to the fall of the second Balkenende cabinet.
In the "Opzij" interview, Hirsi Ali also said she supported a general pardon and the granting of Dutch citizenship for a group of 26,000 refugees, who had spent more than five years in the Netherlands without hearing about the status of their asylum.cite news|title='Ik was een linkse vrouw in een rechtse partij';Ayaan Hirsi Ali kijkt terug en vooruit|publisher=
Opzij|date= 2006-07-01] The VVD forbade her to speak her mind on this issue.
Since leaving the Dutch parliament, Hirsi Ali has made further statements in support of restrictive immigration policies. She made her statements on this subject on
1 November 2006in the television program "Aspekte" on the German TV station ZDF. She said that she feared that Muslim immigrants, once in the majority, would introduce Sharialegislation.Fact|date=April 2007
Ali has expounded on her view on immigration in Europe [She puts its population at 450 million, which makes it clear she uses "
Europe" as shorthand for " European Union"] , in an article, published in the LA Timesin 2006 ["Europe's Immigration Quagmire", Los Angeles Times, October 22, 2006, M.1, also [http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/1149331111.html?dids=1149331111:1149331111&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Oct+22%2C+2006&author=Ayaan+Hirsi+Ali&pub=Los+Angeles+Times&edition=&startpage=M.1&desc=The+ostrich+and+the+owl%3A+a+bird%27s-eye+view+of+Europe "The ostrich and the owl"] . There is a revised version available online at [http://www.europeanfreedomalliance.eu/articles/The_Owl_and_the_Ostrich.htm "The Owl and the Ostrich"] . The original was published in the Canadian "Toronto Star" October 15, 2006.] . Noting first that immigrants are overrepresented "in all the wrong statistics", she sees as consequences of the European Union's current immigration policy, the trade in women and illegal arms, and the exploitation of poor migrants by "cruel employers", to which she adds that "Muslim migrants are receptive to the seduction of the Islamist movement". She draws the attention to the numbers of illegal immigrants already in the Union. In her view, current immigration policy will lead to ethnic and religious division, states will lose their monopoly of force, the islamic law, or sharia, will, in fact, be introduced at the level of neighborhoods and cities, and exploitationof women and children will become "commonplace". To avoid this situation, she proposes three general principles for a new policy:
* Admission of immigrants on the basis of their contribution to the economy. The current system "is designed to attract the highest number of people with truly heartbreaking stories".
* Diplomatic, economic and military interventions in countries which risk causing large migrant flows.
* Introduction of assimilation programs which acknowledge that "the basic
tenets of Islamare a major obstacle to integration".
Israel and the Palestinians
Israela few years ago, primarily to understand how it dealt so well with so many immigrants from different origins", Hirsi Ali says. "My main impression was that Israel is a liberal democracy. In the places I visited, including Jerusalemas well as Tel Avivand its beaches, I saw that men and women are equal. One never knows what happens behind the scenes, but that is how it appears to the visitor. The many women in the army are also very visible."
"I understood that a crucial element of success is the unifying factor among immigrants to Israel. Whether one arrives from
Ethiopiaor Russia, or one's grandparents immigrated from Europe, what binds them is being Jewish. Such a bond is lacking in the Netherlands. Our immigrants' background is diverse and also differs greatly from that of the Netherlands, including religion."
As for Israel's problems, Hirsi Ali says, "From my superficial impression, the country also has a problem with fundamentalists. The ultra-Orthodox will cause a demographic problem because these fanatics have more children than the secular and the regular Orthodox."
Palestinians: "I have visited the Palestinian quarters in Jerusalem as well. Their side is dilapidated, for which they blame the Israelis. In private, however, I met a young Palestinian who spoke excellent English. There were no cameras and no notebooks. He said the situation was partly their own fault, with much of the money sent from abroad to build Palestine being stolen by corrupt leaders".
"When I start to speak in the Netherlands about the corruption of the
Palestinian Authorityand the role of Arafat in the tragedy of Palestine, I do not get a large audience. Often one is talking to a wall. Many people reply that Israel first has to withdraw from the territories, and then all will be well with Palestine."
On the way Israel is perceived in the Netherlands: "The crisis of Dutch socialism can be sized up in its attitudes toward both Islam and Israel. It holds Israel to exceptionally high moral standards. The Israelis, however, will always do well, because they themselves set high standards for their actions.
