Belfast East (UK Parliament constituency)


Belfast East (UK Parliament constituency)

UK constituency infobox alt
Name = Belfast East


Type = Borough
Entity = Northern Ireland
DivisionType = Districts
Division = Belfast, Castlereagh
Year = 1885, 1922
MP = Peter Robinson
Party = Democratic Unionist
EP = Northern Ireland

Belfast East is a Parliamentary Constituency in the United Kingdom House of Commons. It has always elected various brands of Unionist MPs.

Boundaries

The seat was created in 1922 when, as part of the establishment of the devolved Stormont Parliament for Northern Ireland, the number of MPs in the Westminster Parliament was drastically cut. The seat is centred on the east section of Belfast and also contains part of the district of Castlereagh.

Boundary changes

Initially the Northern Ireland Boundary Commission has proposed alterations for the boundaries of constituencies in Northern Ireland. It was proposed to expand Belfast East further into Castlereagh, taking in areas currently contained in Strangford, however almost all of these areas were part of Belfast East until 1983. A small part of the constituency has been proposed for transfer to Belfast South.

Following a public meeting and revised recommendations, the new boundaries of Belfast East were confirmed by the Commission and passed through Parliament through the use of the Northern Ireland Parliamentary Constituencies Order [ [http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2008/draft/ukdsi_9780110813172_en_1 OPSI SI] ] as follows:

*From the Belfast council area, Ballyhackamore, Ballymacarrett, Belmont, Bloomfield, Cherryvalley, Island,Knock, Orangefield, Stormont, Sydenham, and The Mount
*From the Castlereagh council area, Ballyhanwood, Carrowreagh, Cregagh, Downshire, Dundonald, Enler, Gilnahirk, Graham’s Bridge, Lisnasharragh, Lower Braniel, Tullycarnet, and Upper Braniel

History

Belfast East is an overwhelmingly unionist constituency with nationalist parties routinely failing to get more than 10% of the vote combined. The main interest has been the contest between unionist parties and the fortunes of the Alliance Party of Northern Ireland.

Dominated by the giant Samson and Goliath cranes of the Harland and Wolff shipyard, the constituency is socially mixed. There are large expanses of small Victorian terraced housing near Belfast City Centre and around the shipyard in Ballymacarrett. These areas have seen significant refurbishment, and in some places demolition and redevelopment, in recent years sparking a sharp rise in house prices. This is contrasted by a large amount of solidly lower-middle class housing and some exclusive residential districts such as the much mocked Cherryvalley. This social polarisation is to a large degree reflected by the political polarisation, at least within the broader unionist family, in the seat. The small Catholic population is split between the Short Strand enclave and minorities in the more middle-class parts of the seat.

The seat was consistently held by the Ulster Unionist Party until the 1974 general election when the sitting MP, Stanley McMaster, defended it as a Pro-Assembly Unionist against a united anti-Sunningdale Agreement coalition which nominated William Craig of the Vanguard Progressive Unionist Party. Craig won the seat and held it for five years, moving to the UUP in February 1978.

In the 1979 general election the constituency witnessed a very close three way fight between Peter Robinson of the Democratic Unionist Party, William Craig for the UUP and Oliver Napier for the Alliance Party of Northern Ireland. Less than 1000 votes separated the three candidates - the closest the Alliance has ever come to winning a Westminster seat. Robinson beat Craig by the narrow margin of 64 votes. Also of note was that over 90% of the votes cast went to parties that had not contested the seat at the previous election - in part due to realignments of the parties.

Robinson has held the seat ever since but the Alliance Party of Northern Ireland continued to poll well thereafter, and in 1987 John Alderdice polled 32.1% of the vote - the highest ever for the Alliance in a Westminster election. However in recent years their vote has declined and in 2005 they finished a distant third.

In the 2001 Alliance proposed a pro-Good Friday Agreement pact with the Ulster Unionist Party in the hopes of getting UUP support in Belfast East. However the UUP did not agree and so both parties stood. Robinson was re-elected with 42.5% of the vote, with the UUP, Alliance and Progressive Unionist Party carving up the pro-Agreement pro-union vote between them, but it is doubtful that an unopposed Alliance candidate could have consolidated all of that vote to beat Robinson. With the subsequent decline of all three parties, the DUP look likely to retain the seat for the foreseeable future.

