- Tired light
Tired light is a class of hypothetical
redshiftmechanisms that were proposed as an alternative explanation for the redshift-distance relationship as alternatives to the Big Bangand the Steady Statecosmologies, both of which proposed that Hubble's lawwas associated with a metric expansion of space. The concept was first proposed in 1929by Fritz Zwicky, who suggested that photons lose energy over time through collisions with other particles. Alternative models of gravity that do not produce an expanding universe sometimes appeal to tired light to explain Hubble's Law. Today, tired light is remembered mainly for historical interest, and almost no scientist accepts tired light as a viable explanation for Hubble's Law.
History and reception
lightwas an idea that came about due to the observation made by Edwin Hubblethat distant galaxies had redshifts proportional to their distance. Redshift is a shift in the spectrum of electromagnetic radiationtoward lower energies and frequencies, usually attributed to recessional velocity. Before Hubble's observations, all observed redshifts were attributable directly to a mechanism similar to the Doppler Effect. In these situations, objects moving away from us exhibit a shift toward the red end of the optical spectrumwhile objects moving toward us exhibit a shift toward the blue end ( blueshift). Hubble and other scientists observing the redshifts associated with distant galaxies attributed their redshifts to motion away from us. Bizarrely, the relation held in all directions and so could not be attributed to normal movement with respect to a background which would show redshifts and blueshifts. Everything was moving "away".
Immediately upon publishing this results,
Willem de Sitterwho was working with Einstein's Theory of General Relativityrecognized that these observations fit with a particular solution to the Einstein equationsnow known as the FRW metric. This solution explains that distant objects are observed with greater wavelengths than were emitted by the objects because they are moving with an expansion of the universe. In this formulation, there was still an analogous effect to the Doppler Effect, though relative velocities are not really well-defined for such situations.
Not everyone accepted this interpretation immediately. General relativity was notoriously difficult to understand and many of the astronomers were skeptical that this was the only possible explanation. Some, like
Edward Milneproposed that there was a giant explosion that could explain redshifts (see Milne universe). Others thought that there might be systematic effects that made the observation suspect. Along this line, Fritz Zwickyproposed a "tired light" mechanism in 1929. [Zwicky, F. 1929. "On the Red Shift of Spectral Lines through Interstellar Space." PNAS 15:773-779. [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1929PNAS...15..773Z Abstract] (ADS) [http://www.pnas.org/cgi/reprintframed/15/10/773 Full article] (PDF)] Zwicky suggested that photons might slowly lose energyas they travel vast distances through a static universeby interaction with matter or other photons, or by some novel physical mechanism. Since a decrease in energycorresponds to an increase in light's wavelength, this effect would produce a redshiftin spectral lines that increase proportionally with the distance of the source. The term "tired light" was coined by Richard Tolmanin the early 1930s as a way to refer to this idea [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0792340442&id=2-0p1eOCYeIC&pg=PA29&lpg=PA29&dq=%22tired+light%22+coined+tolman&sig=wi74K_Qan8pC-k15hfxl8ipWbog] .
Tired light mechanisms were among the proposed alternatives to the
Big Bangand the Steady Statecosmologies, both of which relied on the general relativistic expansion of the universe of the FRW metric. Through the middle of the twentieth century, most cosmologists supported one of these two paradigms, but there were a few scientists who worked with the tired light alternative. [Wilson, O. C. 1939. "Possible applications of supernovae to the study of the nebular red shifts." Astrophysical Journal 90:634-636. [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/bib_query?1939ApJ....90..634W Archived article (ADS)] ] As the discipline of observational cosmologydeveloped in the late twentieth century and the associated data became more numerous and accurate, the Big Bang emerged as the cosmological theory most supported by the observation evidence, and it remains the accepted consensus model in the current parametrization of the state and evolution of the universe. Additionally, a number of studies have shown that the "tired light" hypothesis is not a viable explanation for cosmological redshifts. [Geller J. et al, [http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1972ApJ...174....1G&data_type=PDF_HIGH&type=PRINTER&filetype=.pdf Test of the expanding universe postulate] The astrophysical journal 174, p.1 (1972)] [Goldhaber, et al (2001) Timescale Stretch Parameterization of Type Ia Supernova B-band Light Curves [http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0104382 url] ] [Lubin and Sandage(2001), The Tolman Surface Brightness Test for the Reality of the Expansion. IV. A Measurement of the Tolman Signal and the Luminosity Evolution of Early-Type Galaxies, [http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0106566 url] ]
Redshift is directly observable and used by cosmologists as a direct measure of
time, often referring to age in terms of redshift rather than years. The Big Bangis the end of this scale of time corresponding to a redshift of infinity. The relation between universal expansion and redshift is observationally confirmed through a great variety of tests, though alternative hypotheses such as tired light remain historical interest. So-called alternative theories of gravitythat do not have an expanding universe need an alternative explanation to explain the correspondence between redshift and distance that is "sui generis" to expanding metrics of general relativity. Such cosmologies are sometimes referred to as "tired-light cosmologies", though not all authors are necessarily aware of the historical antecedents. [Barrow, John D. The Routledge Companion to the New Cosmology. Peter Coles, editor. Routledge (2001). ISBN 0-415-24312-2. Pg 308.]