"The standards for judging the Palestinians, however, are very low. Most outsiders remain silent on all the problems in their territories. That helps the Palestinians become even more corrupt than they already are. Those who live in the territories are not allowed to say anything about this because they risk being murdered by their own people." [cite news|url=http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?apage=1&cid=1154525796199&pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull|author=Manfred Gerstenfeld|title=Ayaan Hirsi Ali on Israel|publisher="Jerusalem Post"|date=
August 3, 2006]
Criticism of Hirsi Ali
On NPR's "Talk of the Nation" with Neil Conan, Ali said: "For empirical evidence on whether women and/or the Islamic world is in a crisis, I would like to refer Tony [a caller to the show] to the Arab Human Development report ... in which the writers of that report say the Arab/Islamic world is retarded when it comes to ... three factors: The freedom of the individual, knowledge, and the subjugation of women". [ [http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=7181401 'NPR Talk Show, 25:00'] ] Based on the above comment, Islamic columnist Hesham A. Hassaballa criticised Ali for "making sweeping generalizations about Islam and Muslims" as "the Arab Human Development report speaks only of the Arab - and not Islamic - world". [ [http://www.beliefnet.com/story/212/story_21294_2.html 'Ayan Hirsi Ali: A One-Note Islam Critic, by Hesham A. Hassaballa] ]
Hirsi has been accused of inconsistency because she obtained permission to immigrate under false pretences while warning against "mass immigration" in public. [citeweb|title=Secrets and lies that doomed a radical liberal|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2006/may/21/jasonburke.theobserver|publisher=guardian.co.uk|accessdate=2008-03-27]
In its critique of Ali's autobiography,
The Economistcalled her a " chameleonof a woman", referring to her "talent for reinvention". [citeweb|title=A critic of Islam|url=http://www.economist.com/books/displaystory.cfm?story_id=8663231|publisher=economist.com|accessdate=2008-03-27]
April 17, 2007, a lecture held by Hirsi Ali at the University of Pittsburghat Johnstowntook place under tight security, due to a protest by the local Muslim community. One of the protesters, Pittsburgh imamFouad El Bayly, stated that Hirsi Ali deserves the death sentence, but that she should be tried and judged in a Muslim country. Pittsburgh Tribune-Review: [http://pittsburghlive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/news/rss/print_503977.html Furor over author Ayaan Hirsi Ali's visit stirs debate on religious freedom] , April 22, 2007]
Ayaan Hirsi Ali attended the 2007
Sydney Writers' Festival, giving an interview on June 2, and the closing address the following day, an extract of which appeared in the " Sydney Morning Herald" of June 4. Hirsi Ali described her intellectual and religious journey as one in which she "lost respect not for Muslims but for what they fear." Stating she was accused of hating Muslims, and vilifying the Qur'an and Muhammad, she clarified that she did not hate Muslims, but rather the submission of free will. [ [http://www.smh.com.au/news/opinion/to-submit-to-the-book-is-to-exist-in-their-hell/2007/06/03/1180809336515.html To submit to the book is to exist in their hell] June 4, 2007]
In September it was announced that she would take part in the New Yorker Festival in an event with
Martin Amis. The event had originally paired Norman Mailerand Amis, but Mailer could not attend. However, it turned out that Hirsi Ali also could not attend, so she was replaced by Ian Buruma. [http://festival.newyorker.com/fri_event_list.cfm New Yorker Festival website] ]
*January 2004: awarded the Prize of Liberty by
Nova Civitas, a classical liberal think tankin the Low Countries.Fact|date=February 2007
November 20, 2004: awarded the Freedom Prize of Denmark's Liberal Party,cite news|url=http://www.berlingske.dk/indland/artikel:aid=507640|first=Jesper |last=Larsen|title=Venstre gav frihedspris til van Goghs inspirator|language=Danish|publisher= Berlingske Tidende|date= 2004-11-21|accessdate=2007-10-16] the country's largest party and government leader, "for her work to further freedom of speech and the rights of women".cite news|url=http://nyhederne.tv2.dk/article.php/id-8910662.html|title=Hirsi Ali i Odense er urealistisk|language=Danish|publisher=TV 2|date= 2007-10-09|accessdate=2007-10-16] Due to threats from Islamic fundamentalists she was not at the time able to receive it personally;cite news|url=http://www.e-pages.dk/venstre/1/13|title=Stormende bifald til hemmelig gæst|language=Danish|publisher=Venstre party magazine, Liberalt Overblik|date=December 2006|page=13|accessdate=2007-10-16] however a year later, November 18, 2005, she traveled to Denmark to thank Prime Minister and party leader Anders Fogh Rasmussenfor the prize,cite news|url=http://www.berlingske.dk/article/20051119/danmark/111190796/|first=Liv Arnth|last=Jørgensen|title=Ayaan Hirsi Ali takkede for frihedspris|language=Danish|publisher= Berlingske Tidende|date= 2005-11-19|accessdate=2007-10-16] and made an unannounced attendance at Liberal Party's 2006 convention to thank party members.