Of all eighteen constituencies in Northern Ireland, East Belfast has the highest percentage of Methodists.

Members of Parliament

The Member of Parliament since the 1979 general election is Peter Robinson of the Democratic Unionist Party. He defeated William Craig who sat for the Vanguard Progressive Unionist Party from the February 1974 general election until 1978 then for the Ulster Unionist Party from 1978 until the 1979 election.

Elections

Elections in the 2000s

Election box candidate with party link
party = Democratic Unionist Party
candidate = Peter Robinson
votes = 15,152
percentage = 49.1
change = +6.6
Election box candidate with party link
party = Ulster Unionist Party
candidate = Reg Empey
votes = 9,275
percentage = 30.1
change = +6.9
Election box candidate with party link
party = Alliance Party of Northern Ireland
candidate = Naomi Long
votes = 3,746
percentage = 12.2
change = -3.6
Election box candidate with party link
party = Sinn Féin
candidate = Deborah Devenny
votes = 1,029
percentage = 3.3
change = -0.1
Election box candidate with party link
party = Social Democratic and Labour Party
candidate = Mary Muldoon
votes = 844
percentage = 2.7
change = +0.3
Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservatives in Northern Ireland
candidate = Alan Greer
votes = 434
percentage = 1.4
change = -0.8
Election box candidate with party link
party = Workers Party (Ireland)
candidate = Joe Bell
votes = 179
percentage = 0.6
change = +0.3
Election box candidate with party link
party = Vote For Yourself Rainbow Dream Ticket
candidate = Lynda Gilby
votes = 172
percentage = 0.6
change = +0.4
Election box majority
votes = 5,877
percentage = 19.1
change =
Election box turnout
votes = 30,831
percentage = 58.0
change = -5.0
Election box hold with party link
winner = Democratic Unionist Party
swing =

Election box begin
title=General Election 2001: Belfast East
id=42
Election box candidate with party link
party = Democratic Unionist Party
candidate = Peter Robinson
votes = 15,667
percentage = 42.5
change = -0.1
Election box candidate with party link
party = Ulster Unionist Party
candidate = Tim Lemon
votes = 8,550
percentage = 23.2
change = -2.1
Election box candidate with party link
party = Alliance Party of Northern Ireland
candidate = David Alderdice
votes = 5,832
percentage = 15.8
change = -8.0
Election box candidate with party link
party = Progressive Unionist Party
candidate = David Ervine
votes = 3,669
percentage = 10.0
change = "N/A"
Election box candidate with party link
party = Sinn Féin
candidate = Joe O'Donnell
votes = 1,237
percentage = 3.4
change = +1.3
Election box candidate with party link
party = Social Democratic and Labour Party
candidate = Ciara Farren
votes = 880
percentage = 2.4
change = +0.8
Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservatives in Northern Ireland
candidate = Terry Dick
votes = 800
percentage = 2.2
change = -0.2
Election box candidate with party link
party = Workers Party (Ireland)
candidate = Joe Bell
votes = 123
percentage = 0.3
change = "N/A"
Election box candidate with party link
party = Vote For Yourself Rainbow Dream Ticket
candidate = Rainbow George Weiss
votes = 71
percentage = 0.2
change = "N/A"
Election box majority
votes = 7,117
percentage = 19.3
change =
Election box turnout
votes = 36,829
percentage = 63.0
change = -0.2
Election box hold with party link
winner = Democratic Unionist Party
swing =

