Timeline of historic inventions


Timeline of historic inventions

The timeline of historic inventions is a chronological list of particularly important or significant technological inventions.

"Note:" Dates for inventions are often controversial. Inventions are often invented by several inventors around the same time, or may be invented in an impractical form many years before another inventor improves the invention into a practical form. Where there is ambiguity, the date of the first known working version of the invention is used here.

Paleolithic era

* Indeterminate: Music, Language
* 2.4 Ma BP: Olduwan - struck stone tools, in East Africa
* 1.65 Ma: Acheulean - struck and reworked stone tools, in Kenya
* 1.4 Ma: Knife in Ethiopia
* 1 Ma: Controlled fire and sterilization of food and water (cooking) in East Africa
* 500 ka: Shelter construction [Hadfield, Peter, [http://www.newscientist.com/channel/being-human/human-evolution/mg16522280.300-gimme-shelter.html Gimme Shelter] ]
* 100-500 ka: Clothing
* 400 ka: Pigments in Zambia [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/733747.stm Earliest evidence of art found] ]
* 400 ka: Spears in Germany [Kouwenhoven, Arlette P., [http://www.archaeology.org/9705/newsbriefs/spears.html World's Oldest Spears] ]
* 200 ka: Burial in Africa
* 140 ka: Bone tools in Africa (see Blombos Cave)
* 140 ka: Shellfishing in Africa (see Blombos Cave)
* 100 ka: Lithic blades in Africa and the ancient Near East
* 60 ka: Ships probably used by settlers of New Guinea
* 50 ka: Flute in Slovenia
* 50 ka: Bow in Tunisia [ [http://www.engin.swarthmore.edu/~jsarmie1/History.html History of the Bow] Dead link|date=August 2008] [ [http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/history/paleolithic%20egypt.htm Paleolithic Egypt] ]
* 43 ka: Mining in Swaziland and Hungary
* 37 ka: Tally sticks in Swaziland [Pegg, Jr., Ed, [http://mathworld.wolfram.com/LebomboBone.html Lebombo Bone] ]
* 30 ka: Sewing needles
* 26 ka: Ceramics in Moravia
* 25 ka: Atlatl in Northwest Africa [Keddie, Grant, [http://www.royalbcmuseum.bc.ca/hhistory/atlatl/atlatl.html The Atlatl Weapon] Dead link|date=March 2008]
* 17 ka: twisted Rope (probably much earlier)
* 15 ka: Boomerang in Australia [http://corporate.britannica.com/press/inventions.html Encyclopædia Britannica's Great Inventions] , Encyclopædia Britannica]
* 12 ka: Basket weaving

Antiquity

10th millennium BC

* Agriculture in the Fertile Crescent
* Alcoholic beverages in the Fertile Crescent
* Adobe in the ancient Near East
* 9500 BC: Granary in the Jordan Valley

9th millennium BC

* 8700 BC: Metalworking (copper pendant) in Mesopotamia (Iraq)
* 8000 BC: Wall (Jericho)

8th millennium BC

* Animal husbandry in the ancient Near East
* Plaster in Jericho

7th millennium BC

* 7000 BC: Dental drill in Mehrgarh, Pakistan [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4882968.stm Stone age man used dentist drill] . BBC News.]
* 6200 BC: Map in Çatalhöyük
* Cloth woven from flax fiber

6th millennium BC

* Irrigation in the Fertile Crescent
* Beer in Sumer, Mesopotamia (Iraq)
* City in Mesopotamia (Iraq)
* Plough in Mesopotamia (Iraq)

5th millennium BC

* Beer and bread in Egypt
* Wheel and axle combination in Mesopotamia
* Ice skate in Scandinavia [cite web |url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/science/article3090363.ece |title=Dashing Finns were first to get their skates on 5,000 years ago |publisher=The Times |accessdate=2007-12-24]
* Cotton in the Indus Valley

4th millennium BC

* 4000 BC: Canal in Mesopotamia
* 4000 BC: Stone paved street Ur Iraq
* 3807-3806 BC: Timber-engineered roadway in England
* 3630 BC: Silk in China
* 3500 BC: Plywood in Egypt
* 3500 BC: Writing in Sumer
* 3500 BC: Carts in Sumer
* 3100 BC: Drainage in the Indus Valley Civilization (India/Pakistan)
* 3000 BC: Sailing
* 3000 BC: Rice in India ["rice." Encyclopaedia Britannica 2008. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008.]
* 3000 BC: Reservoir in the Indus Valley Civilization [Rodda & Ubertini (2004), "The Basis of Civilization--water Science?", p. 161, International Association of Hydrological Science, ISBN 1901502570]
* Bronze: Susa (Iran)
* Cement in Egypt
* River boats in Egypt
* Noodle in China
* Comb in Persia (these combs were very refined, so combs themselves are probably older)

3rd millennium BC

* 2800 BC: Button in the Indus Valley Civilization (India)
* 2800 BC: Soap in Mesopotamia
* 2700 BC: Plumbing in the Indus Valley CivilizationTeresi, Dick; et al. (2002), "Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern Science--from the Babylonians to the Maya", pp. 351-2, New York: Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-684-83718-8]
* 2630-2611 BC: Step pyramid: Imhotep in Egypt
* 2600s BC: Papyrus: Imhotep in Egypt
* 2600s BC: Suture: Imhotep in Egypt
* 2600s BC: Pharmaceutical cream: Imhotep in Egypt
* 2600 BC: Chariot in Mesopotamia
* 2500 BC: Arch in Mohenjo-daro (Indus Valley Civilization) (India) [Kryss Katsiavriades and Talaat Qureshi, [http://www.krysstal.com/inventions_04.html Inventions - 3000 BC to 2000 BC] .]
* 2400 BC: Shipyard in Lothal (Indus Valley Civilization) (India)
* 2400 BC: Dock in Lothal (Indus Valley Civilization)Rao, S. R. (1985), "Lothal", pp. 27–8, Archaeological Survey of India]
* 2000 BC: Currency
* Aqueduct in ancient Egypt and Indus Valley Civilization (India)
* Dagger in Near East
* Sickle-sword in Sumer
* Alphabet in Phoenicia
* Candles in Egypt
* Ink in China
* Sledges in Scandinavia
* Ski in Scandinavia

2nd millennium BC

* Iron in Anatolia, Caucasus and India
* Perfume: Tapputi in Mesopotamia
* Bronze Age sword in Mesopotamia
* Glass in Egypt [ [http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/305/5689/1407 A World of Glass ] ]
* Rubber in Mesoamerica
* Spoked-wheel chariot: Indo-Iranians
* Water clock in Egypt
* Iron Age sword
* Bells in China
* Fork in China [Needham (1986), volume 6 part 5 105-106]
* Umbrella in Mesopotamia
* Calibration in the Indus Valley CivilizationZaheer Baber (1996), "The Science of Empire: Scientific Knowledge, Civilization, and Colonial Rule in India", p. 23, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0791429199]
* Metrology in the Indus Valley Civilization
* 1300–1000 BC: Zinc in IndiaCraddock, P. T. et al. (1983), "Zinc production in medieval India", "World Archaeology" 15 (2), Industrial Archaeology, p. 13]
* 1000s BC: Coins in China
* 1000 BC: Lens in Assyria
* 1000 BC: Central heating: Ondol in Korea [http://k.daum.net/qna/view.html?qid=3FhCO&l_cid=&l_st= History of Ondol] ]
* 1000 BC: Underfloor heating: Ondol in Korea

1st millennium BC

* 750 BC: Celestial spheres in ancient Greece [ Dimitrakoudis, P. Papaspyrou, V. Petoussis, X. Moussas: [http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=APCPCS000848000001000919000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes “Archaic artifacts resembling celestial spheres”] ]
* 700 BC: Chain pump in Babylonia
* 600 BC: Chopsticks in China
* 592 BC: Anchor in ancient Greece [ [http://www.krysstal.com/inventions_06.html Inventions 1000 BC to 1 BC] ]
* 500s BC: Sugar in India
* 500s BC: Dental bridge in Etruria
* 500s BC: Kite: Lu Ban in China
* 500s BC: Maps in ancient Greece [ [http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Inventions.htm Ancient Greek Inventions] ]
* 500s BC: Plastic surgery: Sushruta in India
* 500s BC: Cosmetic surgery: Sushruta in India
* 500 BC: Iron plough in China
* 499-477 BC: Horse collar in China [Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 2, 319–323.]
* 475 BC: Scythed Chariot: Ajatashatru in India
* 400s BC: Linguistics: Pāṇini in India"Encyclopedia Britannica" (2008), "Linguistics"]
* 400s BC: Trebuchet in China
* 400s BC: Traction trebuchet in China
* 400s BC: Football in China
* 400s BC: Catapult in ancient Greece [ [http://www.smith.edu/hsc/museum/ancient_inventions/hsc11b.htm Stone-Hurling Catapult, Greece, 400 BCE] ]
* 400s BC: Cast iron in China
* 400s BC: Crossbow in China
* 350 BC: Water wheel in IndiaJoseph Needham (1986). "Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Part 2", p. 361. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd.]
* 350 BC: Watermill in India
* c. 300: Wootz steel in India
* 300s BC: Roman aqueduct in ancient Rome [ [http://www.mariamilani.com/ancient_rome/ancient_roman_inventions.htm Ancient Roman Inventions] ]
* 300s BC: Compass in China
* 300s BC: Star catalogues: Gan De and Shi Shen
* 300s BC: Encyclopedia: Speusippus in ancient Greece
* 300s BC: Screw: Archytas
* 300s BC: India ink in India
* 200s BC: Diamond (gemstone) in India"MSN Encarta" (2007), [http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761557986/Diamond.html "Diamond"] ]
* 300-100 BC: Blast furnace in China
* 300-100 BC: Cupola furnace in China
* 300-100 BC: Pig iron in China
* 285 BC: Suspension bridge in China
* 250 BC: Lever in ancient Greece
* 210 BC: Chromium use in China
* 200s BC: Compound pulley: Archimedes
* 200s BC: Odometer: Archimedes?
* 200s BC: Archimedes' screw : Archimedes
* 200s BC: Cashmere wool in India ["Encyclopedia Britannica" (2008), "cashmere"]
* 200s BC: Contour canal: Shi Lu in China
* 200s BC: Lock gate in China
* 200s BC: Stupa in India
* 200s BC: Pagoda in India"Encyclopedia Britannica" (2008), "Pagoda"]
* 202-1 BC: Bellows in China
* 200 BC: Horseshoe in ancient Rome
* 150s BC: Clockwork (Antikythera mechanism)
* 150s BC: Astrolabe: Hipparchus
* 100s BC: Big-toe stirrup in India [Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (April 1960). "Tibet, India, and Malaya as Sources of Western Medieval Technology", "The American Historical Review" 65 (3), p. 516.]
* 100 BC: Glassblowing in ancient Rome [ [http://www.factsmonk.com/Roman_Inventions Roman Inventions] ]
* 100s BC: Parchment in Pergamon
* 500 BC: Heavy plough in China
* 100s BC: Wheelbarrow in China [Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 2, 263–267.]
* 100 BC: Trip hammer in China
* 52 BC: Armillary sphere: Geng Shouchang in China
* 40 BC: Rolling-element bearing in Roman ship
* 21 BC: Collapsable umbrella: Wang Mang [Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 2, 70–71.]
* Catapult in ancient Near East
* South Pointing Chariot in China
* Differential gear in China and Greek island of Antikythera
* Flash lock in China
* Bookbinding in India
* Blowgun in IndiaLynn Townsend White, Jr. (April 1960). "Tibet, India, and Malaya as Sources of Western Medieval Technology", "The American Historical Review" 65 (3), p. 521.]
* Indigo dye in IndiaKriger, Colleen E. & Connah, Graham (2006), "Cloth in West African History", p. 120, Rowman Altamira, ISBN 0759104220]
* Iron pellet in India
* Jute in Bengal"Encyclopedia Britannica" (2008), "jute"]
* Neem toothbrush in India

