- Spatial planning
Spatial planning refers to the methods used by the
public sectorto influence the distribution of people and activities in spaces of various scales. Spatial planning includes all levels of land use planningincluding urban planning, regional planning, environmental planning, national spatial plans, and in the European Union internationallevels.
There are numerous definitions of spatial planning. One of the earliest definitions comes from the [http://www.coe.int/t/e/cultural_co-operation/environment/cemat/list_of_conferences/071_resol1983.asp European Regional/Spatial Planning Charter] (often called the 'Torremolinos Charter'), adopted in 1983 by the European Conference of Ministers responsible for Regional Planning (CEMAT): "Regional/spatial planning gives geographical expression to the economic, social, cultural and ecological policies of society. It is at the same time a scientific discipline, an administrative technique and a policy developed as an interdisciplinary and comprehensive approach directed towards a balanced regional development and the physical organisation of space according to an overall strategy"." Numerous planning systems exist around the
world. Especially in Northwestern Europe spatial planning has evolved greatly since the late 1950s. In the countryof the Netherlandsspatial planning has carved out its own niche.fact|date=November 2007 Dutch spatial planning, noted for its "manicured planning system"fact|date=November 2007, can be seen as one of the most advanced forms of spatial planning in the world.fact|date=November 2007
patial Planning Systems in Europe
Various compendia of spatial planning systems in Europe can be found. Below is a table showing some of the main sources, the countries covered and the date of publication.
European Spatial Planning
In 1999, a document called the
European Spatial Development Perspective(ESDP) was signed by the ministers responsible for regional planning in the EU member states. Although the ESDP has no binding status, and the European Unionhas no formal authority for spatial planning, the ESDP has influenced spatial planning policy in European regions and member states, and placed the coordination of EU sectoral policies on the political agenda.
At the European level, the term
territorial cohesionis becoming more widely used and is for example mentioned in the draft EU Treaty (Constitution) as a shared competency of the European Union; it is also included in the Treaty of Lisbon. The term was defined in a "scoping document" in Rotterdam in late 2004 and is being elaborated further using empirical data from the [http://www.espon.eu ESPON programme] in a document entitled [http://www.ccre.org/docs/territorial_state_and_perspectives.pdf The Territorial State and Perspectives of the European Union] . At the minister's conference in May 2007 in Leipzig, a political document called the "Territorial Agenda" was signed to continue the process begun in Rotterdam.
European Spatial Development Perspective
ISOCARP - International Society of City and Regional Planners
Land use planning
Principles of Intelligent Urbanism
*Andreas Faludi, Bas Waterhout, "The Making of the European Spatial Development Perspective", London Routledge 2002. ISBN 978-0415272643.
*UNECE, " [http://www.unece.org/hlm/publications.htm#countryprofiles "Spatial Planning - Key Instrument for Development and Effective Governance with Special Reference to Countries in Transition] ", Report ECE/HBP/146, Geneva
*Richard H. Williams, "European union spatial policy and planning", London Chapman 1996. ISBN 978-1853963056.
* [http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/cultureheritage/Policies/CEMAT/default_en.asp CEMAT] - European Conference of Ministers responsible for Regional Planning
* [http://www.nordregio.se/EJSD EJSD] - European Journal of Spatial Development
* [http://www.espon.eu ESPON] - European Spatial Planning Observation Network
* [http://www.planum.net Planum] - The European Journal of Planning
* [http://www.vasab.org VASAB] - Baltic Sea Region Spatial Planning Initiative VASAB
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