Elections in the 1990s

Election box begin
title=General Election 1997: Belfast East
Election box candidate with party link
party = Democratic Unionist Party
candidate = Peter Robinson
votes = 16,640
percentage = 42.6
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Ulster Unionist Party
candidate = Reg Empey
votes = 9,886
percentage = 25.3
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Alliance Party of Northern Ireland
candidate = Jim Hendron
votes = 9,288
percentage = 23.8
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservatives in Northern Ireland
candidate = Sarah Dines
votes = 928
percentage = 2.4
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Sinn Féin
candidate = Dominic Corr
votes = 810
percentage = 2.1
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Social Democratic and Labour Party
candidate = Patricia Lewsley
votes = 629
percentage = 1.6
change =
Election box candidate
party = Former Captain NI Football Team
candidate = Derek Dougan
votes = 541
percentage = 1.4
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Workers Party (Ireland)
candidate = Joe Bell
votes = 237
percentage = 0.6
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Natural Law Party
candidate = David Collins
votes = 70
percentage = 0.2
change =
Election box majority
votes = 6,754
percentage =
change =
Election box turnout
votes =
percentage = 63.2
change =
Election box hold with party link
winner = Democratic Unionist Party
swing =

Election box begin
title=Notional 1992 UK General Election Result : Belfast East
Election box candidate with party link
party = Democratic Unionist Party
votes = 22,635
candidate = "N/A"
percentage = 54.5
change = N/a
Election box candidate with party link
party = Alliance Party of Northern Ireland
votes = 11,337
candidate = "N/A"
percentage = 27.3
change = "N/A"
Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservatives in Northern Ireland
votes = 4,170
candidate = "N/A"
percentage = 10.0
change = "N/A"
Election box candidate with party link
party = Others
votes = 2,723
candidate = "N/A"
percentage = 6.6%
change = "N/A"
Election box candidate with party link
party = Sinn Féin
votes = 686
candidate = "N/A"
percentage = 1.7
change = "N/A"
Election box majority
votes = 11,298
percentage = 27.2
change = "N/A"

Election box begin
title=General Election 1992: Belfast East
Election box candidate with party link
party = Democratic Unionist Party
candidate = Peter Robinson
votes = 18,437
percentage = 51.5
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Alliance Party of Northern Ireland
candidate = John Alderdice
votes = 10,650
percentage = 29.8
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservatives in Northern Ireland
candidate = David Greene
votes = 3,314
percentage = 9.3
change =
Election box candidate
party = Independent Ulster Unionist
candidate = Dorothy Dunlop
votes = 2,256
percentage = 6.3
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Sinn Féin
candidate = Joe O'Donnell
votes = 679
percentage = 1.9
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Workers Party (Ireland)
candidate = Joe Bell
votes = 327
percentage = 0.9
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Natural Law Party
candidate = Guy Redden
votes = 128
percentage = 0.4
change =
Election box majority
votes = 7,787
percentage =
change =
Election box turnout
votes =
percentage = 67.7
change =
Election box hold with party link
winner = Democratic Unionist Party
swing =

Elections in the 1980s

Election box begin
title=General Election 1987: Belfast East
Election box candidate with party link
party = Democratic Unionist Party
candidate = Peter Robinson
votes = 20,372
percentage = 61.9
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Alliance Party of Northern Ireland
candidate = John Alderdice
votes = 10,574
percentage = 32.1
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Workers Party (Ireland)
candidate = Frank Cullen
votes = 1,314
percentage = 4.0
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Sinn Féin
candidate = Joe O'Donnell
votes = 649
percentage = 2.0
change =
Election box majority
votes = 9,798
percentage = 29.8
change =
Election box turnout
votes =
percentage = 60.2
change =
Election box hold with party link
winner = Democratic Unionist Party
swing =

Election box begin
title=Belfast East by-election, 1986
Election box candidate with party link
party = Democratic Unionist Party
candidate = Peter Robinson
votes = 27,607
percentage =
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Alliance Party of Northern Ireland
candidate = Oliver Napier
votes = 5,917
percentage =
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Workers Party (Ireland)
candidate = Frank Cullen
votes = 578
percentage =
change =
Election box majority
votes = 21,690
percentage =
change =
Election box turnout
votes =
percentage = 60.2
change =
Election box hold with party link
winner = Democratic Unionist Party
swing =

"Note:" The by-election was caused by the decision of all Unionist MPs to resign their seats and seek re-election on a platform of opposition to the Anglo-Irish Agreement.