1st millennium AD

1st-5th centuries

* 1-100 AD: Junk ship in China
* 1-100 AD: Rudder in China [Needham (1986), Volume 4, Part 3, 649–650.]
* 38 AD: Hydraulic-powered bellows: Du Shi
* 50 AD: Mouldboard plough in China and Gaul
* 77 AD: Encyclopedia (comprehensive work): Pliny the Elder
* 78-139: Hydraulic-powered armillary sphere: Zhang Heng
* 78-139: Seismometer: Zhang Heng
* 100s: Aeolipile: Hero of Alexandria in Roman Egypt
* 100s: Carding in IndiaZaheer Baber (1996), "The Science of Empire: Scientific Knowledge, Civilization, and Colonial Rule in India", p. 57, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0791429199]
* 105: Paper: Cai Lun in China [ [http://www.baph.org.uk/general%20reference/Paper%20-%20one%20of%20the%20most%20important%20inventions%20of%20the%20last%20two%20millennia..htm Paper - one of the most important inventions of the last two millennia] ]
* 132: Rudimentary Seismometer: Zhang Heng in China
* 180: Rotary fan: Ding Huan in China
* 180: Winnowing fan: Ding Huan in China
* 200s: Kongming lantern (Hot air balloon) in China
* 200s: Horseshoes in Germany
* 200-400: Stepwell in IndiaLivingston, Morna & Beach, Milo (2002), "Steps to Water: The Ancient Stepwells of India", p. 19, Princeton Architectural Press, ISBN 1568983247]
* 300s: Toothpaste in Roman Egypt
* 400s: Horse collar in China
* 400s: Cotton gin in India [Zaheer Baber (1996), "The Science of Empire: Scientific Knowledge, Civilization, and Colonial Rule in India", pp. 56-7, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0791429199]
* Sound in Roman Empire
* Forceps in Roman Empire
* Scalpel in Roman Empire [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7137224.stm Roman period surgery set on show] , BBC] [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/secondary/SMIGRA*/Chirurgia.html Chirurgia] , William Alexander Greenhill, M.D., Trinity College, Oxford ] [http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/internet/library/wdc-lib/historical/artifacts/roman_surgical/ Surgical Instruments from Ancient Rome] ]
* Cautery in Roman Empire
* Speculum in Roman Empire
* Cross-bladed scissors in Roman Empire
* Surgical needle in Roman Empire
* Cataract surgery in Roman Empire [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7194352.stm The Romans carried out cataract ops] , BBC]
* Fore-and-aft rig in India
* Kamal in India [ [http://indiancalculus.info Ancient Indian use of Kamal] ]
* Prayer wheel: Tibet [Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (April 1960). "Tibet, India, and Malaya as Sources of Western Medieval Technology", "The American Historical Review" 65 (3), p. 519.]
* Three-masted merchant vessel in China
* Woodblock printing in China

6th-8th centuries

* 500s: Chess in India"Encyclopedia Britannica" (2002), "Chess: Ancient precursors and related games"]
* 500s: Ludo in India"MSN Encarta" (2008), [http://encarta.co.uk/encyclopedia_781530306/Pachisi.html Pachisi] ]
* 559: Manned kite: Yuan Huangtou
* 589: Toilet paper: Yan Zhitui in China
* 610-632: Miswak toothbrush: Muhammad in Arabia
* 605: Open-spandrel segmental arch bridge: Li Chun in China
* 618-700: Porcelain in China
* 618-907: Water-powered rotary fan in China
* 634-644: Windmill: UmarAhmad Y Hassan, Donald Routledge Hill (1986). "Islamic Technology: An illustrated history", p. 54. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42239-6.]
* 673: Greek fire: Kallinikos of Heliopolis
* 673: Flamethrower in Syria
* 700: Quill pen
* 700-900: Charitable trust in the Arab Empire [Harvard reference |last=Gaudiosi |first=Monica M. |title=The Influence of the Islamic Law of Waqf on the Development of the Trust in England: The Case of Merton College |year=1988 |journal=University of Pennsylvania Law Review |volume=136 |issue=4 |date=April 1988 |pages=1231-1261 ] [Harvard reference |last=Hudson |first=A. |title=Equity and Trusts |year=2003 |edition=3rd |publisher=Cavendish Publishing |location=London |isbn=1-85941-729-9 |p=32]
* 700s: Brass astrolabe: Muhammad al-Fazari [Richard Nelson Frye. "Golden Age of Persia", p. 163]
* 700s: Destructive distillation: Arabic chemists
* 700s: Inoculation: Madhav in India [Dick, Michael S. (1998). [http://www.ayurveda.com/online%20resource/ancient_writings.htm The Ancient Ayurvedic Writings] . Retrieved May 19, 2005.]
* 700s: Glass factory in Syriacitation|first1=J.|last1=Henderson|first2=S. D.|last2=McLoughlin|first3=D. S.|last3=McPhail|year=2004|title=Radical changes in Islamic glass technology: evidence for conservatism and experimentation with new glass recipes from early and middle Islamic Raqqa, Syria|journal=Archaeometry|volume=46|issue=3|pages=439–68]
* 700s: Pottery factory in Syria
* 721-800: Coloured glass: Geber [cite web |url=http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%209.htm |title=The Manufacture of Coloured Glass |accessdate=2007-09-03|last=Hassan |first=Ahmad Y |authorlink=Ahmad Y Hassan |work=History of Science and Technology in Islam]
* 721-815: Alembic: Geber (Jabir ibn Hayyan)Ahmad Y Hassan, [http://www.history-science-technology.com/Notes/Notes%207.htm Alcohol and the Distillation of Wine in Arabic Sources] .]
* 721-815: Still: Geber
* 721-815: Retort: Geber [ [http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0031708.html Distillation] , "Hutchinson Encyclopedia", 2007]
* 721-815: Filtration: GeberRobert Briffault (1938), "The Making of Humanity", p. 195]
* 721-815: Crystallization: Gebercitation|first=Zygmunt S.|last=Derewenda|year=2007|title=On wine, chirality and crystallography|journal=Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations of Crystallography|volume=64|pages=246-258 [247] ]
* 721-815: Pure distillation: Geber
* 721-815: Distilled alcohol: Geber
* 721-815: Distilled wine: Geber
* 721-815: Distilled beverage: Geber
* 721-815: Mineral acid: Geber
* 721-815: Nitric acid: Geber
* 721-815: Hydrochloric acid: Geber
* 721-815: Sulfuric acid: Geber [Khairallah, Amin A. "Outline of Arabic Contributions to Medicine", chapter 10. Beirut, 1946.]
* 721-815: Uric acid: Geber
* 721-815: Acetic acid: Geber [Olga Pikovskaya, [http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/mar2005/tc20050329_3316.htm Repaying the West's Debt to Islam] , "BusinessWeek", March 29, 2005.]
* 721-815: Citric acid: Geber
* 721-815: Tartaric acid: Geber
* 721-815: Aqua regia: Geber
* 721-815: Cheese glue: Geber
* 721-815: Plated mail: Geber
* 721-815: Lustreware: Geber [Ahmad Y Hassan, [http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%2091.htm Lustre Glass] and [http://www.history-science-technology.com/Notes/Notes%209.htm Lazaward And Zaffer Cobalt Oxide In Islamic And Western Lustre Glass And Ceramics] , "History of Science and Technology in Islam".]
* 721-815: Tin-glazing: Gebercite journal | last=Mason | first=Robert B. | title=New Looks at Old Pots: Results of Recent Multidisciplinary Studies of Glazed Ceramics from the Islamic World | journal=Muqarnas: Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture | date=1995 | volume=XII | publisher=Brill Academic Publishers | id=ISBN 9004103147 | page=1]
* 721-815: Cucurbit: Geber
* 721-815: Evacuation tube: Geber
* 721-815: Aludel: Geber
* 721-815: Artificial pearlcite web |url=http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%2092.htm |title= The Colouring of Gemstones, The Purifying and Making of Pearls And Other Useful Recipes |accessdate=2008-03-29|last=Hassan |first=Ahmad Y |authorlink=Ahmad Y Hassan |work=History of Science and Technology in Islam]
* 721-815: Purified pearl
* 721-815: Dyed pearl
* 721-815: Dyed gemstone
* 721-815: Artificial gemstone
* 721-925: Rose water: Geber, Al-Kindi (Alkindus), Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes)
* 721-925: Heated bath: Geber, Al-Kindi, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi
* 721-925: Sand bath: Geber, Al-Kindi, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi
* 721-925: Funnel: Geber, Al-Kindi, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi
* 721-925: Sieve: Geber, Al-Kindi, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi
* 721-925: Filter: Geber, Al-Kindi, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi
* 725: Clockwork escapement mechanism: Yi Xing of China
* 754: Pharmacy in BaghdadS. Hadzovic (1997). "Pharmacy and the great contribution of Arab-Islamic science to its development", "Medicinski Arhiv" 51 (1-2), p. 47-50.]
* 754: Drugstore in Baghdad
* 758-764: Tar pavement in Baghdad
* 763-800: Public hospital: Harun al-Rashidcitation|last=Sir Glubb|first=John Bagot|author-link=John Bagot Glubb|year=1969|title=A Short History of the Arab Peoples|url=http://www.cyberistan.org/islamic/quote2.html#glubb|accessdate=2008-01-25]
* 763-800: Psychiatric hospital in Baghdad [Ibrahim B. Syed PhD, "Islamic Medicine: 1000 years ahead of its times", "Journal of the Islamic Medical Association", 2002 (2): 2-9 [7-8] ]
* 794: Paper mill in Baghdad [ [http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=329 The Beginning of the Paper Industry] , Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation]
* Amalgamation: Arabic chemists
* Ceration: Arabic chemists
* Dry distillation: Arabic chemists
* Solution: Arabic chemists
* Sublimation: Arabic chemistsGeorges C. Anawati, "Arabic alchemy", p. 868, in Harv|Rashed|Morelon|1996|pp=853-902]
* Water purification: Arabic chemists
* Purified water: Arabic chemistsGeorge Rafael, [http://archive.salon.com/books/feature/2002/01/08/alphabet/index.html A is for Arabs] , "Salon.com", January 8, 2002.]
* Fusible alloy: Arabic chemists
* Petrol: Arabic chemists [Deborah Rowe, [http://www.channel4.com/science/microsites/S/science/society/islamicscience2.html How Islam has kept us out of the 'Dark Ages'] , "Science and Society", "Channel 4", May 2004.]
* Apothecary: Arabic physicians [Sharif Kaf al-Ghazal, "Jounal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine", 2004 (3), pp. 3-9 [8] .]
* Lateen in IndiaRonald Watkins. "Unknown Seas", p. 15.]

