- Kannada literature
Kannada literature is the body of literature of Kannada, a
Dravidian languagespoken mainly in the Indian state of Karnatakaand written in the Kannada script. [Krishnamurti (2003), p. 78; Steever (1998), p. 129, 131.] The literature, which has a continuous tradition from the 9th century CE to the present, [Zvelebil (2008), p.2. Quote:"The earliest inscriptions in Kannada may be dated at ca. AD 450; Kannada literature begins with Nrpatunga's Kavirajamarga, about AD 850."] is usually divided into three linguistic phases: Old (850–1200 CE), Middle (1200–1700 CE) and Modern (1700–present). [Steever, S.B. (1998), p. 129. (Quote: "The language shows three historically distinct stages: Old Kannada dates from 450 CE to 1200, Middle Kannada from 1200 CE to 1700, and Modern Kannada from 1700 to the present."); Krishnamurti (2003), p. 23; Pollock (2007), p. 81; Sahitya Akademi, "Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature, vol. 2" (1988), p. 1717. (Quote: "The language of the Halmidi inscription, pre-old Kannada, later evolved into Old Kannada, Middle Kannada, and later Modern Kannada."] Its literary characteristics are categorised as Jain, Veerashaiva and Vaishnava—symbolizing the three dominant faiths that both gave form to and fostered it until the advent of the modern era.Kittel in Rice E.P. (1921), p. 14] Sastri 1955, pp. 355–365] Narasimhacharya (1934), pp. 17, 61] Although much of the literature before 1700 was religious, some secular works were also created.Narasimhacharya (1934), pp. 61–65] Rice E. P, (1921), p. 16]
Starting with the "
Kavirajamarga" (c. 850), and until the middle of the 12th century, literature in Kannada was almost exclusively composed by the Jains, who found eager patrons in the Chalukya, Ganga, Rashtrakutaand Hoysalakings.Narasimhacharya (1934), pp. 1, 65] Rice E.P. (1921), p. 17] Although the "Kavirajamarga" authored during the reign of King Amoghavarsha, is the oldest extant literary work in the language, it has been postulated by some scholars that prose, verse and grammatical traditions must have existed earlier. [Sahitya Akademi (1988), pp. 1474–1475] [N.S. Lakshminarayan Bhatta in Kavirajamarga, Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature, Volume 3, 1994, pp. 2033–2034] B.L.Rice (1897), pp. 496–497; Narasimhacharya (1934), p. 2; E.P.Rice: (1921), p. 25] However, other scholars believe the literary tradition in Kannada to have begun with "Kavirajamarga" itself, [Pollock (2007), p. 81] [Chidananda Murthy (1978), p. 252] and point to the absence of references before the ninth century in the early literary works such as the "Sabdamanidarpanam" of Kesiraja. [Venkatachala Sastry (1994), pp. 3–5] Public narratives in the form of documentary inscriptions dating to as early as the 5th or 6th centuries have also been found; [ Nagaraj (2003), p. 324 ; Pollock (1998) p. 19 ] some of these suggest the existence of a contemporary folk literary practice, or "deshi", or local, popular literature" in Kannada, in contrast to "marga", or mainstream literature, in Sanskrit." [Nagaraj (2003), p. 334; Thapar (2004), p. 345.] The Veerashaivamovement of the 12th century created new literature which flourished alongside the Jain works. With the waning of Jain influence during the 14th-century Vijayanagara empire, a new Vaishnavaliterature grew rapidly in the 15th century; the devotional movement of the itinerant Haridasasaints marked the high point of this era.
After the decline of the Vijayanagara empire in the 16th century, Kannada literature was supported by the
Wodeyarrulers of Mysore. Later, in the 19th century, the influence of English literaturecreated new literary forms in Kannada, such as the prose narrative, the novel and the short story. Modern Kannada literature is now widely known and recognised: during the last half century, Kannada language authors have received seven Jnanpithawards and 51 Sahitya Akademiawards in India.Murthy (1997), p. 190]
Content and genre
In the early period and beginning of the medieval period, between the 9th and 13th centuries, writers were predominantly of the
Jainand Veerashaivafaiths. Jains were the earliest known cultivators of Kannada literature, which they dominated until the 12th century, although a few works by Veerashaivas from that period have survived. Jain authors wrote about Jain Tirthankars and other aspects of the Jain religion. The Veerashaiva authors wrote about the Hindu God Shiva, his 25 forms, and the expositions of Shaivism. Veerashaiva poets belonging to the Vachanatradition advanced the philosophy of Basavannafrom the 12th century.
