Infobox German Location
Art = Stadt
Wappen = Ravensburg Wappen.jpg
lat_deg = 47 |lat_min = 46 |lat_sec = 59
lon_deg = 9 |lon_min = 36 |lon_sec = 41
Lageplan = Ravensburg im Landkreis Ravensburg.png
Bundesland = Baden-Württemberg
Regierungsbezirk = Tübingen
Landkreis = Ravensburg
Gemeindeverwaltungsverband = Mittleres Schussental
Höhe = 450
Fläche = 92.04
Einwohner = 47690
Stand = 2005-12-31
PLZ = 88212–88214
PLZ-alt = 7980
Vorwahl = 0751
image_photo = Ravensburg vom Sennerbad 2005.jpg
image_caption = Ravensburg, seen from the west
Kfz = RV
Website = [http://www.ravensburg.de/ www.ravensburg.de]
Bürgermeister = Hermann Vogler
Partei = CDUInfobox Former Country
native_name = "Paritätische Reichsstadt Ravensburg"
conventional_long_name = Mixed Imperial City of Ravensburg
common_name = Ravensburg
continent = Europe
region = Central Europe
country = Germany
era = Middle Ages
status = City-state
empire = Holy Roman Empire
government_type = Republic
year_start = 1276
year_end = 1803
event_pre = City founded
date_pre = before 1088
event_start = Gained "
event_end = Mediatised to Bavaria
event_post = Acquired by Württemberg
date_post = 1810
p1 = Duchy of Spoleto
s1 = Electorate of Bavaria
flag_s1 = Flag of Bavaria (lozengy).svg
capital = Ravensburg
Ravensburg is a town in
Upper Swabiain Southern Germany, capital of the district of Ravensburg, Baden-Württemberg. Population: 48,000 (in 2002; 19,000 in 1933).
Ravensburg was first mentioned in 1088. In the Middle Ages, it was an
Imperial Free Cityand an important trading centre. The "Great Ravensburg Trading Society" ("Große Ravensburger Handelsgesellschaft") owned shops and trading companies in all over Europe.
The historic town centre is still very much intact, including three town gates and over 10 towers of the medieval fortification.
The town's most popular festival is the "Rutenfest" in mid year.
Ravensburg was first mentioned in writing in 1088. It was founded by the
Welfs, a Frankish dynasty in Swabiawho became later Dukes of Bavaria and Saxony and who made the castle of Ravensburg their ancestral seat.
By a contract of inheritance, in 1191 the
Hohenstaufen Frederick Barbarossaacquired the ownership of Ravensburg from Welf VI, Duke of Spoletoand uncle of both Frederick Barbarossaand Henry the Lion.
With the death of
Conradin1268 in Naplesthe Hohenstaufenline became extinct. Their former estates became imperial property of the Holy Roman Empire. Like many other cities in Swabia, at the end of the 13th century Ravensburg became an Imperial Free Cityin 1276.
The "Great Ravensburg Trading Society" ("Große Ravensburger Handelsgesellschaft") was founded at Ravensburg and
Konstanzaround 1380 by the merchant families of Humpis (from Ravensburg), Mötteli (from Buchhorn, modern-day Friedrichshafen) and Muntprat (from Constance). The society dealt first mostly in the domestic linenand fustian. With the opening of one of the first paper mills north of the Alpsin 1402 in Ravensburg, paperbecame another commodity, but the stores held also oriental spices, Mediterranean wines and Bohemian ores.After the liquidation of the Great Ravensburg Trading Society in 1530, Ravensburg stagnated economically. The Thirty Years' Warcaused a grave decline of the population. Swedish troops destroyed the old castle, now named "Veitsburg" after the St. Veit chapel at the castle grounds.
Reformationa "paritetic" government emerged, meaning an equal distribution of public offices between the Catholic and Protestant confession. The city council was one half each Protestant and Catholic. For some time there was even a Catholic and a Protestant mayor at the same time, and the both confessions celebrated the village fair, the "Rutenfest", apart of each other. This system was approved at the end of the Thirty Years' Warin the Peace of Westphalia(1648) which named four "Paritetic Imperial Cities" ( _de. Paritätische Reichsstädte): Augsburg, Biberach, Dinkelsbühland Ravensburg.
In 1803 the "Immerwährende Reichstag" passed the "
Reichsdeputationshauptschluss", a bill which included the secularisation and mediatisationof many German states — the first meaning the confiscation of the estates belonging to the church, the second the incorporation of the imperial estates and Imperial Free Cities into larger regional states. As a result, Ravensburg first became a Bavarian exclavewithin Württemberg. After a swap of estates between Bavaria and Württemberg it was incorporated in the Kingdom of Württembergin 1810.
In the 1970s, Ravensburg increased in population and territory by the incorporation of smaller communities like Eschach, Schmalegg and Taldorf.
Since Ravensburg was impoverished and depopulated after the
Thirty Years' War, only a few new buildings were raised during the 18th and the early 19th century. The benefit of this economic stagnation was the conservation of a widely intact medieval city with nearly all towers and gates of the historic fortification.
World War IIRavensburg was strategically of no relevance. Ravensburg didn't harbour any noteworthy arms industry (unlike the nearby Friedrichshafenwith its large aircraft industry), but a big aid supplies center belonging to the Swiss Red Cross. So no air raid destroyed the historical city center. In the 1980s, the Old Town was renovated and all transit traffic was banned from the city center.
Economy and infrastructure
Ravensburg is today a thriving shopping town in the wealthy region of Upper Swabia. Unemployment is relatively low. The nearest large cities are
Munich, Stuttgartand Zurich, approximately a two-hour drive away each. Ulm, Konstanzand Bregenzare each less than a one hour drive away.
Ravensburg is part of an urban agglomeration that also comprises
Weingarten (Württemberg)and several suburbs. Ravensburg, Weingarten, and Friedrichshafen(on the shores of Lake Constance) share the functionality of a "Oberzentrum" (that is, the highest-ranked centre in the system of spatial planning and development in Baden-Württemberg).
Ravensburg is located at a crossing of the federal roads (national highways) B30, B31 and B32. A by-pass highway around Ravensburg and Weingarten was completed recently. The regional airport is situated at Friedrichshafen, about 15 km south of Ravensburg. The nearest national motor-ways are the A7 and A8 (approach at
Ulm) and the A96 (approach at Lindauor Wangen im Allgäu).
In 1847, the railway station of Ravensbug was put in operation, part of the so-called "Swabian Railroad" from
Stuttgartto Friedrichshafen, the oldest railroad of Württemberg and well-known in all of Germany by the folk-style song "Auf der schwäbsche Eisebahne".
"Ravensburger AG", whose headquarters are located in the town, is a company internationally known for board games and jigsaw puzzles.
The pastry factory "Tekrum" (Theoder Krumm GmbH & Co. KG), formerly purveyor to the Imperial court, is another company with an internationally-known brand name. Since January 2005 it has been a wholly-owned subsidiary to Griesson–De Beukelaer.
But the main industry branch of the region is machine construction. Based on the demand of the paper and textile industry (now widely reduced) and a long tradition of flour, paper and other mills many engineering factories arose at the end of the 19th century. Today the primary exponents of this branch in Ravensburg are the left-overs of the former "Escher-Wyss AG" (a subsidiary of the Swiss "Sulzer AG") which are now subsidiaries to the Austrian "VA Tech" and the German "Voith AG".
Worthy of mention are furthermore the component supplier "Nothelfer GmbH" (subsidiary of ThyssenKrupp Automotive), the packaging manufacturers
Autobar Packaging(formerly Zach Verpackungen) and "Moosmann & Co.", the tools factory "Hawera Probst" and the pharma company "Vetter Pharma".
The local newspaper is the "
The radio companies "Radio 7" and "Südwestrundfunk" run broadcasting studios at Ravensburg.In Horgenzell near Ravensburg, the "
Ravensburg-Horgenzell transmitter" transmits Deutschlandfunkon the medium wavefrequency 756 kHz.
Henry the Lion, probably born at Ravensburg castle
Joannes Susenbrotus, humanist, taught in Ravensburg
Franz Joachim Beich, painter
Karl Erb, tenor
Angelika Buckand Erich Buck, figure skaters
Klaus Schwab, founder of the World Economic Forum
* [http://www.ravensburg.de/ Official website]
* [http://www.rutenfest-ravensburg.de/ Rutenfest]
* [http://www.weberberg.de/blaserturm Blaserturm.de]
* [http://www.gpaed.de/bildergalerie/categories.php?cat_id=29 More images of Ravensburg]
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