9th-10th centuries

* 700-1000: Spinning wheel in India [C. Wayne Smith, Joe Tom Cothren (1999), "Cotton: Origin, History, Technology, and Production", p. viii, John Wiley and Sons. Technology & Industrial Arts, ISBN 0471180459]
* 800-850: Quadrant: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (Algorismi)David A. King, "Islamic Astronomy", in Christopher Walker (1999), ed., "Astronomy before the telescope", p. 167-168. British Museum Press. ISBN 0-7141-2733-7.]
* 800-850: Mural instrument: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī
* 800-850: Sine quadrant: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī
* 800-850: Horary quadrant: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī
* 800-850: Alhidade: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī [David A. King (2002). "A Vetustissimus Arabic Text on the Quadrans Vetus", "Journal for the History of Astronomy" 33, p. 237-255 [238-239] .]
* 800-857: Under-arm deodorant: ZiryabSalma Khadra Jayyusi and Manuela Marin (1994), "The Legacy of Muslim Spain", p. 117, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004095993]
* 800-857: Beauty parlour: Ziryabcitation|last=Lebling Jr.|first=Robert W.|title=Flight of the Blackbird|journal=Saudi Aramco World|date=July-August 2003|pages=24-33|url=http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200407/flight.of.the.blackbird-.compilation..htm|accessdate=2008-06-28]
* 800-857: Bangs: Ziryab
* 800-857: Chemical depilatory: Ziryab
* 800-873: Valve: Banū Mūsā in IraqOtto Mayr (1970). "The Origins of Feedback Control", MIT Press.]
* 800-873: Float valve: Banū Mūsā
* 800-873: Feedback controller: Banū Mūsā
* 800-873: Float chamber: Banū Mūsā
* 800-873: Automatic control: Banū Mūsā
* 800-873: Automatic flute player: Banū MūsāTeun Koetsier (2001). "On the prehistory of programmable machines: musical automata, looms, calculators", "Mechanism and Machine theory" 36, p. 590-591.]
* 800-873: Programmable machine: Banū Mūsā
* 800-873: Trick drinking vessels: Banū Mūsā
* 800-873: Gas mask: Banū Mūsā
* 800-873: Grab: Banū Mūsā
* 800-873: Clamshell grab: Banū Mūsā
* 800-873: Fail-safe system: Banū Mūsā
* 800-873: Mechanical musical instrument: Banū Mūsācitation|title=The Museum of Music: A History of Mechanical Instruments|first=Charles B.|last=Fowler|journal=Music Educators Journal|volume=54|issue=2|date=October 1967|pages=45-49]
* 800-873: Hydropowered organ: Banū Mūsā
* 800-873: Hurricane lamp: Banū Mūsā
* 800-873: Self-feeding oil lamp: Banū Mūsā
* 800-873: Self-trimming oil lamp: Ahmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
* 800-1000: Wind powered gristmills in Afghanistan, Pakistan and IranAdam Lucas (2006), "Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology", p. 65. BRILL, ISBN 9004146490.]
* 800-1000: Sugar refinery in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran
* 800-1000: Metal block printing in Egypt [Richard W. Bulliet (1987), "Medieval Arabic Tarsh: A Forgotten Chapter in the History of Printing", "Journal of the American Oriental Society" 107 (3), p. 427-438.]
* c. 800-1000: Switch: Arabic engineers [ F. L. Lewis (1992), "Applied Optimal Control and Estimation", Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.]
* 800s: Stonepaste ceramics in Iraq [cite journal | last=Mason | first=Robert B. | title=New Looks at Old Pots: Results of Recent Multidisciplinary Studies of Glazed Ceramics from the Islamic World | journal=Muqarnas: Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture | date=1995 | volume=XII | publisher=Brill Academic Publishers | id=ISBN 9004103147 | page=5]
* 800s: Black powder in China
* 800s: Gunpowder in China
* 800s: Water turbine in the Arab Empire
* 800s: Universal sundial in Baghdad [David A. King, "Islamic Astronomy", pp. 168-169]
* 800s: Universal horary dial in Baghdad [Harvard reference |last=King |first=David A. |year=2005 |title=In Synchrony with the Heavens, Studies in Astronomical Timekeeping and Instrumentation in Medieval Islamic Civilization: Instruments of Mass Calculation |publisher=Brill Publishers |isbn=900414188X ] [Harvard reference |last=King |first=David A. |year=2003 |date=December 2003 |title=14th-Century England or 9th-Century Baghdad? New Insights on the Elusive Astronomical Instrument Called Navicula de Venetiis |journal=Centaurus |volume=45 |issue=1-4 |pages=204-226 ]
* 800s: Vertical-axle windmill in Afghanistan
* 800s: Naphtha in Azerbaijan
* 800s: Oil well in Azerbaijan
* 801-873: Pure alcohol: Al-Kindi (Alkindus)cite web |url=http://www.history-science-technology.com/Notes/Notes%207.htm |title=Alcohol and the Distillation of Wine in Arabic Sources |accessdate=2008-03-29 |last=Hassan |first=Ahmad Y |authorlink=Ahmad Y Hassan |work=History of Science and Technology in Islam]
* 801-1000: Municipal solid waste handling: Al-Kindi, Qusta ibn Luqa, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi, Ibn Al-Jazzar, al-Masihi [L. Gari (2002), "Arabic Treatises on Environmental Pollution up to the End of the Thirteenth Century", "Environment and History" 8 (4), pp. 475-488.]
* 810-887: Glass from stones: Abbas Ibn Firnas in al-AndalusLynn Townsend White, Jr. (Spring, 1961). "Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition", "Technology and Culture" 2 (2): 97-111 [100] ]
* 810-887: Eye glasses: Abbas Ibn FirnasDr. Kasem Ajram (1992). "Miracle of Islamic Science", Appendix B. Knowledge House Publishers. ISBN 0911119434.]
* 810-887: Clear colourless high-purity glass: Abbas Ibn Firnascite web |url=http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%2093.htm |title=Assessment of "Kitab al-Durra al-Maknuna" |accessdate=2008-03-29|last=Hassan |first=Ahmad Y |authorlink=Ahmad Y Hassan |work=History of Science and Technology in Islam]
* 810-887: Metronome: Abbas Ibn FirnasLynn Townsend White, Jr. (Spring, 1961). "Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition", "Technology and Culture" 2 (2), p. 97-111 [100-101] .]
* 810-887: Artificial weather simulation: Abbas Ibn Firnas
* 813-833: Medical school: Al-Ma'mun
* 827: Mechanical singing bird automaton: Al-Ma'mun [Ismail b. Ali Ebu'l Feda history, Weltgeschichte, hrsg. von Fleischer and Reiske 1789-94, 1831.]
* 836-1000: Erectile dysfunction treatment: Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi, Thabit bin Qurra (Thebit), Ibn Al-Jazzar [A. Al Dayela and N. al-Zuhair (2006), "Single drug therapy in the treatment of male sexual/erectile dysfunction in Islamic medicine", "Urology" 68 (1): 253-4]
* 853-929: Observation tube: Muhammad ibn Jābir al-Harrānī al-Battānī (Albatenius) [Regis Morelon, "General Survey of Arabic Astronomy", pp. 9-10, in Harvard reference |last1=Rashed |first1=Roshdi |last2=Morelon |first2=Régis |year=1996 |title=Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science |volume=1 & 3 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=0415124107 |pages=1-19]
* 852: Parachute: Abbas Ibn Firnas in al-Andalus
* 859: University: Princess Fatima al-Fihricitation|title=From Jami`ah to University: Multiculturalism and Christian–Muslim Dialogue|first=Syed Farid|last=Alatas|journal=Current Sociology|volume=54|issue=1|pages=112-32] ["The Guinness Book Of Records", 1998, p. 242, ISBN 0-5535-7895-2]
* 875: Hang glider: Abbas Ibn Firnas [http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/196401/first.flights.htm First Flights] , "Saudi Aramco World", January-February 1964, p. 8-9.]
* 875: Artificial wing: Abbas Ibn Firnas
* 875: Flight control frame: Abbas Ibn Firnas
* c. 865-900: Kerosene: Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes) in IraqZayn Bilkadi (University of California, Berkeley), "The Oil Weapons", "Saudi Aramco World", January-February 1995, p. 20-27.]
* 865-925: Hard soap: Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi [http://www.1001inventions.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=main.viewBlogEntry&intMTEntryID=2724 The invention of cosmetics] . "1001 Inventions".]
* 865-925: Chemotherapy: Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi [ [http://www.muslimheritage.com/uploads/The_Valuable_Contributions_of_al-Razi_in_the_History_of_Pharmacy.pdf The Valuable Contribution of al-Razi (Rhazes) to the History of Pharmacy] , FSTC]
* 865-925: Antiseptic: Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi
* 900s: Banknote in China
* 900s: Fire lance in China
* 900s: Gun in China
* 900s: Milling factory in BaghdadDonald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 783, in Harvard reference |last1=Rashed |first1=Roshdi |last2=Morelon |first2=Régis |year=1996 |title=Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science |volume=1 & 3 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=0415124107 |pages=751-95]
* 900s: Cartographic grid in BaghdadDavid A. King, "Reflections on some new studies on applied science in Islamic societies (8th-19th centuries)", "Islam & Science", June 2004]
* 900s: Graph paper in the Arab Empire [David J Roxburgh (2000), "Muqarnas: An Annual on the Visual Culture of the Islamic World", p. 21, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004116699.] [Josef W. Meri (2006), "Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia", p. 75, Taylor and Francis, ISBN 0415966914.] [David A. King (1999), "World-maps for Finding the Direction and Distance to Mecca: Innovation and Tradition in Islamic Science", p. 17, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004113673.]
* 900s: Horizontal-axle windmill in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran
* 903-986: Timekeeping astrolabe: Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Azophi)cite web|author=Dr. Emily Winterburn (National Maritime Museum)|url=http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=529|title=Using an Astrolabe|publisher=Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation|year=2005|accessdate=2008-01-22]
* 904: Fire Arrow in China
* 919: Double-piston flamethrower in China
* 984: Pound lock: Qiao Weiyo
* 953: Fountain pen: Al-Muizz Lideenillah of Egypt [citation|journal=Journal of Semitic Studies|volume=XXVl|issue=i|date=Autumn 1981|title=A Mediaeval Islamic Prototype of the Fountain Pen?|first=C. E.|last=Bosworth] [cite web | title = "Origins of the Fountain Pen " | publisher = Muslimheritage.com | url = http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?articleID=365 | accessmonthday = September 18| accessyear = 2007 ]
* 960-1000: Restaurant in ChinaGernet, 133.] and Arab Empire [citation|title=Daily Life in the Medieval Islamic World|first=James E.|last=Lindsay|year=2005|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|isbn=0313322708|page=131]
* 994: Astronomical sextant: Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi in Persia [MacTutor|id=Al-Khujandi|title=Abu Mahmud Hamid ibn al-Khidr Al-Khujandi]
* 996: Geared mechanical astrolabe: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī [cite web|url=http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/introduction/woi_knowledge.html|title=Islam, Knowledge, and Science|publisher=University of Southern California|accessdate=2008-01-22]
* Almucantar quadrant: Arabic astronomers [Elly Dekker (1995), "An unrecorded medieval astrolabe quadrant from c. 1300", "Annals of Science" 52 (1), p. 1-47 [6] .]
* Navigational astrolabe: Arabic astronomers [Robert Hannah (1997). "The Mapping of the Heavens" by Peter Whitfield", "Imago Mundi" 49, pp. 161-162.]
* Vertical sundial: Arabic astronomerscitation|first=David A.|last=King|contribution=Astronomy and Islamic society|pages=163-8, in Harvard reference |last1=Rashed |first1=Roshdi |last2=Morelon |first2=Régis |year=1996 |title=Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science |volume=1 & 3 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=0415124107 |pages=128-184]
* Polar sundial: Arabic astronomers
* Coffee: Khalid in Ethiopia
* Shaving soap: Arabic chemists
* Plumb line: Arabic engineersDonald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 766-9, in Harvard reference |last1=Rashed |first1=Roshdi |last2=Morelon |first2=Régis |year=1996 |title=Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science |publisher=Routledge |isbn=0415124107 |pages=751-795]
* Reed level: Arabic engineers
* Triangulation: Arabic engineers
* Geared gristmill: Arabic engineers [Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 781, in Harvard reference |last1=Rashed |first1=Roshdi |last2=Morelon |first2=Régis |year=1996 |title=Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science |publisher=Routledge |isbn=0415124107 |pages=751-95]
* Shatranj in Persia
* Paned window in the Arab EmpireFielding H. Garrison, "History of Medicine":quote|"The Saracens themselves were the originators not only of algebra, chemistry, and geology, but of many of the so-called improvements or refinements of civilization, such as street lamps, window-panes, firework, stringed instruments, cultivated fruits, perfumes, spices, etc..."]
* Street lamp in the Arab Empire
* Sherbet in the Arab Empire
* Soft drink in the Arab Empire [Juliette Rossant (2005), [http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200505/the.world.s.first.soft.drink.htm The World's First Soft Drink] , "Saudi Aramco World", September/October 2005, pp. 36-9] [http://www.1001inventions.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=main.viewBlogEntry&intMTEntryID=2889 The World's First Soft Drink.] 1001 Inventions, 2006.]
* Syrup in the Arab Empire
* Mercury escapement mechanism in the Middle East
* Bridge dam in Iran
* Milling dam in Iran
* Diversion dam in IraqDonald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 759, in Harvard reference |last1=Rashed |first1=Roshdi |last2=Morelon |first2=Régis |year=1996 |title=Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science |publisher=Routledge |isbn=0415124107 |pages=751-795]
* Public library in the Arab EmpirePeter Barrett (2004), "Science and Theology Since Copernicus: The Search for Understanding", p. 18, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 056708969X.]
* Lending library in the Arab Empire
* Library catalog in the Arab Empire [citation|last=Micheau|first=Francoise|contribution=The Scientific Institutions in the Medieval Near East|pages=988-991 in Harvard reference |last1=Morelon |first1=Régis |last2=Rashed |first2=Roshdi |year=1996 |title=Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science |volume=3 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=0415124107 |pp=985-1007]
* Firecracker in China
* Snakes and ladders in India