The period between the 13th and 15th centuries saw a decline in Jain writings and an increase in the number of works from the Veerashaiva tradition; there were also contributions from Vaishnava writers. Thereafter, Veerashaiva and Vaishnava writers dominated Kannada literature.
Vaishnavawriters focused on the Hindu epics, the Ramayana, the Mahabharataand the Bhagavata, as well as the Vedantaand other subjects from the Hindu puranic traditions.Narasimhacharya (1934), p. 17] The devotional songs of the Haridasapoets, performed to music, were first noted in the 15th century. Writings on secular subjects remained popular throughout this period.
An important change during the "
Bhakti" (devotion) period starting from the 12th century was the decline of court literature and the rise in popularity of shorter genres such as the "vachana" and "kirthane", forms that were more accessible to the common man.Shiva Prakash (1997) p. 163] Writings eulogising kings, commanders and spiritual heroes waned, with a proportional increase in the use of local genres. Kannada literature moved closer to the spoken and sung folk traditions, with musicality being its hallmark, although some poets continued to use the ancient "champu" form of writing as late as the 17th century.Shiva Prakash (1997), pp. 167, 202] The "champu" Sanskritic metre (poems in verses of various metres interspersed with paragraphs of prose, also known as "champu-kavya") was the most popular written form from the 9th century onwards, although it started to fall into disuse in the 12th century. Other Sanskritic metres used were the "saptapadi" (seven line verse), the "ashtaka" (eight line verse) and the "shataka" (hundred-line verse).Sahitya Akademi (1987), p. 248] Shiva Prakash (1997), p. 210] There were numerous translations of Sanskrit writings into Kannada and, to a lesser extent, from Kannada into Sanskrit. The medieval period saw the development of literary metres indigenous to the Kannada language. These included the " tripadi" (three-line verse, in use from 7th century), one of the oldest native metres; the "shatpadi" (six-line verse, first mentioned by Nagavarma in "Chandombudhi" of 10th century and in use from 1165), of which six types exist; the "ragale" (lyrical narrative compositions, in use from 1160); the "sangatya" (compositions meant to be sung with a musical instrument, in use from 1232) and the "akkara" which came to be adopted in some Teluguwritings.Rice E.P. (1921), p. 59] Shiva Prakash in Ayyappapanicker (1997), p. 203] Narasimhacharya (1934), p. 27] Sahitya Akademi (1996), pp. 4002–4003] There were rare interactions with Tamil literature, as well.Narasimhacharya (1934), p. 29]
Though religious literature was prominent, literary genres including romance, fiction, erotica, satire, folk songs, fables and parables, musical treatises and musical compositions were popular. The topics of Kannada literature included mathematics, sciences, astrology, grammar, philosophy, prosody,
rhetoric, chronicles, biography, history, and cuisine, as well as dictionaries and encyclopedias .Narasimhacharya (1934), pp. 61–64] Karmarkar (1947), p. 124]
Kannada literature of this period was mainly written on palm leaves. However, more than 30,000 inscriptions on stone (known as "shilashasana") and copper plates (known as "tamrashasana") have been found in modern Karnataka and are available for study of the development of Kannada literature.Sahitya Akademi (1988), p. 1717] The
Kappe Arabhattainscription (c. 700), the Hummacha and the Soraba inscriptions (c. 800) are good examples of poetry in "tripadi" metre,Sahitya Akademi (1996), p. 4392] and the Jura ( Jabalpur) inscription of King Krishna III (964) is regarded as an epigraphical landmark of classical Kannada composition, containing poetic diction in "kanda" metre, a form consisting of a group of stanzas or chapters.Kamath (1980), p. 83] Elegiac poetry on hundreds of "veeragallu" and "maastigallu" ( hero stones) written by unknown poets in the "kanda" and the "vritta" (commentary) metre mourn the death of heroes who sacrificed their lives and the bravery of women who performed "sati".Sahitya Akademi (1988), p. 1150]