February 25, 2005: given the Harriet Freezerring Emancipation Prize by Cisca Dresselhuys, editor of the feminist magazine " Opzij", "for her work for the emancipation of Islamic women".Fact|date=February 2007
April 18, 2005: listed by American " Time Magazine" amongst the 100 Most Influential Persons of the World. She was put in the category "Leaders & Revolutionaries".cite news|url=http://www.time.com/time/subscriber/2005/time100/leaders/100ali.html|first=Irshad|last=Manji|authorlink=Irshad Manji|title=The 2005 TIME 100: Ayaan Hirsi Ali|publisher=TIME|accessdate=2007-01-07]
March 7, 2005: awarded the Tolerance Prize of Madrid. [ [http://www.madrid.org/lapresidencia/contenidos/mejor_imagen/200503/galeria_02.htm madrid.org] Photo that show the moment when the president of the Region of Madrid gives the award to Hirsi Ali]
*June 2005: awarded the annual European
BellwetherPrize by the Norwegian thinktank Human Rights Service. According to HRS, Hirsi Ali is “beyond a doubt, the leading European politician in the field of integration. (She is) a master at the art of mediating the most difficult issues with insurmountable courage, wisdom, reflectiveness, and clarity". [ Diplom fra HRS til Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Human Rights Service [http://www.rights.no/islam_gen/sent_deb/ayaan_hirsi_ali/hrs_25.84_050706_102.htm Diplom fra HRS til Ayaan Hirsi Ali] , Human Rights Service, June 23, 2005]
August 29, 2005: awarded the annual Democracy Prize of the Swedish Liberal People's Party "for her courageous work for democracy, human rights and women's rights." She received the prize at a ceremony at the Swedish Riksdagfrom the party leader Lars Leijonborg. [sv icon [http://www.folkpartiet.se/FPTemplates/ListPage____22555.aspx Demokratipriset till Ayaan Hirsi Ali] , Liberal People's Party]
*Voted European of the Year for 2006 by the European editors of
Reader's Digestmagazine. At a ceremony in The Hague on January 23, Hirsi Ali accepted this award from EU Competition Commissioner, Neelie Kroes. [citeweb|title=RD European of the Year 2006|url=http://www.readersdigest.co.uk/rd-european-of-the-year-2006-i-52.html|publisher= Reader's Digest|accessdate=2008-03-27]
May 4, 2006: accepted the Moral Courage Award from the American Jewish Committee. [ [http://www.ajc.org/site/apps/nl/content2.asp?c=ijITI2PHKoG&b=1591361&ct=2387665 Moral Courage Award to Ayaan Hirsi Ali and Shoaib Choudhury] American Jewish Committee, May 4, 2006]
October 1, 2006: given the civilian prize "Glas der Vernunft" Kassel, Germany. The organisation rewarded her with this prize for her dedication to the integration of migrants and against discrimination of women.Fact|date=February 2007 Other laureates have included Leah Rabin, the wife of former Israeli prime-minister Yitzhak Rabin, and Hans-Dietrich Genscher, former Foreign Ministerof the Federal Republic of Germany.Fact|date=February 2007
December 7, 2007: given the Goldwater Award for 2007 from the Goldwater Institute in Phoenix, Arizona, at a dinner attended by Senate Minority Whip Jon Kyl(R-Arizona), Rep. John Shadegg(R-Arizona), and Steve Forbes. [citeweb|title=The 2007 Goldwater Award Dinner Honoring Ayaan Hirsi Ali|url=http://www.goldwaterinstitute.org/events/eventdetails.aspx?id=103|publisher=goldwaterinstitute.org|accessdate=2008-03-27]
September 11, 2008: presented with the Anisfield-Wolf Book Awardfor nonfiction for her book for "Infidel". Due to security concerns because of the death threats, the award was not announced in advance, but was a surprise presentation at the award ceremony in Cleveland, Ohio, presided over by Rita Dove. ["An Interview with Ayaan Hirsi Ali," Karen R. Long, Cleveland Plain Dealer; September 11, 2008 [http://www.cleveland.com/arts/index.ssf/2008/09/an_interview_with_ayaan_hirsi.html web version] accessed Thursday September 11, 2008] The Anisfield-Wolf awards recognize "recent books that have made important contributions to our understanding of racism and appreciation of the rich diversity of human culture."