2nd millennium

11th century

* c. 1000: Pendulum: Ibn Yunus in Egypt [Piero Ariotti (Winter, 1968). "Galileo on the Isochrony of the Pendulum", "Isis" 59 (4), p. 414.]
* c. 1000: Injection syringe: Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili of Iraq
* c. 1000: Hypodermic needle: Ammar ibn Ali al-MawsiliIbrahim B. Syed PhD, "Islamic Medicine: 1000 years ahead of its times", "Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine" 2 (2002): 2-9 [7] .] citation|title=Origins of Neuroscience: A History of Explorations Into Brain Function|first=Stanley|last=Finger|year=1994|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=0195146948|page=70]
* c. 1000: Cataract extraction: Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili
* c. 1000: Suction: Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili
* 1000: Ligature: Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) in Al-Andalus [ [http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/a-b/ancientsurgery7.html Ancient surgery] ]
* 1000: Adhesive plaster: Abu al-Qasim [Zafarul-Islam Khan, [http://milligazette.com/Archives/15-1-2000/Art5.htm At The Threshold (sic) Of A New Millennium – II] , "The Milli Gazette".]
* 1000: Curette: Abu al-QasimKhaled al-Hadidi (1978), "The Role of Muslem Scholars in Oto-rhino-Laryngology", "The Egyptian Journal of O.R.L." 4 (1), p. 1-15. (cf. [http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=674 Ear, Nose and Throat Medical Practice in Muslim Heritage] , Foundation for Science Technology and Civilization.)]
* 1000: Retractor: Abu al-Qasim
* 1000: Lithotomy scalpel: Abu al-QasimAbdul Nasser Kaadan PhD, "Albucasis and Extraction of Bladder Stone", "Jounal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine", 2004 (3): 28-33.]
* 1000: Surgical catgut: Abu al-Qasim
* 1000: Surgical hook: Abu al-Qasim
* 1000: Surgical rod: Abu al-Qasim
* 1000: Surgical spoon: Abu al-Qasim
* 1000: Inhalational anaesthetic: Abu al-QasimSigrid Hunke (1969), "Allah Sonne Uber Abendland, Unser Arabische Erbe", Second Edition, p. 279-280: quote|"The science of medicine has gained a great and extremely important discovery and that is the use of general anaesthetics for surgical operations, and how unique, efficient, and merciful for those who tried it the Muslim anaesthetic was. It was quite different from the drinks the Indians, Romans and Greeks were forcing their patients to have for relief of pain. There had been some allegations to credit this discovery to an Italian or to an Alexandrian, but the truth is and history proves that, the art of using the anaesthetic sponge is a pure Muslim technique, which was not known before. The sponge used to be dipped and left in a mixture prepared from cannabis, opium, hyoscyamus and a plant called Zoan."
(cf. Prof. Dr. M. Taha Jasser, [http://www.islamset.com/hip/i_medcin/taha_jasser.html Anaesthesia in Islamic medicine and its influence on Western civilization] , Conference on Islamic Medicine)]
* 1000: Anaesthetic sponge: Abu al-Qasim
* 1000: Oral anaesthesia: Abu al-Qasim
* 1000: Cotton dressing: Abu al-Qasim
* c. 1000-1009: Monumental astrolabe: Ibn Yunus [Salah Zaimeche (2002), [http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=235 The Muslim Pioneers of Astronomy] , FSTC]
* c. 1000-1020: Heliocentric astrolabe: Al-Sijzi [Seyyed Hossein Nasr (1993), "An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines", pp. 135-6, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0791415163]
* c. 1000-1037: Thermometer: Avicenna (Ibn Sina) in Persia [Robert Briffault (1938), "The Making of Humanity", p. 191]
* c. 1000-1037: Essential oil: AvicennaMarlene Ericksen (2000). "Healing with Aromatherapy", p. 9. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0658003828.]
* c. 1000-1048: Orthographical astrolabe: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī in Persia
* c. 1000-1048: Planisphere: Abū Rayhān al-BīrūnīWill Durant (1950). "The Story of Civilization IV: The Age of Faith", p. 239-45.] [http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=482 Khwarizm] , Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation.]
* c. 1000-1048: Star chart: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī
* c. 1000-1048: Laboratory flask: Abū Rayhān al-BīrūnīRobert E. Hall (1973). "Al-Khazini", "Dictionary of Scientific Biography", Vol. VII, p. 346.]
* c. 1000-1048: Pycnometer: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī
* c. 1000-1048: Conical measure: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī [Marshall Clagett (1961). "The Science of Mechanics in the Middle Ages", p. 64. University of Wisconsin Press.]
* c. 1000-1048: Geared mechanical lunisolar calendar analog computer: Abū Rayhān al-BīrūnīDonald Routledge Hill (1985). "Al-Biruni's mechanical calendar", "Annals of Science" 42, p. 139-163.]
* c. 1000-1048: Fixed-wired knowledge processing machine: Abū Rayhān al-BīrūnīTuncer Oren (2001). "Advances in Computer and Information Sciences: From Abacus to Holonic Agents", "Turk J Elec Engin" 9 (1), p. 63-70 [64] .]
* 1020: Mechanical astrolabe: Ibn Samh in Al-Andalus [ [http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/introduction/woi_knowledge.html Islam, Knowledge, and Science.] University of Southern California.]
* 1021: Magnifying glass: Ibn al-Haytham [citation|last1=Kriss|first1=Timothy C.|last2=Kriss|first2=Vesna Martich|title=History of the Operating Microscope: From Magnifying Glass to Microneurosurgery|journal=Neurosurgery|volume=42|issue=4|pages=899-907|date=April 1998]
* 1021: Curved mirror: Ibn al-HaythamDr. Nader El-Bizri, "Ibn al-Haytham or Alhazen", in Josef W. Meri (2006), "Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopaedia", Vol. II, p. 343-345, Routledge, New York, London.] ] R. S. Elliott (1966), "Electromagnetics", Chapter 1, McGraw-Hill]
* 1021: Pinhole camera: Ibn al-Haytham
* 1021: Camera obscura: Ibn al-HaythamNicholas J. Wade, Stanley Finger (2001), "The eye as an optical instrument: from camera obscura to Helmholtz's perspective", "Perception" 30 (10), p. 1157-1177.]
* 1025: Cancer therapy: AvicennaPatricia Skinner (2001), [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2603/is_0007/ai_2603000716 Unani-tibbi] , "Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine"] [cite web|author=Prof. Nil Sari (Istanbul University, Cerrahpasha Medical School)|title=Hindiba: A Drug for Cancer Treatment in Muslim Heritage|publisher=FSTC Limited|date=06 June, 2007|url=http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=707]
* 1025: Hirudotherapy: AvicennaNurdeen Deuraseh, "Ahadith of the Prophet (s.a.w) on Healing in Three Things (al-Shifa’ fi Thalatha): An Interpretational", "Jounal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine", 2004 (3): 14-20 [18] .]
* 1025: Medicinal leech: Avicenna
* 1025: Calcium channel blocker: Avicenna [Yalcin Tekol (2007), "The medieval physician Avicenna used an herbal calcium channel blocker, Taxus baccata L.", "Phytotherapy Research" 21 (7): 701-2.]
* 1025: Pharmacopoeia: Avicenna [Philip K. Hitti (cf. Dr. Kasem Ajram (1992), "Miracle of Islamic Science", Appendix B, Knowledge House Publishers. ISBN 0911119434).] [Dr. Z. Idrisi, PhD (2005). [http://www.muslimheritage.com/uploads/AgricultureRevolution2.pdf The Muslim Agricultural Revolution and its influence on Europe] . The Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilization, UK.]
* 1028-1087: Equatorium: Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Arzachel) in Al-Andalus [Dr. A. Zahoor (1997). [http://www.unhas.ac.id/~rhiza/saintis/zarqali.html Al-Zarqali (Arzachel)] , University of Indonesia.]
* 1028-1087: Universal astrolabe: Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī
* 1031-1095: Raised-relief map: Shen KuoSivin (1995), III, 22.] [Ebrey, Walthall, and Palais (2006), 162.]
* 1038-1075: Flywheel: Ibn Bassal in Al-AndalusAhmad Y Hassan, [http://www.history-science-technology.com/Notes/Notes%204.htm Flywheel Effect for a "Saqiya"] .]
* 1041: Movable type printing press: Bi Sheng in China
* 1044: Hand grenade: Zhen Tian Lei in China
* 1087: Almanac: Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī [Harvard reference |first1=Thomas F. |last1=Glick |first2=Steven John |last2=Livesey |first3=Faith |last3=Wallis |year=2005 |title=Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia |publisher=Routledge |isbn=0415969301 |page=30]
* 1088: Mechanical clock: Su Song
* 1088: Clock tower: Su Song
* 1088: Magnetic compass: Shen Kuo in China
* 1090: Belt drive: Qin Guan in in China
* 1090: Chain drive in China
* 1092: Astronomical clock: Su Song
* 1094: Printed star chart: Su Song
* Coke fuel in China
* Complex gearing: Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi in Al-Andalus
* Epicyclic gearing: Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi in Al-Andalus
* Segmental gearing: Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi in Al-Andalus
* Geared mechanical clock: Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi in Al-Andalus
* Weight-driven mechanical clock: Arabic engineersAhmad Y Hassan, [http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%2071.htm Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part II: Transmission Of Islamic Engineering] , "History of Science and Technology in Islam".]
* Celestial globe: Arabic astronomers
* Clear glass mirror in Al-Andalus
* Cobwork in the Maghreb and Al-Andalus [Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 766, in Harvard reference |last1=Rashed |first1=Roshdi |last2=Morelon |first2=Régis |year=1996 |title=Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science |publisher=Routledge |isbn=0415124107 |pages=751-795]

12th century

* c. 1100: Framed bead abacus in China
* 1100-1150: Torquetum: Jabir ibn Aflah (Geber) [citation|first=R. P.|last=Lorch|title=The Astronomical Instruments of Jabir ibn Aflah and the Torquetum|journal=Centaurus|volume=20|issue=1|year=1976|pages=11-34]
* 1100-1161: Tracheotomy: Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) in Al-AndalusA. I. Makki. "Needles & Pins", "AlShindagah" 68, January-February 2006.]
* 1119: Watertight hull compartment: Zhu Yu in China
* 1121: Steelyard: Al-Khazini in Persia
* 1121: Hydrostatic balance: Al-Khazini
* 1126: Fire arrow: Li Gang in China
* 1126: Rocket: Li Gang in China
* 1128: Cannon in China [cite book|title=Weapons: An International Encyclopedia from 5000 B.C. to 2000 A.D.|last=Harding|first=David|publisher=Diane Publishing Company|year=1990|page=p. 111|isbn=0756784360|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=LeYSxhK62wUC&printsec=frontcover#PPA111,M1]
* 1135-1200: Linear astrolabe: Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī in Persia [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-342088/linear-astrolabe Linear astrolabe] , "Encyclopædia Britannica".]
* 1150: Homing pigeons in Iraq and Syria [http://www.fbipigeons.com/THE%20SPORT.htm First Birds' Inn: About the Sport of Racing Pigeons] ]
* 1154: Striking clock: Al-Kaysarani in Syria [Abdel Aziz al-Jaraki (2007), [http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?articleID=685 When Ridhwan al-Sa’ati Anteceded Big Ben by More than Six Centuries] , Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation.]
* 1187: Counterweight trebuchet: Mardi bin Ali al-Tarsusi [Scott Farrell, [http://www.historynet.com/wars_conflicts/weaponry/3823351.html?page=2&c=y Weaponry: The Trebuchet] ] [Philip Daileader, [http://books.google.com/books?id=OVX8j0zR6QYC "On the Social Origins of Medieval Institutions"] ]
* 1187: Mangonel: Mardi bin Ali al-Tarsusi [Jim Bradbury, [http://books.google.com/books?id=fKFRvUiLEQYC "Medieval Siege"] ]
* 1190: Mariner's compass in Italy [ [http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/features/101-gadgets-that-changed-the-world-398535.html 101 gadgets that changed the world] ]
* Astrolabic quadrant in Egypt [Roberto Moreno, Koenraad Van Cleempoel, David King (2002). "A Recently Discovered Sixteenth-Century Spanish Astrolabe", "Annals of Science" 59 (4), p. 331-362 [333] .]
* Ventilator in Egypt [David A. King (1984). "Architecture and Astronomy: The Ventilators of Medieval Cairo and Their Secrets", "Journal of the American Oriental Society" 104 (1), p. 97-133.]
* Bridge mill in Al-AndalusAdam Lucas (2006), "Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology", p. 62. BRILL, ISBN 9004146490.]
* Hydropowered forge in Al-Andalus
* Finery forge in Al-Andalus
* Central heating through underfloor pipes in Syria [citation|last=Hugh N. Kennedy|title=From Polis To Madina: Urban Change In Late Antique And Early Islamic Syria|journal=Past & Present|publisher=Oxford University Press|year=1985|volume=106|issue=1|pages=3-27 [10-1] ]
* Fireworks in China
* Sunglasses in China
* War machine in Turkey

13th century

* c. 1200: Glass mirror in Europe [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9906E2DB163DF934A15754C0A9679C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all ANTIQUES; To Reflect On Or Simply To Admire] ]
* c. 1200: Combination lock: Al-Jazari in Iraq (Mesopotamia)Paul Vallely, [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20060311/ai_n16147544 How Islamic Inventors Changed the World] , "The Independent, 11 Mar 2006.]
* 1206: Bolted joint lock
* 1206: Clock automaton: Al-Jazari
* 1206: Flow control regulator: Al-Jazari
* 1206: Closed-loop system: Al-Jazari
* 1206: Elephant clock: Al-Jazari
* 1206: Hand washing device: Al-Jazari
* 1206: Kitchen appliance: Al-Jazari
* 1206: Camshaft: Al-Jazari [Georges Ifrah (2001). "The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quatum Computer", p. 171, Trans. E.F. Harding, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (See [http://www.banffcentre.ca/bnmi/programs/archives/2005/refresh/docs/conferences/Gunalan_Nadarajan.pdf] )]
* 1206: Connecting rod: Al-JazariAhmad Y Hassan. [http://www.history-science-technology.com/Notes/Notes%203.htm The Crank-Connecting Rod System in a Continuously Rotating Machine] .]
* 1206: Segmental gear: Al-Jazari [Professor Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (cf. [http://www.finns-books.com/auto.htm The Automata of Al-Jazari] , Topkapi Palace Museum, Istanbul.)]
* 1206: Suction pipe: Al-Jazari
* 1206: Suction piston pump: Al-JazariAhmad Y Hassan. [http://www.history-science-technology.com/Notes/Notes%202.htm The Origin of the Suction Pump - Al-Jazari 1206 A.D.] ]
* 1206: Reciprocating piston motion: Al-Jazari
* 1206: Double-acting engine: Al-Jazari
* 1206: Humanoid robot: Al-Jazari
* 1206: Programmable robot: Al-Jazari [http://www.shef.ac.uk/marcoms/eview/articles58/robot.html A 13th Century Programmable Robot.] University of Sheffield.]
* 1206: Programmable analog computer: Al-Jazari [citation|title=Ancient Discoveries, Episode 11: Ancient Robots|publisher=History Channel|url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rxjbaQl0ad8|accessdate=2008-09-06]
* 1206: Automatic gate: Al-JazariHoward R. Turner (1997), "Science in Medieval Islam: An Illustrated Introduction", p. 181, University of Texas Press, ISBN 0292781490.]
* 1206: Pointer: Al-JazariDonald Routledge Hill, "Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East", "Scientific American", May 1991, p. 64-69. (cf. Donald Routledge Hill, [http://home.swipnet.se/islam/articles/HistoryofSciences.htm Mechanical Engineering] )]
* 1206: Hydropowered water supply system: Al-Jazari
* 1206: Geared water supply system: Al-Jazari
* 1206: Laminate: Al-Jazari
* 1206: Mechanical template: Al-Jazari
* 1206: Paper model: Al-Jazari
* 1206: Calibration: Al-Jazari
* 1206: Sand casting: Al-Jazari
* 1206: Emery powder: Al-Jazari
* 1206: Crankshaft-driven chain pump: Al-JazariDonald Routledge Hill, "Engineering", in Roshdi Rashed, ed., "Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science", Vol. 2, p. 751-795 [776] . Routledge, London and New York.]
* 1206: Hydropowered saqiya chain pump: Al-Jazari [Ahmad Y Hassan, [http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%206.htm Al-Jazari and the History of the Water Clock] ]
* 1206: Intermittent working: Al-Jazari
* 1206: Hour hand: Al-JazariDonald Routledge Hill (1996), "A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times", Routledge, p.224.] [Ibn al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (ed. 1974), "The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices", translated and annotated by Donald Routledge Hill, Dordrecht / D. Reidel, part II]
* 1232: Rocket launcher in China
* 1235: Geared astrolabe with analog computer calendar: Abi Bakr of IsfahanSilvio A. Bedini, Francis R. Maddison (1966). "Mechanical Universe: The Astrarium of Giovanni de' Dondi", "Transactions of the American Philosophical Society" 56 (5), p. 1-69.]
* 1259: Research institute: Nasīr al-Dīn al-TūsīHarvard reference |last=Kennedy |first=Edward S. |year=1962 |title=Review: "The Observatory in Islam and Its Place in the General History of the Observatory" by Aydin Sayili |journal=Isis |volume=53 |issue=2 |pages=237-239 ]
* 1259: Observatory institution: Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī
* 1260: Hand cannon in Egyptcite web|publisher=Ahmad Y Hassan|last=Hassan|first=Ahmad Y|authorlink=Ahmad Y Hassan|url=http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%202.htm|title=Gunpowder Composition for Rockets and Cannon in Arabic Military Treatises In Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries|accessdate=2008-06-08] cite web|last=Hassan|first=Ahmad Y|authorlink=Ahmad Y Hassan|url=http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%2072.htm|title=Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries|accessdate=2008-05-26|publisher=Ahmad Y Hassan]
* 1260: Explosive gunpowder in Egypt
* 1260: Explosive cannon in Egypt
* 1260: Handgun in Egypt
* 1260: Portable firearm in Egypt
* 1260: Cartridge in Egypt
* 1260: Dissolve talc in Egypt
* 1260: Fire protection in Egypt
* 1260: Fireproof clothing in Egypt
* 1270: Pure saltpetre: Hasan al-Rammah of Syria
* 1271-1273: Ballistic weapon: Alaaddin and Ismail in the Middle East
* 1271-1273: Ballistic war machine: Alaaddin and Ismail in the Middle East
* 1274: Siege cannon: Abu Yaqub Yusuf
* 1275: Torpedo: Hasan al-Rammah of SyriaArslan Terzioglu (2007). "The First Attempts of Flight, Automatic Machines, Submarines and Rocket Technology in Turkish History", "The Turks" (ed. H. C. Guzel), p. 804-810.]
* 1275: Restaurant menu in China
* 1277: Land mine: Lou Qianxia in China
* c. 1296: Astronomical compass: Yemeni sultan al-Ashraf [Emilie Savage-Smith (1988), "Gleanings from an Arabist's Workshop: Current Trends in the Study of Medieval Islamic Science and Medicine", "Isis" 79 (2): 246-266 [263] .]
* 1297-1298: Wooden movable type printing: Wang Zhen of China
* Caravel in Al-AndalusJohn M. Hobson (2004), "The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation", p. 141, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521547245.]
* Crankshaft-driven screw: Arabic engineersDonald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 771, in Harvard reference |last1=Rashed |first1=Roshdi |last2=Morelon |first2=Régis |year=1996 |title=Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science |publisher=Routledge |isbn=0415124107 |pages=751-95]
* Crankshaft-driven screwpump: Arabic engineers
* Sandpaper in China
* Solid-fuel rocket in China
* Condom in Italy
* Buttonhole in Germany