The evolution from old Kannada literature to one that satisfied modern sensibilities gained momentum in the early 19th century. Kannada writers were initially influenced by modern literatures in other languages, especially English.Murthy (1997), p. 167] Modern English education and liberal democratic values inspired social changes, intertwined with the desire to retain the best of traditional ways.Kamath (2001), pp. 277–278] New genres including short stories, novels, literary criticism, and essays, were embraced as Kannada prose moved toward modernisation.Murthy (1997), pp. 189–190]
The reign of the imperial Rashtrakutas and their powerful feudatory, the Gangas, marks the beginning of the classical period of writings in the Kannada language under royal patronage and the end of the age of Sanskrit epics.Kamath (1980), p. 89]
There was an emphasis on the adoption of Sanskritic models while retaining elements of local literary traditions, a style that prevailed in Kannada literature throughout the classical period.Sahitya Akademi (1988), p. 1699] "Kavirajamarga", written during this period, is a treatise on the Kannada speaking people, their poetry and their language.Rice B.L. (1897), p. 326] A portion of the writing qualifies as a practical grammar. It describes defective and corrective examples (the "do's and don't's") of versification, two kinds of native composition styles recognised by "early poets" (the "bedande" and the "chattana", compositions written in various interspersed metres), and in some contexts, the term "puravcharyar", which may refer to previous grammarians or rhetoricians.Narasimhacharya (1934), p. 17] Sahitya Akademi (1988), pp. 1474–1475] Some historians attribute "Kavirajamarga" to the Rashtrakuta king
Amoghavarsha I, but others believe that the book may have been inspired by the king and co-authored or authored in full by Srivijaya, a court poet.Rice E.P., (1921), pp. 25, 28] Narasimhacharya (1934), p. 18] Sahitya Akademi (1988), pp. 1474, 1699]
The earliest existing prose piece in old Kannada is "
Vaddaradhane" ("Worship of Elders", 9th century) by Shivakotiacharya.Sastri (1955), p. 356] It contains 19 lengthy stories, some in the form of fables and parables, such as "The Sage and the Monkey". Inspired by the earlier Sanskrit writing "Brihatkatha Kosha", it is about Jain tenets and describes issues of rebirth, karma, the plight of humans on earth, and social issues of the time such as education, trade and commerce, magic, superstition, and the condition of women in society.Sahitya Akademi (1988), p. 1253]
The works of Jain writers
Adikavi Pampa, Sri Ponnaand Ranna, collectively called the "three gems of Kannada literature", heralded the age of classical Kannada in the 10th century.Sastri (1955), p. 356] Pampa, who wrote " Adipurana" in 941, is regarded as one of the greatest Kannada writers.Bhat (1993), p. 105] Written in "champu" style, "Adipurana" narrates the life history of the first Jain Thirtankar, Rishabhadeva. In this spiritual saga, Rishabhadeva's soul moves through a series of births before attaining emancipationin a quest for the liberation of his soul from the cycle of life and death.Sahitya Akademi (1988), p. 1180] Pampa's other classic, "Vikramarjuna Vijaya" (or "Pampa Bharata", 941), is loosely based on the Hindu epic the Mahabharata.Rice E.P. (1921), p. 31]
Sri Ponna, patronised by King Krishna III, wrote "Santipurana" (950), a biography of the 16th Jain Tirthankar Shantinatha. He earned the title "Ubhaya Kavichakravathi" ("supreme poet in two languages") for his command of both Kannada and Sanskrit.Narasimhacharya 1934, p. 18] Kamath (1980), p. 90] Rice, E.P. (1921), pp. 31–32] Although Sri Ponna borrowed significantly from
Kalidasa's earlier works, his "Santipurana" is considered an important Jain purana.
