- Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
World War IIand the The Holocaust
Jürgen StroopReport to Heinrich Himmlerfrom May 1943 and one of the most famous pictures of World War II
April 19 1943- May 16 1943
Warsaw Ghetto, Poland
Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg(few hours only) Jürgen Stroop
Stroop's field commanders (including
Franz Bürkland Erich Steidtmann)
Icchak Cukierman Marek Edelman Paweł FrenkielKIA Henryk Iwański(AK) Zivia Lubetkin Dawid Wdowiński
and others (mostly killed)
strength1=Official daily average of 2,090 troops (including 821 Waffen-SS) according to the German internal report.
strength2=Some 220 [http://ejpress.org/article/news/eastern_europe/16128 Last Warsaw ghetto revolt commander honours fallen comrades] ] to 600 ŻOB and 150 to 400 ŻZW fighters (on April 19, 1943). Smaller numbers of a Polish fighters engaged at the different times.
Up to 70,000
killed in actionand 85 wounded according to the Jürgen Stroop's report for Friedrich Krüger; possibly higher.
casualties2=Total of 56,065 Jews accounted for (killed and deported) according to the Stroop's report; some 71,000 in his own unofficial count.
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (German: "Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto", Polish: "Powstanie w getcie warszawskim") was the Jewish
insurgencythat arose within the Warsaw Ghettoin Polandduring World War II, and which opposed Nazi Germany's effort to transport the remaining ghetto population to the Treblinka extermination camp. The insurgency was launched against the Germans on January 18 1943. The most significant portion of the insurgency took place from April 19until May 16, 1943, and ended when the poorly-armed and supplied resistance was crushed by the German troops under the direct command of Jürgen Stroop. It was the largest single revolt by the Jews during the Holocaust. [ [http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005407 JEWISH UPRISINGS IN GHETTOS AND CAMPS, 1941-1944] USHMM]
In 1940, the Nazis began concentrating Poland's population of over three million Jews into a number of extremely crowded ghettos located in large Polish cities. The largest of these, the
WarsawGhetto, concentrated approximately 300,000–400,000 people into a densely packed central area of Warsaw. Thousands of Jews died due to rampant diseaseand starvationunder the SS and Police Leader Odilo Globocnikand SS-" Standartenführer" Ludwig Hahn, even before the mass deportations from the ghetto to the Treblinka extermination campbegan. The Naziforces conducted most of the deportations during the Gross Aktion, between July 23and September 21of 1942.cite web|url=http://www1.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/microsoft%20word%20-%205724.pdf|title=Aktion Reinhard|publisher=Yad Vashem Shoah Resource Center, The International School for Holocaust Studies. "See: "Aktion Reinhard" named after Reinhard Heydrich, the main organizer of the " Final Solution"; also, Treblinka, 50 miles northeast of Warsaw, set up June/July 1942."] pl icon en icon Barbara Engelking-Boni; Centrum Badań nad Zagładą Żydów IFiS PAN, [http://warszawa.getto.pl/index.php Warsaw Ghetto Internet Database] hosted by [http://www.holocaustresearch.pl Polish Center for Holocaust Research] The Fund for support of Jewish Institutions or Projects, 2006. "Timeline. See: 22 July, 1942 — the beginning of the great deportation action in the Warsaw ghetto; transports leave from Umschlagplatzfor Treblinka."] Approximately 254,000–300,000 Ghetto residents met their deaths at Treblinka during the two–month–long operation. The Gross-aktionwas directed by SS Oberfuhrer Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg, the commander of the Warsaw area since 1941.The Nizkor Project, [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/strooptest.html Statement by Stroop to CMP investigators about his actions in the Warsaw Ghetto (February 24, 1946)] Wiesbaden, Germany, 24 February 1946.] He was relieved of duty by SS–and–Polizeifuehrer Jürgen Stroopsent to Warsaw by Heinrich Himmleron April 17, 1943.Moshe Arens, [http://www.freeman.org/m_online/may03/arens.htm Who Defended The Warsaw Ghetto?] The Jerusalem Post] [ [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/Strooptoc.html Jurgen Stroop Diary, including The Stroop Report: Table of Contents] ( Jewish Virtual Library)] Stroop took over from Sammern following his unsuccessful ghetto offensive.Jewish Virtual Library, [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/sammern.html Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg] Source: Danny Dor (Ed.), "Brave and Desperate. Israel Ghetto Fighters", 2003, p. 166.] Just before the action began, German Schutzstaffelheaded by the "Resettlement Commissioner", SS Sturmbannfuhrer Hermann Höfle, called the meeting of the Ghetto Jewish Council Judenratand informed its leader Adam Czerniakówabout the "resettlement to the East". [Treblinka — ein Todeslager der "Aktion Reinhard", in: "Aktion Reinhard" — Die Vernichtung der Juden im Generalgouvernement, Bogdan Musial(ed.), Osnabrück 2004, pp. 257–281.] [Court of Assizes in Düsseldorf, Germany. "Excerpts From Judgments (Urteilsbegründung). AZ-LG Düsseldorf: II 931638".] [http://www.nizkor.org/faqs/reinhard/reinhard-faq-13.html "Operation Reinhard: Treblinka Deportations"] The Nizkor Project, 1991–2008 ] Czerniakow committed suicide once he became aware of the true meaning of the Nazi treacherous plan.
When the deportations first began, members of the Jewish resistance movement met and decided not to fight the
SSdirectives, believing that the Jews were being sent to labour camps and not to their deaths. By the end of 1942 however, it became known to Ghetto inhabitants that the deportations were part of an extermination process. Many of the remaining Jews decided to resist. [http://www.ushmm.org/outreach/wgupris.htm Warsaw Ghetto Uprising] USHMM]
January 1943 rebellion
January 18, 1943, the Germans began their second deportation of the Jews, which led to the first instance of armed insurgency within the ghetto. While Jewish families hid in their "bunkers," Germans and the Jewish Combat Organization("Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa", ŻOB) fighters engaged in two direct clashes. As a consequence, even as the ŻOB suffered severe losses (among them Yitzhak Gitterman), the deportation was halted within a few days, and only 5,000 Jews were removed instead of the 8,000 as planned by Globocnik. There were almost a thousand people in the Warsaw ghetto ready to fight, adults and children. They were armed with pistols, and a few other weapons that had been smuggled into the ghetto. [http://www.historynet.com/magazines/world_war_2/3032951.html?page=2&c=y World War II: Warsaw Ghetto Uprising] history.net]
Two resistance organizations, the
Jewish Military Union("Żydowski Związek Wojskowy", ŻZW) and the ŻOB took control of the Ghetto. They built dozens of fighting posts and executed Jews whom they considered to be Nazi collaborators, including Jewish Police officers and Gestapoagents. [ [http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/Holocaust/warsaw-uprising.html The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman] ] The ŻOB established a prison to hold and execute traitors and collaborators. [ [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/Benjamin_Wald.html Benjamin Wald] Jewish Virtual Library] Józef Szeryński, the former head of the Jewish Police, committed suicide. [ [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/Szerynski.html Josef “Andzi” Szerynski] Jewish Virtual Library]
Ghetto fighters were armed, if at all, mostly only with
pistols and revolvers, which were of limited value in combat. Just a few rifles and automatic firearms were available. The insurgents had little ammunition, and relied heavily on improvised explosive devices and incendiary bottles. Some more weapons were supplied throughout the uprising or captured from the Germans. In his report of May 24, 1943, Stroop claimed to have captured a total of "seven Polish rifles, one Russian and one German rifle, 59 pistols of various calibers, several hundred incendiary bottles, home-made explosives, infernal machines with fuses, a large amount of explosives and ammunition for weapons of all calibers, including some machine gun ammunition" (adding that his forces were able to recover only a small part of the insurgent weapons).