14th century

* 1304-1375: Astrolabic clock: Ibn al-Shatir [David A. King (1983). "The Astronomy of the Mamluks", "Isis" 74 (4), p. 531-555 [545-546] .]
* 1304-1375: Compendium instrument: Ibn al-Shatircitation|first=David A.|last=King|contribution=Astronomy and Islamic society|pages=163-8, in Harv|Rashed|Morelon|1996|pp=128-184]
* 1304-1375: Compass dial: Ibn al-ShatirHarvard reference |last=King |first=David A. |year=1983 |title=The Astronomy of the Mamluks |journal=Isis |volume=74 |issue=4 |pages=531-555 [547-8] ]
* 1350: Rope bridge in Peru
* 1355: Bombard: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
* 1355: Booster: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
* 1355: Matchlock: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
* 1355: Multistage rocket: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
* 1355: Naval mine: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
* 1355: Round shot: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
* 1355: Shell: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
* 1355: Wheellock: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
* 1371: Polar-axis sundial: Ibn al-Shatir [citation|title=The Sundial And Geometry|first=Lawrence|last=Jones|journal=North American Sundial Society|volume=12|issue=4|date=December 2005]
* 32-point compass rose in the Arab worldG. R. Tibbetts (1973), "Comparisons between Arab and Chinese Navigational Techniques", "Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies" 36 (1): 97-108 [105-6] ]
* Musket in China
* Spherical astrolabe in the Middle East

15th century

* 1400-1429: Plate of conjunctions: Jamshīd al-Kāshī [E. S. Kennedy (1947), "Al-Kashi's Plate of Conjunctions", "Isis" 38 (1-2), p. 56-59 [56] .]
* 1400-1429: Planetary analog computer: Jamshīd al-KāshīE. S. Kennedy (1950), "A Fifteenth-Century Planetary Computer: al-Kashi's Tabaq al-Manateq I. Motion of the Sun and Moon in Longitude", "Isis" 41 (2), p. 180-183.] [E. S. Kennedy (1952), "A Fifteenth-Century Planetary Computer: al-Kashi's Tabaq al-Maneteq II: Longitudes, Distances, and Equations of the Planets", "Isis" 43 (1), p. 42-50.] [E. S. Kennedy (1951), "An Islamic Computer for Planetary Latitudes", "Journal of the American Oriental Society" 71 (1), p. 13-21.]
* 1405-1433: Troopship: Zheng He
* 1405-1433: Treasure ship: Zheng He
* 1441: Rain gauge: Jang Yeong-sil
* 1450s: Alphabetic movable type printing press: Johannes Gutenberg
* 1451: Concave lens for eyeglasses: Nicholas of Cusa
* 1453: Supergun in Ottoman Empire
* 1453: Great Turkish Bombard in Ottoman Empire
* 1490-1492: Terrestrial globe: Martin Behaim
* 1498: Bristle toothbrush: Hongzhi Emperor
* Iron-chain suspension bridge in China
* Arquebus in Europe
* Rifle in Europe

16th century

* c. 1500: Ball bearing: Leonardo Da Vinci
* c. 1500: Scissors: Leonardo Da Vinci
* 1524: Pocket watch: Peter Henleincite web|author=Salim Al-Hassani|title=The Astronomical Clock of Taqi Al-Din: Virtual Reconstruction|publisher=FSTC|url=http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=947|date=19 June 2008|accessdate=2008-07-02]
* 1540: Ether: Valerius Cordus
* 1551: Steam turbine: Taqi al-Din in Ottoman EgyptAhmad Y Hassan (1976). "Taqi al-Din and Arabic Mechanical Engineering", p. 34-35. Instiute for the History of Arabic Science, University of Aleppo.]
* 1556: Spring-powered clock: Peter Henlein and Taqi al-Din [cite web|author=Donald Routledge Hill and Ahmad Y Hassan|title=Engineering in Arabic-Islamic Civilization|url=http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%2011.htm|work=History of Science and Technology in Islam|accessdate=2008-07-03]
* 1559: Six-cylinder pump: Taqi al-Din [cite journal | first = Donald | last = Routledge Hill | authorlink = Donald Routledge Hill | title = Engineering | editor = Roshdi Rashed | journal = Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science | volume = 2 | pages = pp. 751–795 | publisher = Routledge | location = London and New York]
* 1565: Pencil: Conrad Gesner [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9059044/pencil pencil] , Encyclopædia Britannica]
* 1570s: Telescope: Leonard Digges and Taqi al-Dincitation|first=Hüseyin Gazi|last=Topdemir|title=Takîyüddîn'in Optik Kitabi|publisher=Ministry of Culture Press, Ankara|year=1999 (cf. cite web|author=Dr. Hüseyin Gazi Topdemir|title=Taqi al-Din ibn Ma‘ruf and the Science of Optics: The Nature of Light and the Mechanism of Vision|publisher=FSTC Limited|url=http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=951|date=30 June 2008|accessdate=2008-07-04)]
* 1576: Ironclad warship: Oda Nobunaga Fact|date=September 2008
* 1577-1580: Mechanical seconds clock: Taqi al-DinSevim Tekeli, "Taqi al-Din", in Helaine Selin (1997), "Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures", Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 0792340663] [citation|first=Aydin|last=Sayili|authorlink=Aydin Sayili|title=The Observatory in Islam|year=1991|pages=289-305 (cf. cite web|author=Dr. Salim Ayduz|title=Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma’ruf: A Bio-Bibliographical Essay|url=http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=949|date=26 June 2008|accessdate=2008-07-04)]
* 1579: Prefabricated home: Akbar the GreatIrfan Habib (1992), "Akbar and Technology", "Social Scientist" 20 (9-10), pp. 3-15 [3-4] .]
* 1579: Movable structure: Akbar the Great
* 1582: Autocannon: Fathullah ShiraziA. K. Bag (2005), "Fathullah Shirazi: Cannon, Multi-barrel Gun and Yarghu", "Indian Journal of History of Science" 40 (3): 431-36]
* 1582: Multi-barrel gun: Fathullah Shirazi
* 1582: Machine gun: Fathullah Shirazicite book|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=-bE9AAAAMAAJ&printsec=titlepage&client=firefox-a#PPA281,M1|title=The Emperor Akbar|author=Friedrich Christian Charles August|coauthors=Gustav von Buchwald|publisher=Trübner & Co.|year=1890|accessdate=2008-04-04]
* 1582: Corn-griding carriage: Fathullah Shirazi
* 1589: Stocking frame: William Lee
* 1589-1590: Seamless celestial globe: Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqmancitation|first=Emilie|last=Savage-Smith|title=Islamicate Celestial Globes: Their history, Construction, and Use|publisher=Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.|year=1985]
* 1589-1590: Seamless metal sphere: Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman
* 1593: Thermoscope: Galileo Galilei
* Musket in Europe
* Pencil in England
* High-rise apartment buildings in Shibam
* Tower blocks in Shibam [citation|title=Land without shade|first=Hans|last=Helfritz|journal=Journal of The Royal Central Asian Society|volume=24|issue=2|date=April 1937|pages=201-16]
* Vertical construction urban planning in Shibam [http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/192 Old Walled City of Shibam] , UNESCO World Heritage Centre]

17th century

* 1609: Microscope: Hans Lippershey, Hans Janssen, Zacharias Janssen
* 1620: Slide rule: William Oughtred
* 1623: Automatic calculator: Wilhelm Schickard
* 1630-1632: Artificial wings: Hezarfen Ahmet Celebi in Turkey
* 1631: Vernier scale: Pierre Vernier
* 1633: Manned rocket: Lagari Hasan Çelebi in Turkey
* 1633: Artificially-powered aircraft: Lagari Hasan Çelebi
* 1633: Gunpowder-powered flight: Lagari Hasan Çelebi
* 1633: Safe-landing parachute: Lagari Hasan Çelebi
* 1642: Adding machine: Blaise Pascal
* 1643: Barometer: Evangelista Torricelli
* 1645: Vacuum pump: Otto von Guericke
* 1657: Pendulum clock: Christiaan Huygens
* 1672: Steam car: Ferdinand Verbiest [cite web
title=SA MOTORING HISTORY - TIMELINE
publisher=Government of South Australia
url=http://www.history.sa.gov.au/motor/education/sa_motor_history.pdf
] [cite book
author=Setright, L. J. K.
title=Drive On!: A Social History of the Motor Car
publisher=Granta Books
year=2004
id=ISBN 1-86207-698-7
]
* 1679: Pressure cooker: Denis Papin
* 1690: Polhem wheel: Christopher Polhem
* 1698: Steam engine: Thomas Savery
* 1700: Piano: Bartolomeo Cristofori

18th century

* 1701: Seed drill: Jethro Tull
* 1709: Iron smelting using coke: Abraham Darby I
* 1711: Tuning fork: John Shore
* 1712: Steam piston engine: Thomas Newcomen
* 1714: Mercury thermometer: Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
* 1731: Octant: John Hadley, Thomas Godfrey
* 1733: Flying shuttle: John Kay
* 1737: Marine chronometer (H1): John Harrison
* 1742: Franklin stove: Benjamin Franklin
* 1750: Flatboat: Jacob Yoder
* 1752: Lightning rod: Benjamin Franklin
* 1759: Shampoo: Sake Dean Mahomet of Bengal
* 1764: Spinning jenny: James Hargreaves/Thomas Highs
* 1767: Carbonated water: Joseph Priestley
* 1769: Water frame: Richard Arkwright/Thomas Highs
* 1769: Steam road vehicle: Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot
* 1775: Submarine Turtle: David Bushnell
* 1776: Steamboat: Claude de Jouffroy
* 1776: Watt steam engine: James Watt
* 1777: Card teeth making machine: Oliver Evans
* 1777: Circular saw: Samuel Miller
* 1779: Spinning mule: Samuel Crompton
* 1780s: Iron-cased rocket: Tipu Sultan in IndiaRoddam Narasimha (1985), [http://nal-ir.nal.res.in/2382/01/tr_pd_du_8503_R66305.pdf Rockets in Mysore and Britain, 1750-1850 A.D.] , National Aeronautical Laboratory and Indian Institute of Science]
* 1780s: Metal-cylinder rocket artillery: Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan in India"Encyclopedia Britannica" (2008), "rocket and missile"]
* 1780s: Iron rocket artillery: Tipu Sultan of India
* 1783: Hot air balloon: Montgolfier brothers
* 1784: Bifocals: Benjamin Franklin
* 1784: Oil lamp: Aimé Argand
* 1784: Shrapnel shell: Henry Shrapnel
* 1785: Power loom: Edmund Cartwright
* 1785: Automatic flour mill: Oliver Evans
* 1786: Threshing machine: Andrew Meikle
* 1791: Artificial teeth: Nicholas Dubois De Chemant
* 1798: Vaccination: Edward Jenner
* 1798: Lithography: Alois Senefelder

19th century

1800s

* 1801: Jacquard loom: Joseph Marie Jacquard
* 1802: Screw propeller steamboat "Phoenix": John Stevens
* 1802: Cockco puffs: Zachäus Andreas Winzler
* 1804: Locomotive: Richard Trevithick
* 1805: Submarine Nautilus: Robert Fulton
* 1807: Steamboat Clermont: Robert Fulton
* 1808: Band saw: William Newberry
* 1809: Arc lamp: Humphry Davy

1810s

* 1814: Steam locomotive "(Blücher)":
*1816: Miner's safety lamp: Humphry Davy
*1816: Stirling engine: Robert Stirling
*1816: Stethoscope: Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec
*1817: Draisine or velocipede (two-wheeled): Karl Drais
*1817: Kaleidoscope: David Brewster
*1818: Bicycle: Karl Drais

1820s

* 1821: Electric motor: Michael Faraday
* 1823: Electromagnet: William Sturgeon
* 1823: Lighter: Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner
* 1824: Portland cement: William Aspdin
* 1824: first toy balloon, Michael Faraday Fact|date=September 2008
* 1826: Photography: Joseph Nicéphore Niépce
* 1826: Internal combustion engine: Samuel Morey
* 1827: Friction match: John Walker
* 1829: Steam locomotive: George Stephenson

1830s

* 1830: racing lawn mower: Edwin Beard Budding
* 1830: Thermostat: Andrew Ure
* 1830: Stenotype on punched paper strip: Karl Drais
* 1831: Multiple coil magnet: Joseph Henry
* 1831: Magnetic acoustic telegraph: Joseph Henry (patented 1837)
* 1831: Reaper: Cyrus McCormick
* 1831: Electrical generator: Michael Faraday, Ányos Jedlik
* 1834: The Hansom cab is patented
* 1834: Louis Braille perfects his Braille system
* 1834: Refrigerator: Jacob Perkins
* 1834: Combine harvester: Hiram Moore
* 1835: Revolver: Samuel Colt
* 1835: Electromechanical Relay: Joseph Henry
* 1835: Incandescent light bulb: James Bowman Lindsay
* 1836: Sewing machine: Josef Madersberger
* 1837: US electric printing press patented by Thomas Davenport (February 25)
* 1837: Steel plow: John Deere
* 1837: Standard diving dress: Augustus Siebe
* 1837: Camera Zoom Lens: Jozef Maximilián Petzval
* 1837: Magnetic telegraph: Samuel Morse
* 1838: Electric telegraph: Charles Wheatstone (also Samuel Morse)
* 1838: closed diving suit with a helmet: Augustus Siebe
* 1839: Vulcanization of rubber: Charles Goodyear

1840s

* 1840: Artificial fertilizer: Justus von Liebig
* 1842: Superphosphate fertilizer: John Bennett Lawes
* 1842: Anaesthesia: Crawford Long
* 1843: Typewriter: Charles Thurber
* 1843: Fax machine: Alexander BainFact|date=September 2008
* 1843: Ice cream maker: Nancy Johnson
* 1844: The safety match: Gustaf Erik Pasch
* 1845: Pneumatic tyre: Robert Thomson (inventor)
* 1846: Sewing machine: Elias Howe
* 1846: Rotary printing press: Richard M. Hoe
* 1849: Safety pin: Walter Hunt
* 1849: Francis turbine: James B. Francis
* 1849: Telephone: Antonio MeucciFact|date=September 2008

1850s

* 1852: Airship: Henri Giffard
* 1852: Passenger elevator: Elisha Otis
* 1852: Gyroscope: Léon Foucault
* 1855: Bunsen burner: Peter Desaga
* 1855: Bessemer process: Henry Bessemer
* 1856: Celluloid: Alexander Parkes
* 1858: Undersea telegraph cable: Fredrick Newton Gisborne
* 1858: Mason jar: John L. Mason
* 1859: Oil drill: Edwin L. Drake
* 1859: Lead acid battery: Gaston Plante

1860s

* 1860: Light Bulb, Sir Joseph Swan
* 1860: Linoleum: Fredrick Walton
* 1860: Repeating rifle: Oliver F. Winchester, Christopher Spencer
* 1860: Self-propelled torpedo: Giovanni Luppis
* 1861: Ironclad (Battleship) USS Monitor: John Ericsson
* 1861: Siemens regenerative furnace: Carl Wilhelm Siemens
* 1862: Revolving machine gun: Richard J. Gatling
* 1862: Mechanical submarine: Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol
* 1862: Pasteurization: Louis Pasteur, Claude Bernard
* 1863: Player piano: Henri Fourneaux
* 1865: Roller Coaster: LaMarcus Adna Thompson
* 1865: Barbed wire: Louis Jannin
* 1866: Dynamite: Alfred Nobel
* 1868: Practical typewriter: Christopher Sholes, Carlos Glidden and Samuel W. Soule, with assistance from James Densmore
* 1868: Air brake (rail): George Westinghouse
* 1868: Oleomargarine: Mege Mouries
* 1869: Vacuum cleaner: I.W. McGaffers

1870s

*1870: Chewing gum: Thomas Adams
*1870: Magic Lantern projector: Henry R. Heyl
*1870: Stock ticker: Thomas Alva Edison
*1871: Cable car (railway): Andrew S. Hallidie
*1873: Jeans: Levi Strauss
*1873: Railway knuckle coupler: Eli H. Janney
*1873: Modern direct current electric motor: Zénobe Gramme
*1874: Barbed wire: Joseph Glidden
*1874: Electric street car: Stephen Dudle Field
*1874: DDT: Othmar Zeidler
*1875: Dynamo: William A. Anthony
*1875: Magazine (firearm): Benjamin B. Hotchkiss
*1876: Carpet sweeper: Melville Bissell
*1876: Gasoline carburettor: Daimler
*1876: Loudspeaker: Alexander Graham Bell
*1877: Stapler: Henry R. Heyl
*1877: Induction motor: Nikola Tesla
*1877: Phonograph: Thomas Alva Edison
*1877: Microphone: Emile Berliner
*1878: Cathode ray tube: William Crookes
*1878: Rebreather: Henry Fleuss
*1879: Pelton turbine: Lester Pelton
*1879: Cash register: James Ritty

1880s

*1880: Photophone: Alexander Graham Bell
*1880: Roll film: George Eastman
*1880: Safety razor: Kampfe Brothers
*1880: Seismograph: John Milne
*1881: Metal detector: Alexander Graham Bell
*1882: Electric fan: Schuyler Skaats Wheeler
*1882: Blowtorch: Carl Rickard Nyberg
*1883: two-phase (alternating current) induction motor: Nikola Tesla
*1884: Linotype machine: Ottmar Mergenthaler
*1884: Punched card accounting: Herman Hollerith
*1884: Trolley car, (electric): Frank Sprague, Charles Van Depoele
*1885: Automobile patent granted (internal combustion engine powered): Karl Benz, first automobile put into production
*1885: Maxim gun: Hiram Stevens Maxim
*1885: Motorcycle: Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach
*1885: Alternating current transformer: William Stanley
*1885: Safety bicycle: John Kemp Starley
*1886: Dishwasher: Josephine Cochrane
*1886: Gasoline engine: Gottlieb Daimler
*1886: Improved phonograph cylinder: Tainter & Bell
*1887: Monotype machine: Tolbert Lanston
*1887: Contact lens: Adolf E. Fick, Eugène Kalt and August Muller
*1887: Gramophone record: Emile Berliner
*1887: Ceiling fan: Philip Diehl
*1888: Polyphase AC Electric power system: Nikola Tesla (30 related patents.)
*1888: Kodak hand camera: George Eastman
*1888: Ballpoint pen: John Loud
*1888: Harvester-thresher: Matteson (?)
*1888: Kinematograph: Augustin Le Prince
*1889: Northrop Loom: Draper Corporation, James Henry Northrop: First automatic bobbin changing weaving loom placed in production. Over 700,000 would be sold worldwide. (Over 100 Patents to James Henry Northrop' name)

1890s

* 1891: Escalator: Jesse W. Reno
* 1891: Thermal cracking process: Vladimir Shukhov
* 1891: Zipper: Whitcomb L. Judson
* 1891: Carborundum: Edward G. Acheson
* 1891: Modern adjustable spanner: Johan Petter Johansson
* 1892: Color photography: Frederic E. Ives
* 1892: Automatic telephone exchange (electromechanical): Almon Strowger - First in commercial service.
* 1893: Carburetor: Donát Bánki and János Csonka
* 1893: tuned Wireless communication: Nikola Tesla ()
* 1893: Radio: Nikola Tesla Fact|date=September 2008
* 1894: Radio transmission: Jagdish Chandra Bose in Bengal [A. K. Sen (1997). "Sir J.C. Bose and radio science", Microwave Symposium Digest 2 (8-13), p. 557-560]
* 1894: Milking machine: Gustaf de Laval
* 1895: Diesel engine: Rudolf Diesel
* 1895: Radiotelegraph: Guglielmo Marconi
* 1896: Vitascope: Thomas Armat
* 1897: Modern escalator: Jesse W. Reno
* 1898: Tapered roller bearing: Henry Timken
* 1898: Remote control: Nikola Tesla
* 1899: Iron-mercury coherer with telephone detector: Jagdish Chandra Bose in Bengal
* 1899: Automobile self starter: Clyde J. Coleman
* 1899: Magnetic tape recorder: Valdemar Poulsen
* 1899: Gas turbine: Charles Curtis Fact|date=September 2008

20th century

1900s

* 1900: Rigid dirigible airship: Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin
* 1900: Self-heating can
* 1900s: Microwave optics: Jagdish Chandra Bose in Bengal
* 1900s: Crescograph: Jagdish Chandra Bose in Bengal [cite web|url=http://www.edsanders.com/bose|title=Jagadis Bose Research on Measurement of Plant Growth|accessdate=2008-08-05]
* 1901: Mercury vapor lamp: Peter C. Hewitt
* 1901: Disposable razor blade: King C. Gillette
* 1901: Vacuum cleaner: Hubert Booth
* 1901: Gauge blocks: Carl Edvard Johansson
* 1902: Ostwald process: Wilhelm Ostwald
* 1902: Air Conditioner: Willis Carrier
* 1902: Neon lamp: Georges Claude
* 1902: Radio telephone: Valdemar Poulsen, Reginald Fessenden
* 1902: Rayon cellulose ester: Arthur D. Little
* 1903: Electrocardiograph (EKG): Willem Einthoven
* 1903: Powered, controlled airplane: Wilbur Wright and Orville Wright
* 1904: Thermionic valve: John Ambrose Fleming
* 1904: Tractor: Benjamin Holt
* 1905: Radio tube diode: John Ambrose Fleming
* 1906: Sonar (first device): Lewis Nixon
* 1906: Triode amplifier: Lee DeForest
* 1907: Helicopter: Paul Cornu
* 1907: Radio tube triode: Lee DeForest
* 1907: Washing machine, (electric): Alva Fisher (Hurley Corporation)
* 1908: Cellophane: Jacques E. Brandenberger
* 1908: Geiger counter: Hans Geiger and Ernest Rutherford
* 1908: Gyrocompass: Hermann Anschütz-Kaempfe
* 1908: Haber process: Fritz Haber
* 1909: Bakelite: Leo Baekeland
* 1909: Gun suppressor: Hiram Percy Maxim

1910s

* 1910: Neon lighting: Georges Claude
* 1910: Thermojet engine: Henri Coandă
* 1911: Gyrocompass: Elmer A. Sperry
* 1911: Automobile self starter (perfected): Charles F. Kettering
* 1911: Hydroplane: Glenn Curtiss
* 1913: Crossword: Arthur Wynne
* 1913: Parachute: Štefan Banič
* 1913: Radio receiver: Ernst Alexanderson, Reginald Fessenden
* 1913: Stainless steel: Harry Brearley
* 1913: X-Ray (coolidge tube): William D. Coolidge [ [http://fi.edu/case_files/coolidge_2853/merit.html "Benefit to humanity"] ]
* 1914: Radio transmitter triode mod.: Ernst Alexanderson
* 1914: Liquid fuel rocket: Robert Goddard
* 1914: Tank, military: Sir William Ashbee Tritton and Major Walter Gordon Wilson [ [http://www.tankmuseum.co.uk/visfaq2.html Who Invented The Tank?] - Bovington Tank Museum]
* 1915: Tungsten Filament: Irving Langmuir
* 1915: Pyrex: Corning Inc.
* 1916: Browning Gun: John Browning
* 1916: Thompson submachine gun: John T. Thompson
* 1917: Sonar echolocation: Paul Langevin
* 1917: Cruise missile: Charles Kettering
* 1918: Interrupter gear: Anton Fokker
* 1918: Radio crystal oscillator: A.M. Nicolson
* 1919: Flip-flop circuit: William Eccles and F. W. Jordan
* 1919: Theremin: Leon Theremin

1920s

* 1920: Saha ionization equation: Meghnad Saha [Narlikar, J. V. (2002), "An Introduction to Cosmology", p. 188, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521793769]
* 1921: Polygraph: John A. Larson
* 1922: Radar: Robert Watson-Watt, A. H. Taylor, L. C. Young, Gregory Breit, Merle Antony Tuve
* 1922: The absorption refrigerator: Baltzar von Platen
* 1923: Sound film: Lee DeForest
* 1923: Television Electronic: Philo Farnsworth
* 1923: Wind tunnel: Michael Max Munk
* 1923: Autogyro: Juan de la Cierva
* 1923: Xenon flash lamp: Harold Edgerton
* 1925: Ultra-centrifuge: Theodor Svedberg - used to determine molecular weights
* 1925: Television Nipkow System: C. Francis Jenkins
* 1926: Television Mechanical Scanner: John Logie Baird
* 1926: Aerosol spray: Rotheim
* 1927: Mechanical cotton picker: John Rust
* 1928: Sliced bread: Otto Frederick Rohwedder
* 1928: Electric dry shaver: Jacob Schick
* 1928: Antibiotics: Alexander Fleming (initial discovery of penicillin)
* 1928: Preselector gearbox: Walter Gordon Wilson
* 1928: Raman effect: Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman ["Encyclopedia Britannica" (2008), "Raman effect"]
* 1929: Electroencephelograph (EEG): Hans Berger
* 1929: Kinescope (CRT):Vladimir Zworykin
* 1920s: Band aid: Earle Dickson
* 1920s: Man-made Insulin: Paul Langerhans
* 1920s: Mechanical potato peeler: Herman Lay

1930s

* 1930: Neoprene: Wallace Carothers
* 1931: Radio telescope: Karl Jansky Grote Reber
* 1931: Iconoscope: Vladimir Zworykin
* 1934: Hammond Organ: Laurens Hammond
* 1935: Microwave RADAR: Robert Watson-Watt
* 1935: Nylon: Wallace Carothers
* 1935: Spectrophotometer: Arthur C. Hardy
* 1935: Casein fiber: Earl Whittier Stephen
* 1936: Mahalanobis distance: Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis [Taguchi, Genichi & Jugulum, Rajesh (2002), "The Mahalanobis-taguchi Strategy: A Pattern Technology System", pp. 6-7, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0471023337]
* 1937: Turboprop engine: György Jendrassik
* 1937: Jet engine: Frank Whittle and Hans von Ohain
* 1937: O-ring: Niels Christensen
* 1937: Nylon: Wallace H. Carothers
* 1938: Ballpoint pen: Laszlo Biro
* 1938: xerography: Chester Carlson
* 1938: Fiberglass: Russell Games Slayter John H. Thomas
* 1939: Helicopter: Igor Sikorsky
* 1939: View-master: William Gruber
* 1939: Automated teller machine: Luther George Simjian

1940s

* 1941: Computer: Konrad ZuseFact|date=September 2008
* 1941: Velcro: George de Mestral
* 1942: Bazooka Rocket Gun: Leslie A. Skinner C. N. Hickman
* 1942: Nuclear reactor: Enrico Fermi
* 1942: Undersea oil pipeline: Hartley, Anglo-Iranian, Siemens in Operation Pluto
* 1943: Aqua-Lung: Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Emile Gagnan
* 1944: Electron spectrometer: Deutsch Elliot Evans
* 1945: Slinky: Richard James and Betty James
* 1945: Microwave oven: Percy L. Spencer
* 1945: Nuclear weapons (note: chain reaction theory was made in 1933)
* 1946: Microwave oven: Percy Spencer
* 1946: Mobile Telephone Service: AT&T and Southwestern Bell
* 1946: Bikini: Louis Réard
* 1947: Transistor: William Shockley, Walter Brattain, John Bardeen
* 1947: Polaroid camera: Edwin Land
* 1948: Long Playing Record: Peter Carl Goldmark
* 1948: Holography: Dennis Gabor
* 1949: Atomic clocks

1950s

* 1951: Combined oral contraceptive pill: Djerassi, Miramontes, and Rosenkranz [ [John Brockman, editor. The Greatest Inventions of the Past 2000 Years. Phoenix. 2000] ]
* 1951: Liquid Paper: Bette Nesmith Graham
* 1951: Nuclear power reactor: Walter Zinn
* 1952: Floppy disk: Yoshiro Nakamatsu [David Lazarus (1995). [http://www.iht.com/articles/1995/04/10/matscon.ttt.php 'Japan's Edison' Is Country's Gadget King : Japanese Inventor Holds Record for Patent] . International Herald Tribune.]
* 1952: Optical fiber: Narinder Singh Kapany
* 1952: Fusion bomb: Edward Teller and Stanislaw Ulam
* 1952: Hovercraft: Christopher Cockerell
* 1953: MASER: Charles Townes
* 1953: Medical ultrasonography
* 1954: Radar gun: Bryce K. Brown
* 1954: Synthetic diamond: Tracy Hall
* 1954: Geodesic dome: Buckminster Fuller
* 1955: Hard Drive: Reynold Johnson with IBM
* 1955: Video phone: Gregorio Y. Zara in the Philippines
* 1956: Digital clock
* 1956: Videocassette recorder: Ampex
* 1957: Jet Boat: William Hamilton
* 1958: Integrated circuit: Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments, Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor
* 1958: Communications satellite: Kenneth Masterman-Smith
* 1958: Implantable pacemaker: Rune Elmqvist

1960s

* 1960: Laser: Theodore Harold Maiman
* 1961: Optical disc: David Paul Gregg
* 1961: Cochlear implant: William House
* 1961: Human spaceflight: Yuri Gagarin, Sergey Korolyov, Kerim KerimovPeter Bond, [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20030407/ai_n12692130 Obituary: Lt-Gen Kerim Kerimov] , "The Independent", 7 April 2003.]
* 1962: Light-emitting diode: Nick Holonyak
* 1962: Space observatory: Ball Brothers Aerospace Corporation [http://www.nasm.edu/spacecraft/SS-OSO1.htm]
* 1963: Computer mouse: Douglas Engelbart
* 1967: Space dock: Kerim Kerimov
* 1967: Automatic Teller Machine: John Shepherd-Barron
* 1967: Hypertext: Andries van Dam and Ted Nelson
* 1968: Video game console: Ralph H. Baer
* 1960s: Packet switching: Paul Baran and Donald Davies, independently
* 1969: ARPANET (first wide-area packet switching network): United States Department of Defense

1970s

* 1971: Space station: Kerim KerimovBetty Blair (1995), "Behind Soviet Aeronauts", "Azerbaijan International" 3 (3).]
* 1971: E-mail: Ray Tomlinson [ [http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~scotch/innovation/inventing_email.pdf Inventing Email] ]
* 1971: Liquid Crystal Display: James Fergason
* 1971: Microprocessor: Federico Faggin and Marcian Hoff
* 1971: Pocket calculator: Sharp Corporation
* 1971: Magnetic resonance imaging: Raymond V. Damadian
* 1972: Computed tomography: Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield
* 1972: Artemether in China
* 1973: Hybrid rice in ChinaChina Daily (February 10, 2007). [http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2007-02/10/content_806437.htm 4 Great Modern Inventions Selected] . Chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved on 2008-06-18.]
* 1973: Ethernet: Bob Metcalfe and David Boggs
* 1973: Genetically modified organism: Stanley Norman Cohen and Herbert Boyer
* 1973: Personal computer: Xerox PARC
* 1974: Microcredit: Muhammad Yunus
* 1974: Microfinance: Muhammad Yunus
* 1974: Rubik's Cube: Ernő Rubik
* 1974: Hybrid vehicle: Victor Wouk [http://www.hybridcars.com/hybrid-coverup-1974.html]
* 1975: DNA sequencing by chain termination Frederick Sanger
* 1975: Digital camera: Steven Sasson
* 1976: Gore-Tex fabric: W. L. Gore
* 1977: Personal stereo: Andreas Pavel
* 1977: Mobile phone: Bell Labs [http://affordablephones.net/HistoryCellular.htm]
* 1978: Spreadsheet: Dan Bricklin

1980s

* 1980: Compact Disk: Philips Electronics, Sony Corp
* 1981: Scanning tunneling microscope: Gerd Karl Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer
* 1982: Insulated gate bipolar transistor: Hans Becke and Carl Wheatley RCA
* 1982: ACE inhibitor: John R. Vane
* 1982: Artificial heart: Robert Jarvik, incorporating modifications to earlier experimental designs
* 1983: Camcorder: Sony
* 1983: Internet: first TCP/IP network: Robert E. Kahn, Vint Cerf and others
* 1984: Lithotripsy: Claude Dornier
* 1985: Polymerase chain reaction: Kary Mullis
* 1985: DNA fingerprinting: Alec Jeffreys
* 1987: Statin, cholesterol drug: Carl Hoffman
* 1987: Digital Light Processing: Dr. Larry Hornbeck, Texas Instruments

1990s

* 1990: World Wide Web: Tim Berners-Lee [ [http://www.w3.org/Proposal Proposal for the World Wide Web] ]
* 1993: Global Positioning System: United States Department of Defense
* 1993: Blue LED: Shuji Nakamura
* 1994: Wiki: Ward Cunningham [harv|Ebersbach|2008|p=10]
* 1997: Non-mechanical digital audio player: SaeHan Information Systems [cite web|url=http://reviews.cnet.com/4520-6450_7-5622055-1.html|title=Introducing the world's first MP3 player|last=Van Buskirk|first=Eliot|publisher=CNET]
* 1997: Viagra: Pfizer Inc.

3rd millennium

21st century

2000s

* 2001: Self-contained artificial heartFact|date=July 2008
* 2001: Page Rank Sergey Brin Larry Page [ [http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20080728-patent-office-becoming-a-voice-for-software-patent-sanity.html Ars technica: Patent Office finds voice, calls for software patent sanity] ]

See also

* List of inventors
* English inventions and discoveries
* Inventions in medieval Islam
* Inventions in the modern Islamic world
* List of Chinese inventions
* List of Indian inventions
* List of United States inventions
* Scottish inventions and discoveries
* Welsh inventions and discoveries

Notes

References

* Asimov, Isaac, "Asimov's Chronology of Science and Discovery", Harper & Row, 1989. ISBN 0-06-015612-0
* De Bono, Edward, "Eureka! An Illustrated History of Inventions from the Wheel to the Computer", Thames & Hudson, 1974.
* Gowlett, John, "Ascent to Civilization", McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992. ISBN 0-07-544312-0
* Platt, Richard, "Eureka!: Great Inventions and How They Happened", 2003.

External links

* [http://home.entouch.net/dmd/chron.htm History of Human Technology]
* [http://corporate.britannica.com/press/inventions.html Encyclopædia Britannica's Great Inventions]
*KryssTal [http://www.krysstal.com/inventions.html History and Geography of Inventions]


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