- Indian Campaign Medal
The Indian Campaign Medal is a decoration of the
United States Armywhich was first created in 1905. The medal was retroactively awarded to any soldier of the U.S. Army who had participated in military actions against Native American Indians between the years of 1790 to 1891.
United States Department of the Armydeclared the following fourteen campaigns as credible service to the Indian Campaign Medal:"Named Campaigns — Indian Wars."]
Miami Campaign, part of the Northwest Indian War(January, 1790–August, 1795).
Battle of Tippecanoe, part of Tecumseh's War(September 21–November 18, 1811).
* Creek Campaigns or
Creek War( July 27, 1813–August 9, 1814 and February, 1836–July, 1837).
* Seminole Campaigns or
Seminole Wars( November 20, 1817–October 31, 1818; December 28, 1835–August 14, 1842; and December 15, 1855–May, 1858).
* Black Hawk Campaign or
Black Hawk War(April 26–September, 1832).
* Modoc Campaign or
* Apache Campaigns or
Apache Wars(1873 and 1885–1886).
* Little Big Horn Campaign or
Black Hills War(1876–1877).
* Nez Perce Campaign or
Nez Perce War(1877).
* Bannock Campaign or
* Cheyenne Campaign or
* Ute Campaign or
Ute War(September, 1879–November, 1880).
Pine Ridge Campaign(November, 1890–January, 1891).
The Indian Campaign Medal was issued as a one-time decoration only and there were no devices or
service starsauthorized for those who had participated in multiple actions. The only attachment authorized to the medal was the silver citation star, awarded for meritorious or heroic conduct. The silver citation star was the predecessor of the Silver Starand was awarded to eleven soldiers between 1865 and 1891.
In the mid-20th century, the Army declared the Indian Campaign Medal obsolete and began an effort, under pressure, to collect and destroy original and reproduced Indian Campaign Medals. This was due in large part to the notion that the Indian Campaign Medal represented an effort to subjugate a culture and its people. In the modern age, the Indian Campaign Medal is one of the most difficult antique decorations to locate.Fact|date=August 2007
a. The Indian Campaign Medal was established by War Department General Orders 12 in 1907. It was created at the same time as the
Civil War Campaign Medal.
b. The initial ribbon was all red; however, two black stripes were added in December 1917 because of the similarity to a ribbon used by the French for the French Legion of Honor.
c. Campaign streamers of the same design as the service ribbon are authorized for display by units receiving campaign credit participation for the Indian Wars. The inscriptions for streamers displayed on the organizational flag will be as indicated in the unit's lineage and honors. The inscriptions for the 14 streamers displayed on the Army flag are listed in AR 840-10 and AR 600-8-22.
*cite web|title=Named Campaigns — Indian Wars|work=United States Army Center for Military History|url=http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/reference/iwcmp.htm|accessmonthday=December 13 |accessyear=2005
* [http://www.tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil/Awards/INDIAN%20CAMPAIGN%20MEDAL1.html US Army Institute of Heraldry: Indian Campaign Medal]
Awards and decorations of the United States military
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