From the late 10th century, Kannada literature made considerable progress under the patronage of the new overlords of the
Deccan, the Western Chalukyasand their feudatories: the Hoysalas, the southern Kalachuris, the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiriand Silharas of Karad.Kamath (1980), pp. 114, 132–134, 143–144] The skill of Kannada poets was appreciated in distant lands. King Bhoja of Malwain central Indiapresented Nagavarma I, a writer of prosody and romance classics, with horses as a mark of his admiration.Narasimhacharya (1934), p. 68] Rannawas the court poet of the Western Chalukya kings Tailapa IIand Satyasraya. He was also patronised by Attimabbe, a devout Jain woman. Ranna's poetic writings reached their zenith with "Sahasa Bhima Vijaya" ("Victory of the bold Bhima", also called "Gada Yudda" or "Battle of Clubs", 982), which describes the conflict between Bhimaand Duryodhanain his version of the Mahabharata epic, one of the earliest poetic elegies in the Kannada language.Sahitya Akademi (1987), p. 620] Rice E.P. (1921), p. 32] Sahitya Akademi (1988), p. 1149] Unlike Pampa, who glorified Arjunaand Karnain his writing, Ranna eulogised his patron King Satyasraya and favourably compared him to Bhima, whom he coronated at the end of the Mahabharata war. His other well-known writing is the " Ajitha purana" (993), which recounts the life of the second Jain Tirthankar Ajitanatha.Sahitya Akademi (1988), p. 1024] Ranna was bestowed the title "Kavi Chakravathi" ("Emperor among poets") by his patron king.
Among grammarians, Nagavarma-II, "Katakacharya" (poet laureate) of the Chalukya king
Jagadhekamalla IImade significant contributions with his works in grammar, poetry, prosody, and vocabulary; these are standard authorities and their importance to the study of Kannada language is well acknowledged.Narasimhacharya (1934), pp. 64–65,] Rice E.P. (1921), p. 34] Among his other writings, the "Kavyavalokana" on grammar and rhetoric and the "Karnataka Bhashabhushana" (1145) on grammar are historically significant.Sastri 1955, p. 358] However, the discovery of "Vardhamana Puranam" (1042), which has been ascribed by some scholars to Nagavarma II, has created uncertainty about his actual lifetime since it suggests that he may have lived a century earlier and been patronised by King Jayasimha II.Sahitya Akademi (1988), p. 1475]
In the late 12th century, the Hoysalas, a powerful hill tribe from the
Malnadregion in modern southern Karnataka, exploited the political uncertainty in the Deccan to gain dominance in the region south of the Krishna Riverin southern India.Derret and Coelho in Kamath 1980, pp. 124–126] A new chronological era was adopted, imperial titles were claimed and Kannada literature flourished with such noted scholars as Janna, Harihara, Rudrabhatta, Raghavanka, Keshirajaand others.Narasimhacharya (1934), pp. 19–21] An important achievement during this period was the establishment of native metres in literature (the "ragale", the "tripadi", the "sangatya" and the "shatpadi").Rice E. P. (1921), p. 59]
Two renowned philosophers who lived during this time,
Ramanujacharyaand Madhvacharya, influenced the culture of the region.Kamath (1980), pp. 50–52, 54–56] The conversion of the Hoysala King Vishnuvardhana in early 12th century from Jainism to Vaishnavism was to later prove a setback to Jain literature. In the decades to follow, Jain writers faced competition from the Veerashaivas, to which they responded with rebuttals,Nagaraj in Pollock (2003), p. 366] and from the 15th century, from the writers of the Vaishnava cadre. These events changed the literary landscape of the Kannada-speaking region forever.Rice E.P. (1921), pp. 45–46] Narasimhacharya (1934), p. 66]
One of the earliest Veerashaiva writers who was not part of the "Vachana" literary tradition, poet Harihara (or Harisvara) came from a family of "karnikas" (accountants), and worked under the patronage of King Narasimha I. He wrote "Girijakalyana" in ten sections following the
Kalidasatradition, employing the old Jain "champu" style, with the story leading to the marriage of Shivaand Parvati.Sastri (1955), pp. 361–362] In a deviation from the norm, Harihara avoided glorifying saintly mortals. He is credited with more than 100 poems in "ragale" metre, called the "Nambiyanana ragale" (or "Shivaganada ragale", 1160) praising the saint Nambiyana and Virupaksha (a form of Hindu god Shiva).Rice E.P. (1921), p. 60] For his poetic talent, he has earned the honorific "poet of exuberance" ("utsava kavi").