Election box begin
title=General Election 1983: Belfast East
Election box candidate with party link
party = Democratic Unionist Party
candidate = Peter Robinson
votes = 17,631
percentage = 45.3
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Ulster Unionist Party
candidate = Jeremy Burchill
votes = 9,642
percentage = 24.8
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Alliance Party of Northern Ireland
candidate = Oliver Napier
votes = 9,373
percentage = 24.1
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Sinn Féin
candidate = Denis Donaldson
votes = 682
percentage = 1.8
change =
Election box candidate
party = Labour and Trade Union
candidate = Muriel Tang
votes = 584
percentage = 1.5
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Social Democratic and Labour Party
candidate = Peter Prendiville
votes = 519
percentage = 1.3
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Workers Party (Ireland)
candidate = Frank Cullen
votes = 421
percentage = 1.1
change =
Election box candidate
party = New Agenda
candidate = Herbert Boyd
votes = 59
percentage = 0.2
change =
Election box majority
votes = 7,989
percentage = 20.5
change =
Election box turnout
votes =
percentage = 70.0
change =
Election box hold with party link
winner = Democratic Unionist Party
swing =

Elections in the 1970s

Election box begin
title=General Election 1979: Belfast East
Election box candidate with party link
party = Democratic Unionist Party
candidate = Peter Robinson
votes = 15,994
percentage = 31.4
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Ulster Unionist Party
candidate = William Craig
votes = 15,930
percentage = 31.2
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Alliance Party of Northern Ireland
candidate = Oliver Napier
votes = 15,066
percentage = 29.6
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Unionist Party of Northern Ireland
candidate = Norman Agnew
votes = 2,017
percentage = 4.0
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Northern Ireland Labour Party
candidate = George Chambers
votes = 1,982
percentage = 3.9
change =
Election box majority
votes = 64
percentage = 0.1
change =
Election box turnout
votes =
percentage = 67.6
change =
Election box gain with party link
winner = Democratic Unionist Party
loser = Vanguard Progressive Unionist Party
swing =

Election box begin
title=General Election October 1974: Belfast East
Election box candidate with party link
party = Vanguard Progressive Unionist Party
candidate = William Craig
votes = 31,594
percentage = 59.1
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Unionist Party of Northern Ireland
candidate = Peter McLachlan
votes = 14,417
percentage = 27.0
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Northern Ireland Labour Party
candidate = David Bleakley
votes = 7,415
percentage = 13.9
change =
Election box majority
votes = 17,177
percentage = 32.2
change =
Election box turnout
votes =
percentage = 67.1
change =
Election box hold with party link
winner = Vanguard Progressive Unionist Party
swing =

Election box begin
title=General Election February 1974: Belfast East
Election box candidate with party link
party = Vanguard Progressive Unionist Party
candidate = William Craig
votes = 27,817
percentage = 48.4
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Pro-Assembly Unionist
candidate = Stanley McMaster
votes = 20,077
percentage = 34.9
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Northern Ireland Labour Party
candidate = David Bleakley
votes = 8,122
percentage = 14.1
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Social Democratic and Labour Party
candidate = Desmond Gillespie
votes = 1,502
percentage = 2.6
change =
Election box majority
votes = 7,740
percentage = 13.5
change =
Election box turnout
votes =
percentage = 71.9
change =
Election box gain with party link
winner = Vanguard Progressive Unionist Party
loser = Ulster Unionist Party
swing =

Election box begin
title=General Election 1970: Belfast East
Election box candidate with party link
party = Ulster Unionist Party
candidate = Stanley McMaster
votes = 26,778
percentage = 59.5
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Northern Ireland Labour Party
candidate = David Bleakley
votes = 18,259
percentage = 40.5
change =
Election box majority
votes = 8,519
percentage = 18.9
change =
Election box turnout
votes =
percentage = 75.6
change =
Election box hold with party link
winner = Ulster Unionist Party
swing =

Elections in the 1960s

Election box begin
title=General Election 1966: Belfast East
Election box candidate with party link
party = Ulster Unionist Party
candidate = Stanley McMaster
votes = 21,283
percentage = 54.7
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Northern Ireland Labour Party
candidate = Robert McBirney
votes = 17,650
percentage = 45.3
change =
Election box majority
votes = 3,633
percentage = 9.3
change =
Election box turnout
votes =
percentage = 68.2
change =
Election box hold with party link
winner = Ulster Unionist Party
swing =