Support from outside the Ghetto was limited, but
Polish Resistanceunits from "Armia Krajowa" (AK) (the Home Army) [http://www.amopod.org/uprising/Addend_2.htm Addendum 2 – Facts about Polish Resistance and Aid to Ghetto Fighters] , Roman Barczynski, Americans of Polish Descent, Inc. Last accessed on 13 June 2006.] and Polish Communist "Gwardia Ludowa" (GL) (the People's Guard) [ [http://wilk.wpk.p.lodz.pl/~whatfor/getto_43.htm Getto 1943 ] ] attacked German sentry units near the ghetto walls and attempted to smuggle weapons, ammunition, and other materials and instructions into the ghetto. Polish resistance also provided the insurgents with badly needed weapons and ammunitions from its meager stocks.Andrzej Sławiński, " [http://www.polishresistance-ak.org/5%20Article.htm Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and The Polish Home Army – Questions and Answers ] ". Translated from Polish by Antoni Bohdanowicz. Article on the pages of the London Branch of the Polish Home Army Ex-Servicemen Association. Last accessed on March 14 2008.] AK also disseminated information and appeals to help the Jews in the ghetto, both in Poland and by way of radiotransmissions to the Allies. Several ŻOB commanders and fighters escaped through the sewers with assistance from the Poles.
One Polish unit from AK, the
National Security Corps("Państwowy Korpus Bezpieczeństwa"), under the command of Henryk Iwański"Bystry", fought inside the Ghetto along with ŻZW. Subsequently, both groups retreated together (including 34 Jewish fighters) to the so-called "Aryan side". Although Iwański's action is the most well-known rescue mission, it was only one of many actions undertaken by the Polish resistance to help the Jews. Stefan Korbonski, "The Polish Underground State: A Guide to the Underground, 1939-1945", pages 120-139, [http://www.ucis.pitt.edu/eehistory/H200Readings/Topic4-R3.html Excerpts] ] In one attack, three units of AK under command kpt. Józef Pszenny"Chwacki" tried to breach the Ghetto walls with explosives, but the Germans defeated this action. AK and GL engaged the Germans between April 19 and April 23at six different locations outside the ghetto walls, shooting at German sentries and positions and in one case attempting to blow-up a gate.Stefan Korbonski [http://www.ucis.pitt.edu/eehistory/H200Readings/Topic4-R3.html The Polish Underground State: A Guide to the Underground, 1939-1945] ]
Participation of the Polish underground in the uprising was confirmed by a report of the German commander
Jürgen Stroop. He wrote that his forces were "...permanently under gun fire behind the ghetto. It means from the Aryan side .. When we invaded the Ghetto for the first time, the Jews and the Polish bandits succeeded in repelling the participating units, including tanks and armored cars, by a well-prepared concentration of fire." He described Iwański's action: "The main Jewish battle group, mixed with Polish bandits, had already retired during the first and second day to the so-called Muranowski Square. There, it was reinforced by a considerable number of Polish bandits." [cite web |url= http://www.holocaust-history.org/works/stroop-report/jpg/strp012.jpg|title= The Stroop Report: The Warsaw Ghetto Is No More|pages= 5|language=German/English|accessdate=2008-02-28 |format= |work= ]
Ultimately, the combined efforts of the Polish and Jewish resistance fighters proved insufficient against the German forces. The Germans eventually committed an average daily force of 2,090 well-armed troops, including 821 "
Waffen-SS" " Panzergrenadier" troops (consisting of five SS reserve and training battalions and one SS cavalryreserve and training battalion), as well as 363 Polish Blue Policemen, who were ordered by the Germans to cordon the walls of the Ghetto.From the [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/nowarsaw.html Stroop Report] by SS GruppenführerJürgen Stroop, May 1943.]
The other forces were drawn from the SS "
Ordnungspolizei" (Orpo) "order police" (battalions from the regiments 22rd and 23rd), the SS " Sicherheitsdienst" (SD) security service, Warsaw Gestapo, one battalion each from two " Wehrmacht" railroad combat engineers regiments, a battery of "Wehrmacht" anti-aircraft artillery(and one field gun), a battalion of Ukrainian "Trawniki-Männer" from the SS Final Solutiontraining camp Trawniki, Lithuanian and Latvian auxiliary policemen known by the nickname "Askaris" (Latvian " Arajs Kommando" and Lithuanian "Saugumas"), and technical emergency corps. Polish fire brigadepersonnel were forced to help in the operation. In addition, a number of "Gestapo" jailers and executioners from the nearby Pawiakprison, under the command of Franz Bürkl, volunteered to hunt for the Jews. Most of the remaining Jewish policemen were executed by the "Gestapo", or used in the offensive and then subsequently executed as well.
On the eve of
Passover, April 19, 1943, the police and SS auxiliary forces entered the Ghetto under the command of SS- Oberführer Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg, planning to complete their "Aktion" within three days. However, they suffered losses as they were repeatedly ambushed by Jewish insurgents, who shot and launched Molotov cocktails and hand grenades at them from alleyways, sewers and windows. A French-made Lorraine 37L armoured fighting vehicleand an armoured car were set afire with ŻOB petrol bombs, and the German advance was halted. [http://www.historynet.com/magazines/world_war_2/3032951.html?page=3&c=y World War II: Warsaw Ghetto Uprising] ]
The Jewish insurgents achieved noteworthy success against von Sammern-Frankenegg's forces, and he subsequently lost his post as the SS and police commander of Warsaw. He was replaced by "SS-
Gruppenführer" (then " Brigadeführer") Jürgen Stroop, who rejected von Sammern-Frankenegg's proposal to call in bomber aircraftfrom Krakówand proceeded with a better-organized ground assault that included artillery support.
The longest-lasting defense of a position took place around the ŻZW stronghold at
Muranowski Squarefrom April 19 to late April. In the afternoon of April 19, two boys climbed up on the roof of the concrete headquarters of the ŻZW at Muranowski Square and raised two flags: the red-and-white Polish flagand the blue-and-white ŻZW flag (blue and white are the colors of the flag of Israeltoday). These flags were well-seen from the Warsaw streets and remained atop the house for four entire days, despite German attempts to remove them. Stroop recalled:
"The matter of the flags was of great political and moral importance. It reminded hundreds of thousands of the Polish cause, it excited them and unified the population of the General-Government, but especially Jews and Poles. Flags and national colors are a means of combat exactly like a rapid-fire weapon, like thousands of such weapons. We all knew that -
Heinrich Himmler, Krüger, and Hahn. The Reichsfuehrer [Himmler] bellowed into the phone: "Stroop, you must at all costs bring down those two flags." [ [http://www.freeman.org/m_online/may03/arens.htm THE CHANGING FACE OF MEMORY: Who Defended The Warsaw Ghetto?] The Jerusalem Post]
Another German armoured vehicle was destroyed in an insurgent
counterattack, in which ŻZW commander Dawid Apfelbaum was also killed. After Stroop's ultimatumto surrender was rejected by the defenders, the Nazis resorted to systematically burning houses block by block with flamethrowers and blowing up basements and sewers: "We were beaten by the flames, not the Germans"," recalled Marek Edelmanin 2007. "The sea of flames flooded houses and courtyards... There was no air, only black, choking smoke and heavy burning heat radiating form the red-hot walls, from the glowing stone stairs"," Edelman recalled in 2003. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2961767.stm Warsaw Jews mark uprising] BBC News]
The ŻZW lost all its leaders and, on
April 29, 1943, the remaining fighters escaped the ghetto through the Muranowski tunnel, and relocated to the Michalinforest. This event marked the end of the organized resistance, and of significant fighting.
The remaining Jews, civilians and surviving fighters took cover in the "bunker" dugouts which were carefully hidden among the largely burned-out ruins of the ghetto. The German troops employed dogs to discover the hideouts, using
smoke grenades and tear gas(and reportedly even poison gas) to force Jews out. In many instances, the Jews came out of their hiding places firing at the Germans, while a number of female fighters lobbed hidden grenades or fired concealed handguns after they had surrendered. Small groups of Jewish insurgents engaged German patrols in night-time skirmishes. However, German losses were minimal following the first ten days of the uprising.
May 8, 1943, the Germans discovered the ŻOB's main command post, located at Miła 18Street. Most of its leadership and dozens of remaining fighters were killed, while others committed mass suicideby ingesting cyanide. The dead included the organization's commander, Mordechaj Anielewicz. His deputy, Edelman, escaped through the sewers on May 10with a handful of comrades. Two days later, the Bundist Szmul Zygielbojmcommitted suicide in Londonin protest, citing a lack of assistance for the insurgents on the part of Western governments:
"I cannot continue to live and to be silent while the remnants of Polish Jewry, whose representative I am, are being murdered. My comrades in the Warsaw ghetto fell with arms in their hands in the last heroic battle. I was not permitted to fall like them, together with them, but I belong with them, to their mass grave. By my death, I wish to give expression to my most profound protest against the inaction in which the world watches and permits the destruction of the Jewish people."
The suppression of the uprising officially ended on
May 16, 1943. Nevertheless, sporadic shooting could be heard within the Ghetto throughout the summer of 1943. The uprising was put down conclusively in a battle which took place on June 5, 1943between Germans and a group of Jewish fighters without connection to the resistance groups.
Approximately 13,000 Jewish residents were killed during the uprising (some 6,000 among them were burnt alive or died from
smoke inhalation). Of the remaining 50,000 inhabitants, most were captured and shipped to concentration and extermination camps, in particular to Treblinka.
Jürgen Stroop's internal SS report for
Friedrich Krüger, written on May 13 1943, stated:
"180 Jews, bandits and sub-humans, were destroyed. The former Jewish quarter of Warsaw is no longer in existence. The large-scale action was terminated at 20:15 hours by blowing up the Warsaw Synagogue. (...) Total number of Jews dealt with 56,065, including both Jews caught and Jews whose extermination can be proved. (...) Apart from 8 buildings (police barracks, hospital, and accommodations for housing working-parties) the former Ghetto is completely destroyed. Only the dividing walls are left standing where no explosions were carried out."
According to the Stroop's report, his forces suffered 16
killed in actionand 86 wounded (these figures included over 60 members of Waffen-SS, and did not include the Jewish collaborators). The real number of German losses, however, may be well higher if unknown. For the propagandapurposes, official German casualties were claimed to be only few wounded and none killed, while the Polish undergroundbulletins claimed that hundreds of Nazis died in the fighting.
Former Ghetto under continued Nazi occupation
After the uprising, most of the incinerated houses were razed, and the
Warsaw concentration campcomplex was established in their place. Thousands of people died in the camp or were executed in the ruins of the ghetto. At the same time, the SS were hunting down the remaining Jews still hiding in the ruins.
In 1944, during the general
Warsaw Uprising, the AK battalion "Zośka" was able to save 380 Jewish concentration camp prisoners from the Gęsiówkasub-camp, most whom immediately joined the AK. A few small groups of Ghetto inhabitants also managed to survive in the underground sewer system.
Fate of the German war criminals
Bürkl was assassinated by the Polish resistance in the
Operation Bürklin October 1943. In the same month, von Sammern-Frankenegg was killed by Croatian partisans in Yugoslavia.
Globocnik, Himmler, and Krüger all followed
Adolf Hitlerand committed suicide in May 1945.
Stroop was convicted of
war crimes in two different trials and executed by hangingin Poland in 1952 (his aide Erich Steidtmannwas exonerated for "minimal involvement"). Hahn went into hiding until 1975, when he was apprehended and sentenced to life for crimes against humanity; he died in prison in 1986.
Relation to 1944 Warsaw Uprising
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943 is sometimes confused with the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. The two events were separated in time, and their aims were different. The first Ghetto uprising was an act of desperation, a choice between dying in battle with a slim hope of escape, or facing certain death in an extermination camp. The second uprising was a coordinated action, and part of the larger
However, hundreds of the survivors from the first uprising took part in the 1944 general
Warsaw Uprising, fighting in the ranks of the Armia Krajowaand Armia Ludowa.
The Warsaw kneeling
December 7, 1970, West German Chancellor Willy Brandtspontaneously knelt while visiting a monument to the Uprising in the former People's Republic of Poland. At the time, the action surprised many and was the focus of controversy, but it has since been credited with helping improve relations between the NATOand Warsaw Pactcountries.