* "De Zoontjesfabriek over vrouwen, Islam en integratie", translated as "The Son Factory: About Women, Islam and Integration". A collection of essays and lectures from before 2002. It also contains an extended interview originally published in "Opzij", a feminist magazine. The book focuses on the position of Muslims in the Netherlands.
* "De Maagdenkooi", translated as "". A collection of essays and lectures from 2003–2004, combined with her personal experiences as a translator working for the NMS. The book focuses on the position of women in Islam.
* "Mijn Vrijheid", translated as "Infidel". An autobiography published in Dutch in September 2006 by publisher Augustus, Amsterdam and Antwerp, 447 pages, ISBN-10 90 457 0112x/ISBN-13 978 90 457, [ [http://www.ayaanmijnvrijheid.nl/ "Mijn vrijheid"] , Official book website] and in English in February 2007. [ [http://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/074329503X "The Infidel: The Story of My Enlightenment"] , Amazon.co.uk. Retrieved
March 24, 2007.] It was edited by Richard Miniter. Like "The Caged Virgin", this work has had respectful but unenthusiastic reviews in the Times Literary Supplement. [ TLS 6 April 2007 page 33, review by David Morgan]
* forthcoming: "Short Cuts to Enlightenment", a philosophical fantasy in which Muhammad wakes up in the
New York Public Libraryand is "challenged by John Stuart Mill, Frederick Hayek and Karl Popper, [Hirsi Ali's] favourite liberal thinkers". [ interviewed by David Cohen, published 2 February 2007[http://www.lawcf.org/index.asp?page=Evening+Standard+article+on+Islam+in+Britain] and identically here [http://www.islamophobia-watch.com/islamophobia-watch/2007/2/7/violence-is-inherent-in-islam-it-is-a-cult-of-death.html] ]
Criticism of Islam
Criticism of Islamism
Notes and references
* [http://www.aei.org/scholars/filter.all,scholarID.117/scholar.asp Ayaan Hirsi Ali profile] at the
American Enterprise Institute( [http://www.aei.org/scholars/filter.all,scholarID.117,type.1/pub_list.asp publications] )
* [http://ayaanhirsiali.web-log.nl/ayaanhirsiali/english/index.html Ayaan Hirsi Ali affairs - Weblog] Ayaan Hirsi Ali weblog (English language version)
* [http://www.samharris.org/site/security_trust/ayaan_hirsi_ali Ayaan Hirsi Ali Security Trust]
* [http://www.ayaanhirsiali.org Ayaan's personal site]
* [http://www.abc.net.au/rn/spiritofthings/stories/2007/1942687.htm Ayaan Hirsi Ali speaks with Rachael Kohn at a Sydney Writers Festival event] - "The Spirit of Things" ABC
Radio NationalJune 2007
* [http://www.commonwealthclub.org/archive/07/07-02ali-audio.html Speech given to Commonwealth Club of California]
February 20 2007
* [http://www.comedycentral.com/shows/the_colbert_report/videos/celebrity_interviews/index.jhtml?playVideo=83810&rsspartner=rssAppleSyndication Video interview with Stephen Colbert]
March 15 2007
* [http://www.cbc.ca/wordsatlarge/features/feature.php?storyId=348 Interview on The Current, online at CBC Words at Large (audio)]
March 5 2007
* [http://www.guernicamag.com/interviews/283/infidel/ Interview with Ayaan Hirsi Ali in Guernica Magazine (guernicamag.com)]
* [http://nymag.com/arts/books/profiles/27304/ Interview with Ayaan Hirsi Ali "New York Magazine"]
February 12 2007
* [http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/focus/antisemitism/voices/transcript/index.php?content=20070104 "Voices on Antisemitism" Interview with Ayaan Hirsi Ali] from the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum
* [http://service.spiegel.de/cache/international/spiegel/0,1518,356485,00.html Interview with Der Spiegel]
May 14, 2005