Tired light models
A number of tired light mechanisms have been suggested over the years:
Zwicky investigated a number of redshift explanations, ruling out some himself (Zwicky, 1929):
*The Compton Effect:
:"... light coming from distant nebulae would undergo a shift to the red by
Compton effecton those free electrons [in interstellar spaces] [...] But then the light scattered in all directions would make the interstellar space intolerably opaque which disposes of the above explanation. [...] it is evident that any explanation based on a scattering process like the Compton effect or the Raman effect, etc., will be in a hopeless position regarding the good definition of the images"
:"One might expect a shift of spectral lines due to the difference of the static gravitational potential at different distances from the center of a galaxy. This effect, of course, has no relation to the distance of the observed galaxy from our own system and, therefore, cannot provide any explanation of the phenomenon discussed in this paper."
*The Gravitational "Drag" of Light:
:"... [a] gravitational analogue of the Compton effect [...] It is easy to see that the above redshift should broaden these absorption lines asymmetrically toward the red. If these lines can be photographed with a high enough dispersion, the displacement of the center of gravity of the line will give the redshift independent of the velocity of the system from which the light is emitted."
Zwicky also notes, in the same paper, that according to a tired light model a distance-redshift relationship would necessarily be present in the light from sources within our own galaxy (even if the redshift would be so small that it would be hard to measure), that do not appear under a recessional-velocity based theory. He writes, referring to sources of light within our galaxy: "It is especially desirable to determine the redshift independent of the proper velocities of the objects observed".
Hubble and Tolman's "energy loss" treatment
Fritz Zwickyin 1935, Edwin Hubbleand Richard Tolmancompare recessional redshift with a non-recessional one, writing that they: :"... both incline to the opinion, however, that if the red-shift is not due to recessional motion, its explanation will probably involve some quite new physical priciples [.. and] use of a static Einstein model of the universe, combined with the assumption that the photons emitted by a nebula lose energy on their journey to the observer by some unknown effect, which is linear with distance, and which leads to a decrease in frequency, without appreciable transverse deflection" [Hubble, E. & Tolman, R. C., " [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1935ApJ....82..302H Two Methods of Investigating the Nature of the Nebular Redshift] " (1935) "Astrophysical Journal", vol. 82, p.302]
Finlay-Freundlich Red Shift Hypothesis
In the early 1950s,
Erwin Finlay-Freundlichproposed a redshift as "the result of loss of energy by observed photons traversing a radiation field."E. Finlay-Freundlich, " [http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/0370-1298/67/2/114 Red-Shifts in the Spectra of Celestial Bodies] " (1954) "Proc. Phys. Soc." A 67 192-193] . R.A. Alpher noted "No generally accepted physical mechanism has been proposed for this loss" [R.A. Alpher, " [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v196/n4852/abs/196367b0.html Laboratory Test of the Finlay-Freundlich Red Shift Hypothesis] " (1962) "Nature" 196, 367-368] , though P.F. Brown ".. proposed that the energy lost reappears as neutrino pairs resulting from the exchange of a graviton between two photons" [P.F. Brown, " [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v193/n4820/abs/1931019a0.html The Case for an Exponential Red Shift Law] " (1962) "Nature" 193, 1019-1021] .
General features of tired light models
The simplest form of a tired light theory assumes an exponential decrease in photon energy with distance traveled::where is the energy of the photon at distance "x" from the source of light, is the energy of the photon at the source of light, and "R" is a large constant characterizing the "resistance of the space". To correspond to
Hubble's law, the constant "R" must be several giga parsecs.
Any "tired light" mechanism must solve some basic problems, in that the observed redshift must:
*admit the same measurement in any wavelength-band
*not exhibit blurring
*follow the detailed Hubble-relation observed with
Supernovadata (see accelerating universe)
time dilationof cosmologically distant events.
As part of a broader alternative cosmology, other observations that need explanation include:
*the detail observations of the
cosmic microwave background radiation
*the abundance of light elements
*large-scale structure statistics
To date, no established mechanism to produce such a drop in energy has been proposed that reproduces all the observations associated with the redshift-distance relation.
Scatteringby known mechanisms from gas or dust does not reproduce the observations. For example, scattering by any mechanism would blur an object more than observed. In general, cosmologists consider classical tired light models to have too many problems to be worth serious consideration. [Ned Wright; [http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/tiredlit.htm "Errors in Tired Light Cosmology"] (2005)] Tired light alone does not provide a full cosmological explanation and so cannot reproduce all the successes of the standard big bangcosmology. No tired light theory is known that by itself correctly accounts for the observed time dilation of distant supernovae light curves [Wilson, 1939 and Goldhaber, 2001.] , the black body spectrum or anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background, and the observed change in the morphology, number count, and surface brightness of high redshift galaxies and quasars. Furthermore, the fact that the age of the oldest stars is roughly equal to the inverse of the Hubble constant emerges naturally from a Big Bang cosmology, but is an unexplained coincidence with most tired light models.
In 2008, Blondin "et al." showed that even processes that take macroscopic amounts of time such as various elapsed times are slowed down by the same redshift factor as the light frequency. [ [http://arxiv.org/abs/0804.3595 Blondin et al.: Time dilation in type IA supernovae spectra at high redshift] ]
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