Election box begin
title=General Election 1964: Belfast East
Election box candidate with party link
party = Ulster Unionist Party
candidate = Stanley McMaster
votes = 24,804
percentage = 58.8
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Northern Ireland Labour Party
candidate = Samuel Watt
votes = 15,555
percentage = 36.9
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Independent Republican (Ireland)
candidate = David McConnell
votes = 1,827
percentage = 4.3
change =
Election box majority
votes = 9,249
percentage = 21.9
change =
Election box turnout
votes =
percentage = 72.5
change =
Election box hold with party link
winner = Ulster Unionist Party
swing =

Elections in the 1950s

Election box begin
title=General Election 1959: Belfast East
Election box candidate with party link
party = Ulster Unionist Party
candidate = Stanley McMaster
votes = 26,510
percentage = 60.1
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Northern Ireland Labour Party
candidate = James Gardner
votes = 16,412
percentage = 37.2
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Sinn Féin
candidate = Barney Boswell
votes = 1,204
percentage = 2.7
change =
Election box majority
votes = 9,249
percentage = 21.9
change =
Election box turnout
votes =
percentage = 90.7
change =
Election box hold with party link
winner = Ulster Unionist Party
swing =

Election box begin
title=Belfast East by-election, 1959
Election box candidate with party link
party = Ulster Unionist Party
candidate = Stanley McMaster
votes = 19,524
percentage = 57.8
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Northern Ireland Labour Party
candidate = James Gardner
votes = 14,264
percentage = 42.2
change =
Election box majority
votes = 5,260
percentage =
change =
Election box turnout
votes =
percentage = 57.9
change =
Election box hold with party link
winner = Ulster Unionist Party
swing =

Election box begin
title=General Election 1955: Belfast East
Election box candidate with party link
party = Ulster Unionist Party
candidate = Alan McKibbin
votes = 26,938
percentage = 62.5
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Northern Ireland Labour Party
candidate = Tom Boyd
votes = 13,041
percentage = 30.2
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Sinn Féin
candidate = Liam Mulcahy
votes = 3,156
percentage = 7.3
change =
Election box majority
votes = 13,897
percentage = 32.2
change =
Election box turnout
votes =
percentage = 70.4
change =
Election box hold with party link
winner = Ulster Unionist Party
swing =

Election box begin
title=General Election 1951: Belfast East
Election box candidate with party link
party = Ulster Unionist Party
candidate = Alan McKibbin
votes = 28,881
percentage = 61.7
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Northern Ireland Labour Party
candidate = Tom Boyd
votes = 17,910
percentage = 38.3
change =
Election box majority
votes = 10,971
percentage = 23.5
change =
Election box turnout
votes =
percentage = 74.5
change =
Election box hold with party link
winner = Ulster Unionist Party
swing =

Election box candidate with party link
party = Ulster Unionist Party
candidate = Alan McKibbin
votes = 29,844
percentage = 63.3
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Northern Ireland Labour Party
candidate = Tom Boyd
votes = 17,338
percentage = 36.7
change =
Election box majority
votes = 12,506
percentage = 26.6
change =
Election box turnout
votes =
percentage = 76.6
change =
Election box hold with party link
winner = Ulster Unionist Party
swing =

Elections in the 1940s

Election box candidate with party link
party = Ulster Unionist Party
candidate = Thomas Cole
votes = 21,443
percentage = 56.4
change = "N/A"
Election box candidate with party link
party = Northern Ireland Labour Party
candidate = Tom Boyd
votes = 17,338
percentage = 43.6
change = "N/A"
Election box majority
votes = 4,869
percentage = 12.8
change ="N/A"
Election box turnout
votes = 38,017
percentage = 63.2
change = "N/A"
Election box hold with party link
winner = Ulster Unionist Party
swing = "N/A"

:In the Belfast East by-election, 1940, H. P. Harland was elected unopposed.

Elections in the 1930s

:In the 1935 UK general election, Herbert Dixon was elected unopposed.

Election box candidate with party link
party = Ulster Unionist Party
candidate = Herbert Dixon
votes = 28,431
percentage = 75.1
change = 0.0
Election box candidate with party link
party = Northern Ireland Labour Party
candidate = John Campbell
votes = 9,410
percentage = 24.9
change = "N/A"
Election box majority
votes = 19,021
percentage = 50.3
change = + 0.1
Election box turnout
votes = 37,841
percentage = 66.2
change = + 0.5
Election box hold with party link
winner = Ulster Unionist Party
swing =

Elections in the 1920s

Election box candidate with party link
party = Ulster Unionist Party
candidate = Herbert Dixon
votes = 27,855
percentage = 75.1
change = "N/A"
Election box candidate with party link
party = Ulster Liberal Party
candidate = Denis Ireland
votes = 9,230
percentage = 24.9
change = "N/A"
Election box majority
votes = 18,625
percentage = 50.2
change = "N/A"
Election box turnout
votes = 37,085
percentage = 65.7
change = "N/A"
Election box hold with party link
winner = Ulster Unionist Party
swing = "N/A"

:At the 1922, 1923 and 1924 UK general elections, Herbert Dixon was elected unopposed.

Elections in the 1910s

:At the December 1910 UK general election, Robert McMordie was elected unopposed.

:At the January 1910 UK general election, Gustav Wilhelm Wolff was elected unopposed.

Elections in the 1900s

:At the 1900 and 1906 UK general elections, Gustav Wilhelm Wolff was elected unopposed.

Elections in the 1890s

:At the 1892 and 1895 UK general elections, Gustav Wilhelm Wolff was elected unopposed.

Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservative Party (UK)
candidate = Gustav Wilhelm Wolff
votes = 4,748
percentage =
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Independent Conservative
candidate = W. T. Charley
votes = 2,607
percentage =
change =
Election box majority
votes =
percentage =
change =
Election box turnout
votes =
percentage =
change =
Election box hold with party link
winner = Conservative Party (UK)
swing =

Elections in the 1880s

Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservative Party (UK)
candidate = Edward de Cobain
votes = 5,068
percentage = 80.4
change =
Election box candidate with party link
party = Nationalist Party (Ireland)
candidate = R. McCalmont
votes = 1,239
percentage = 19.6
change =
Election box majority
votes = 3,829
percentage = 60.7
change =
Election box turnout
votes = 6,307
percentage =
change =
Election box hold with party link
winner = Conservative Party (UK)
swing =

Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservative Party (UK)
candidate = Edward de Cobain
votes = 3,033
percentage = 44.6
change = "N/A"
Election box candidate with party link
party = Conservative Party (UK)
candidate = J. P. Corry
votes = 2,900
percentage = 42.6
change = "N/A"
Election box candidate with party link
party = Liberal Party (UK)
candidate = R. W. Murray
votes = 875
percentage = 12.9
change = "N/A"
Election box majority
votes = 133
percentage = 1.9
change = "N/A"
Election box turnout
votes = 6,808
percentage =
change = "N/A"
Election box hold with party link
winner = Conservative Party (UK)
swing = "N/A"

ources

* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/vote2005/html/489.stm BBC News, Election 2005]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/vote2001/results_constituencies/constituencies/489.stm BBC News, Vote 2001]
* [http://politics.guardian.co.uk/hoc/constituency/history/0,9338,-1259,00.html Guardian Unlimited Politics]
* [http://www.angeltowns.com/town/peerage/rcommons2.htm Leigh Rayment's Peerage Page]
*http://www.psr.keele.ac.uk/ (Election results from 1951 to the present)
*F. W. S. Craig, "British Parliamentary Election Results 1918 - 1949"
*F. W. S. Craig, "British Parliamentary Election Results 1950 - 1970"
*"The Constitutional Year Book For 1912", Conservative Central Office
*"The Constitutional Year Book For 1894", Conservative Central Office

See also

* List of Parliamentary constituencies in Northern Ireland

References


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