* [http://www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/0,1518,399263,00.html Interview with Der Spiegel]
February 6, 2006
* [http://www.wnyc.org/shows/bl/episodes/2006/05/05 Interview on the Brian Lehrer Show]
May 5, 2006"WNYC"
* [http://youtube.com/watch?v=U3tgY_eI_P0 Interview with Glenn Beck]
* [http://littlegreenfootballs.com/weblog/?entry=20439&only Video Interview with Norway's NRK television] Feb, 2006
* [http://littlegreenfootballs.com/weblog/?entry=20481&only Interview with Danish DR1 Television]
November 16, 2005(Danish intro, interview in English)
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/g2/story/0,,1485350,00.html Interview with The Guardian]
May 17, 2005
* [http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4632123 Interview with NPR]
May 5, 2005
* [http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5382547 Interview with NPR]
May 4, 2006(text includes preface from English translation of "The Caged Virgin")
* [http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/03/11/60minutes/main679609.shtml Interview with CBS News]
March 13, 2005
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3322399.stm Interview with the BBC] -
23 December 2003
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4640606.stm Interview with the BBC] -
24 January 2006
* [http://sugiero.blogspot.com/2006/05/video-ayaan-hirsi-ali-interviewed-on.html Video interview with Hirsi Ali (Channel 4, Great Britain) and several links to other Hirsi Ali related articles]
* [http://www.cbc.ca/onthemap/fullpage.php?id=87 Appearance in On The Map with Avi Lewis (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC)]
June 11, 2007
* [http://www.townhall.com/talkradio/Show.aspx?RadioShowID=3&ContentGuid=6854b05d-05d6-42a0-b981-fd1b20e4a60f interview with Avi Lewis of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) as critiqued by Dennis Prager] -
16 July 2007
* [http://www.ft.com/cms/s/73ea88c8-0489-11da-a775-00000e2511c8.html Ian Buruma: Sacred freedom] , "
Financial Times", 5 August 2005
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4985636.stm Profile: Ayaan Hirsi Ali] , "
BBC News", May 16, 2006
* [http://lark.phoblacht.net/AM1203062g.html Profile: Ayaan Hirsi Ali] , "The Blanket",
12 March 2006
* [http://observer.guardian.co.uk/review/story/0,,2005258,00.html Interview with The Observer]
4 February 2007
;By Hirsi Ali
* Ayaan Hirsi Ali, [http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/06/books/review/Ali-t.html?ref=books"Blind Faiths"] (book review), NY Times, 6 Jamuary 2008
* Ayaan Hirsi Ali, "Infidel" (autobiography) 2007 [http://www.simonsays.com/content/book.cfm?sid=33&isbn=0743289684]
* Ayaan Hirsi Ali, "Islam and Europe's Identity Deficit", "
Brown Journal of World Affairs",  12:1 51-64.
* Ayaan Hirsi Ali, [http://www.trouw.nl/hetnieuws/nederland/article318849.ece/Tweede-Kamerfractie+%2F+Persverklaring+Ayaan+Hirsi+Ali+(Engels Tweede-Kamerfractie / Persverklaring Ayaan Hirsi Ali (in English)] , "
Trouw", 16 May 2006.
* Ayaan Hirsi Ali, [http://www.iht.com/articles/2005/08/22/news/edali.php "Let's Talk About How To Close The Identity Gap"] , "
International Herald Tribune", 23 August 2005(excerpted from "Brown Journal of World Affairs", August 2006).
* Ayaan Hirsi Ali, [http://www.digitalnpq.org/articles/global/123/10-18-2006/ayaan_hirsi_ali Reflections Upon Leaving Europe - How To Reconcile Immigration And Pluralism] , "Global Viewpoint/New Perspectives Quarterly",
10 October 2006.
* Ayaan Hirsi Ali, [http://www.aei.org/publications/filter.all,pubID.25318/pub_detail.asp Confronting Holocaust Denial] , "International Herald Tribune",
