Formyl fluoride


Formyl fluoride

Chembox new
Name = Formyl fluoride
ImageFileL1 = Formyl-fluoride-2D.png ImageNameL1 = Formyl fluoride
ImageFileR1 = Formyl-fluoride-3D-vdW.png ImageNameR1 = Formyl fluoride
IUPACName = Formyl fluoride
OtherNames = Formic acid fluoride
Section1 = Chembox Identifiers
SMILES = FC(H)=O
CASNo = 1493-02-3

Section2 = Chembox Properties
Formula = CHFO
MolarMass = 48.02 g/mol
Appearance = Colourless gas
Density =
Solubility = decomposes
Solvent = other solvents
SolubleOther = chlorocarbons,
Freons
MeltingPt = -142 °C
BoilingPt = –29 °C

Section3 = Chembox Structure
Dipole = 2.02 DLeBlanc, Jr., O. H.; Laurie, V. W.; Gwinn, W. D. “Microwave Spectrum, Structure, and Dipole Moment of Formyl Fluoride” The Journal of Chemical Physics 1960, volume 33, pp. 598-600.]

Section7 = Chembox Hazards
ExternalMSDS =
MainHazards = toxic

Section8 = Chembox Related
OtherCpds = Formic acid
Hydrogen fluoride
Carbonyl fluoride

Formyl fluoride is the organic compound with the formula FC(O)H. It is the only verified acyl halide of formic acid.

Preparation

FC(O)H was first reported in the 1934. [Nesmejanow, A. N.; Kahn, E. J. “Über die unmittelbare Synthese von Säure-fluoriden aus Säuren und die Herstellung von Formylfluorid” Chemische Berichte. 1934, volume 67, page 370-373. DOI: 10.1002/cber.19340670303] Among the many preparations, a typical one involves the reaction of sodium formate with benzoyl fluoride (generated in situ from KHF2 and benzoyl chloride):Olah, G. A.; Ohannesian, L.; Arvanaghi, M, ”Formylating Agents” Chemical Reviews, 1987, volume 87, pp 671 - 686. DOI: 10.1021/cr00080a001]

:NaOC(O)H + C6H5C(O)F → FC(O)H + C6H5CO2Na

tructure

The molecule is planar; C-O and C-F distances are 1.18 and 1.34 A, respectively.

Reactions

HC(O)F decomposes autocatalytically near room temperature to carbon monoxide and hydrogen fluoride:

:HC(O)F → HF + CO

Because of the compound’s sensitivity, reactions are conducted at low temperatures and samples are often stored over anhydrous alkali metal fluorides, e.g. KF which absorbs HF.

Benzene (and other arenes) react with formyl fluoride in the presence of boron trifluoride to give benzaldehyde. In a related reaction, formyl chloride is implicated in Gattermann-Koch formylation reaction. The reaction of formyl fluoride/BF3 with perdeuteriobenzene (C6D6) exhibits a kinetic isotope effect of 2.68, similar to the isotope effect observed in Friedel-Crafts acetylation of benzene. Formylation of benzene with a mixture of CO and hexafluoroantinomic acid however, exhibits no isotope effect (C6H6 and C6D6 react at the same rate), indicating that this reaction involves a more reactive formylating agent, possibly CHO+.

Formyl fluoride undergoes the reactions expected of an acyl halide: alcohols and carboxylic acids are converted to formate esters and mixed acid anhydrides, respectively. [Olah, G. A.; Prakash, G. K. S.; Wang, Q.; Li, X. "Formyl Fluoride" in Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis (Ed: L. Paquette) 2004, J. Wiley & Sons, New York. DOI: 10.1002/047084289.]

References


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