Remembrance in Israel
A number of survivors of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, known as the "Ghetto Fighters," went on to found
Kibbutz Lohamey ha-Geta'ot(literally: "Ghetto Fighters' Kibbutz"), which is located north of Acre. The founding members of the kibbutz include Yitzhak Zuckerman, ŻOB deputy commander, and his wife Zivia Lubetkin, who also commanded a fighting unit. In 1984, the members of the kibbutz published "Dapei Edut" ("Testimonies of Survival"), four volumes of personal testimonies from 96 kibbutz members. The settlement also features a museumand archives dedicated to remembering the Holocaust. Yad Mordechai, another kibbutz just north of the Gaza Strip, was named after Mordechai Anielewicz.
Israel Defense ForcesChief of Staff Gabi Ashkenaziled a group of IDF officials to the site of uprising and spoke about the event's "importance for IDF combat soldiers." [Azoulay, Yuval. [http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/979101.html "IDF Chief, in Warsaw: Israeli, its army are answer to Holocaust."] " Haaretz". 29 April 2008. 29 April 2008.]
A Generation" (a film by Andrzej Wajda)
Border Street" (a film by Aleksander Ford)
Białystok Ghetto Uprising
Mila 18" (a novel by Leon Uris)
* "The Pianist" (a film by
*cite book| last = Edelman| first = Marek| authorlink = Marek Edelman| title = The Ghetto Fights: Warsaw, 1941-43| publisher = Bookmarks Publications | location = London| date = 1990| pages = | doi = | isbn = 0-9062-2456-X
*cite book| last = Gebhardt-Herzberg| first = Sabine | authorlink = | title = "Das Lied ist geschrieben mit Blut und nicht mit Blei": Mordechaj Anielewicz und der Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto| publisher = S. Gebhardt-Herzberg | location = Bielefeld | date = 2003| pages = | language = German| doi = | isbn = 3-0001-3643-6
*cite book| last = Moczarski| first = Kazimierz | authorlink = Kazimierz Moczarski| title = Conversations with an Executioner| publisher = Prentice Hall| location = Englewood Cliffs, N.J. | date = 1984| pages = | doi = | isbn = 978-0-300-09546-3
*cite book| last = Paulsson| first = Gunnar S.| authorlink = | title = Secret City: The Hidden Jews of Warsaw, 1940-1945| publisher = Yale University Press| location = New Haven| date = 2002| pages = | doi = | isbn = 0-1317-1918-1 [http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.cgi?path=252691081495762 Review]
* [http://www.holocaust-history.org/works/stroop-report/htm/strp001.htm.en Stroop Report online-in German and English]
* [http://www.jewishcurrents.org/2006-mar-gritz.htm Commemorating the Uprising]
Jewish Currentsin March 2006
* [http://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/resource/gallery/G1941WGU.htm Gallery of pictures from the Uprising] at A Teacher's Guide to Holocaust
* [http://gfh.org.il/Eng/ The Ghetto Fighters' House] at Holocaust and Jewish Resistance Heritage Museum
* [http://ejpress.org/article/news/eastern_europe/16128 Last Warsaw ghetto revolt commander honours fallen comrades] in April 2007
* [http://www.holocaustresearchproject.net/ghettos/warsawghetto.html The History of the Warsaw Ghetto]
* [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/warsawtoc.html The Warsaw Ghetto archive (including The Stroop Report)] at
Jewish Virtual Library
* [http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/Holocaust/warsaw-uprising.html The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising] by
* [http://www.kpk.org/english/toronto/ghetto_revolt.pdf The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising and the Poles]
* [http://www.amopod.org/uprising/ Uprising - A Response to the NBC Miniseries]
* [http://www.peoplesarchive.com/browse/movies/6265/ Videos of Marek Edelman talking about the Ghetto] on
* [http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/focus/uprising/ WARSAW GHETTO UPRISING]
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
* [http://www.historynet.com/magazines/world_war_2/3032951.html World War II: Warsaw Ghetto Uprising]
* [http://wilk.wpk.p.lodz.pl/~whatfor/getto_43.htm Ghetto 1943]
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