15 December 2006.
* Ayaan Hirsi Ali, [http://www.digitalnpq.org/archive/2007_summer/06_hirsi_ali.html Don't Disarm Secularism] , "New Perspectives quarterly (NPQ)", Summer 2007, Vol 24, No 3
* Fareena Alam, [http://www.newstatesman.com/Books/200607240051 "Enemy of the Faith"] , "
New Statesman", 19 July 2006
* Khaled Diab, [http://www.diabolicdigest.net/Europe/Ayaan.htm "Out but not down"] , "
Al-Ahram Weekly", 25 May 2006
* Dr. Hesham A. Hassaballa, [http://theamericanmuslim.org/tam.php/features/articles/ayaan_hirsi_ali_a_one_note_islam_critic/0013297 "Ayaan Hirsi Ali: A One-Note Islam Critic"] , "
The American Muslim", 2 March 2007
Laila Lalami, [http://www.thenation.com/doc/20060619/lalami " The Missionary Position"] , " The Nation", 1 June 2006
* Salafi Manhaj, [http://www.salafimanhaj.com/pdf/SalafiManhaj_Saudi.pdf "The Travesty of 'Ayaan Hirsi 'Ali', on page 17 of this article"] ,
20 August 2006
* Rebecca Seal, [http://observer.guardian.co.uk/review/story/0,,1805064,00.html "A good case, a bad argument"] , "
The Observer", 25 June 2006
* Haroon Siddiqui, [http://www.thestar.com/NASApp/cs/ContentServer?pagename=thestar/Layout/Article_Type1&c=Article&cid=1148077815982&call_pageid=970599109774&col=Columnist969907621513 "Why the jig is up for Hirsi Ali in Holland"] , "
The Toronto Star", 21 May 2006
* Khaled Shawkat, [http://www.islamonline.net/English/News/2003-01/27/article09.shtml "Dutch MP Creates Seismic Waves by Insulting Prophet Muhammad"] , "Islam Online",
27 January 2006.
* [http://www.thecrimson.com/article.aspx?ref=513434"Dutch Activist Discusses Islam"] (Ayaan Hirsi Ali at Harvard), "
The Harvard Crimson", May 10, 2006
* [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/14/books/14grim.html Book review of "Infidel"] ,
14 February 2007, "New York Times"
* Christopher Hitchens [http://www.slate.com/id/2161171/ "She's No Fundamentalist"] , "Slate"
5 March 2007
* Rogier van Bakel [http://www.reason.com/news/show/122457.html 'The Trouble Is the West'] (interview w. Ayaan Hirsi Ali), "Reason online", November 2007
NAME = Ali, Ayaan Hirsi
ALTERNATIVE NAMES = Magan, Ayaan Hirsi
SHORT DESCRIPTION = Dutch feminist,
DATE OF BIRTH =
November 13, 1969
PLACE OF BIRTH =
DATE OF DEATH =
PLACE OF DEATH =
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Ayaan Hirsi Ali — Ayaan Hirsi Ali, 2006 Ayaan Hirsi Ali (Ayaan Hirsi Magan Isse Guleid Ali Wai ays Muhammad Ali Umar Osman Mahamud; * 13. November 1969 in Mogadischu, Somalia) ist eine niederländische Politikerin, Frauenrechtlerin und Islamkritikerin s … Deutsch Wikipedia
Ayaan Hirsi-Ali — Ayaan Hirsi Ali , de son vrai nom Ayaan Hirsi Magan, est une femme politique som … Wikipédia en Français
Ayaan Hirsi Ali — de son vrai nom Ayaan Hirsi Magan, est une femme politique néerlandaise, née à Mogadiscio en … Wikipédia en Français
Ayaan Hirsi Ali — Ayaan Hirsi Magan … Wikipedia Español
Ayaan Hirsi Magan — Ayaan Hirsi Ali (Ayaan Hirsi Magan Isse Guleid Ali Wai ays Muhammad Ali Umar Osman Mahamud;  * 13. November 1969 in Mogadischu, Somalia) ist eine niederländische Politikerin, Frauenrechtlerin und Islamkritikerin somalischer Herkunft. Sie war… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Hirsi Ali — Ayaan Hirsi Ali (Ayaan Hirsi Magan Isse Guleid Ali Wai ays Muhammad Ali Umar Osman Mahamud;  * 13. November 1969 in Mogadischu, Somalia) ist eine niederländische Politikerin, Frauenrechtlerin und Islamkritikerin somalischer Herkunft. Sie war… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Ayaan Hirsi Magan — Ayaan Hirsi Ali Ayaan Hirsi Ali Ayaan Hirsi Ali , de son vrai nom Ayaan Hirsi Magan, est une femme politique som … Wikipédia en Français
Hirsi Ali Dis — (also spelled diss ) is the name of a rap song produced and distributed by the Dutch group The Hague Connection. The lyrics speak of a plan to assassinate Tweede Kamerlid Ayaan Hirsi Ali, led to the group s prosecution under Article 121 of the… … Wikipedia
HIRSI ALI (Magan), Ayaan — (1969– ) Politician of Somali origin who escaped to the Netherlands in 1992 to avoid an arranged mar riage. After she joined the Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democra tie (VVD), Hirsi Ali was elected to Parliament in 2003. Together with Theo… … Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands
ALI, Ayaan Hirsi — See HIRSI ALI, Ayaan (1969– ) … Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands