Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy


Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy
Charles Emmanuel II
Duke of Savoy
Reign 4 October 1638 – 12 June 1675
Predecessor Francis Hyacinth
Successor Victor Amadeus II
Regent Christine Marie of France
Spouse Françoise Madeleine d'Orléans
Marie Jeanne of Savoy
Issue
Victor Amadeus II of Savoy
Full name
Carlo Emanuele di Savoia
House House of Savoy
Father Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy
Mother Christine Marie of France
Born 20 June 1634(1634-06-20)
Turin, Italy
Died 12 June 1675(1675-06-12) (aged 40)
Turin, Italy
Religion Roman Catholicism

Charles Emmanuel II (Italian: Carlo Emanuele II di Savoia) (20 June 1634 – 12 June 1675) was the Duke of Savoy from 1638 to 1675 and under regency of his mother Christine Marie of France until 1663. He was also Marquis of Saluzzo, Count of Aosta, Geneva, Moriana and Nice, as well as claimant king of Cyprus and Jerusalem. At his death in 1675 his second wife Marie Jeanne of Savoy acted as Regent for their eleven year old son.

Contents

Biography

Coat of Arms of the Dukes of Savoy after Victor Amadeus I

He was born in Turin to Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy and Christine Marie of France. His maternal grandparents were Henry IV of France and his second wife Marie de' Medici. In 1638 at the death of his older brother Francis Hyacinth, Duke of Savoy, Charles Emmanuel succeeded to the duchy of Savoy at the age of 4. His mother governed in his place, and even after reaching adulthood, Charles Emmanuel continued a life of pleasure, far away from the affairs of state.

He became notorious for his persecution of the Vaudois (Waldensians) culminating in the massacre of 1655. The massacre was so brutal that it prompted the English poet John Milton to write the sonnet On the Late Massacre in Piedmont. Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell called for a general fast in England and proposed to send the British Navy if the massacre was not stopped while gathering funds for helping the Waldensians. Sir Samuel Morland was commissioned with that task. He later wrote The History of the Evangelical Churches of the Valleys of Piemont (1658).

Only after the death of his mother in 1663, did he really assume power. He was not successful in gaining a passage to the sea at the expense of Genoa (Second Genoese-Savoyard War, 1672–1673), and had difficulties in retaining the influence of his powerful neighbour France.

But he greatly improved commerce and wealth in the Duchy, developing the port of Nice and building a road through the Alps towards France. He also reformed the army, which until then was mostly composed of mercenaries: he formed instead five Piedmontese regiments and recreated cavalry, as well as introducing uniforms. He also restored fortifications. He constructed many beautiful buildings in Turin, for instance the Palazzo Reale. He is buried at Turin Cathedral.

Marriage

Charles Emmanuel married twice.

1. Françoise Madeleine d'Orléans (b.1648-d.1664), daughter of his maternal uncle Gaston, Duke of Orléans and younger brother of his mother Christine Marie. The couple had no issue;
2. Marie Jeanne of Savoy (1644-1724) had issue; was created regent of Savoy in 1675; regency ended in 1680 but Marie Jeanne maintained power till 1684;

Issue

  • Victor Amadeus II of Savoy, future King of Sicily and later Sardinia; married Anne Marie d'Orléans and had issue; had illegitimate issue also; married Anna Teresa Canalis di Cumania in a morganatic marriage;
  • Charles Emmanuel II also had a number of illegitimate children.

Ancestors

References

Titles and styles

  • 20 June 1634 – 4 October 1638 His Highness Prince Charles Emmanuel of Savoy
  • 4 October 1638 – 12 June 1675 His Highness the Duke of Savoy

See also


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy — Charles Emmanuel I Engraving of Charles Emmanuel I Duke of Savoy Predecessor Emmanuel Philibert Successor …   Wikipedia

  • Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy — Emmanuel Philibert Duke of Savoy Reign 1553 – 1580 Predecessor Charles III Successor C …   Wikipedia

  • Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia — Charles Emmanuel III King of Sardinia Reign 3 September 1730 – 20 February 1773 Predecessor Victor Amadeus II Successor …   Wikipedia

  • Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia — Charles Emmanuel IV Charles Emmanuel IV, oil portrait by Giovanni Panealbo King of Sardinia Reign 16 October 1796 – 4 June 1802 Predecessor Vic …   Wikipedia

  • Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Carignano — Charles Emmanuel of Savoy Prince of Carignano Spouse Maria Christina of Saxony Detail Issue …   Wikipedia

  • Charles Emmanuel — may refer to: Charles Emmanuel de Savoie, 3rd Duc de Nemours, (1567–1595) Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy (1562–1630) Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy (1634–1675) Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia (1701–1773) Charles McArthur Emmanuel, U.S.… …   Wikipedia

  • Charles I, Duke of Savoy — Coat of Arms of the Counts of Savoy Charles I (29 March 1468 Carignano, Piedmont – 13 March 1490 Pinerolo), surnamed the Warrior, was the Duke of Savoy from 1482 to 1490 and titular king of Cyprus, Jerusalem, and Armenia from 1485 to 1490.… …   Wikipedia

  • Charles Emmanuel, Duke of Nemours — Coats of Arms of the Dukes of Savoy after Emmanuel Philibert. Charles Emmanuel de Savoie, 3rd Duc de Nemours (1567 – July 1595) was the son of Jacques of Savoy and Anne of Este, the widow of Francis, Duke of Guise. As a child he was known as the… …   Wikipedia

  • Charles III, Duke of Savoy — Charles III of Savoy (October 10, 1486 – August 1553), often called Charles the Good, was Duke of Savoy from 1504 to 1553, although most of his lands were ruled by the French between 1536 and his death. He was the younger son of Philip (Filippo)… …   Wikipedia

  • Charles Emmanuel I — ▪ duke of Savoy byname  Charles Emmanuel The Great,  Italian  Carlo Emanuele Il Grande  born Jan. 12, 1562, Rivoli, Savoy died July 26, 1630, Savigliano  duke of Savoy who alternated alliances with France and Spain, taking advantage of the… …   Universalium


We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.