Harihara's nephew, Raghavanka, was the first to introduce the "shatpadi" metre into Kannada literature in his epic "Harishchandra Kavya" (1200), considered a classic despite occasionally violating strict rules of
Kannada grammar.Sastri (1955), p. 362] Drawing on his skill as a dramatist, Raghavanka's story of King Harishchandra vividly describes the clash of personalities between sage Vishvamitraand sage Vashishtand between Harishchandra and Vishvamitra. It is believed that this interpretation of the story of Harishchandra is unique to Indian literature. The writing is an original and does not follow any established epic traditions.Sahitya Akademi (1988), pp. 1181] In addition to Hoysala patronage, Raghavanka was honoured by Kakatiyaking Prataparudra I.
SmarthaBrahmin (believer of monistic philosophy), was the earliest well-known Brahminicalwriter, under the patronage of Chandramouli, a minister of King Veera Ballala II. Based on the earlier work of " Vishnu Purana", he wrote "Jagannatha Vijaya" (1180) in the "champu" style, relating the life of Lord Krishna leading up to his fight with the demon Banasura.Sastri (1955), p. 364]
In 1209, the
Jainscholar and army commander Janna wrote "Yashodhara Charite", a unique set of stories dealing with perversion. In one of the stories, a king intended to perform a ritual sacrifice of two young boys to Mariamma, a local deity. After hearing the boys' tale, the king is moved to release them and renounce the practice of human sacrifice.Sastri (1955), pp. 358–359] Rice E.P. (1921), pp. 43–44] In honour of this work, Janna received the title "Kavichakravarthi" ("Emperor among poets") from King Veera Ballala II.Narasimhacharya (1988), p. 20] His other classic, "Anathanatha Purana" (1230), deals with the life of the 14th Tirthankar Ananthanatha.
The 14th century saw major upheavals in geo-politics of southern India with Muslim empires invading from the north. The
Vijayanagara Empirestood as a bulwark against these invasions and created an atmosphere conducive to the development of the fine arts.Kamath (1980), p. 157] In a golden age of Kannada literature, competition between Vaishnava and Veerashaiva writers was fierce and literary disputations between the two sects were common, especially in the court of King Deva Raya II. Acute rivalry led to "organised processions" in honour of the classics written by poets of the respective sects.Sastri (1955), p. 363]
To this period belonged
Kumara Vyasa(the pen name of Naranappa), a doyen of medieval epic poets and one the most influential Vaishnava poets of the time. He was particularly known for his sophisticated use of metaphors and had even earned the title "Rupaka Samrajya Chakravarti" ("Emperor of the land of Metaphors"). In 1430, he wrote the "Gadugina Bharata", popularly known as "Karnata Bharata Kathamanjari" or "Kumaravyasa Bharata" in the Vyasatradition. The work is a translation of the first ten chapters of the epic "Mahabharata" and emphasises the divinity and grace of the Lord Krishna, portraying all characters with the exception of Krishna to suffer from human foibles.Sahitya Akademi (1987), p. 37] An interesting aspect of the work is the sense of humour exhibited by the poet and his hero, Krishna. This work marked a transition of Kannada literature to a more modern genre and heralded a new age combining poetic perfection with religious inspiration.Sastri (1955), p. 364] The remaining "parvas" (chapters) of "Mahabharata" were translated by Timmanna Kavi (1510) in the court of King Krishnadevaraya. The poet named his work "Krishnaraya Bharata" after his patron king. Kumara Valmiki(1500) wrote the first complete brahminicaladaptation of the epic Ramayana, called "Torave Ramayana". According to the author, the epic he wrote merely narrated God Shiva's conversation with his consort Parvati. This writing has remained popular for centuries and inspired folk theatre such as the " Yakshagana", which has made use of its verses as a script for enacting episodes from the great epic. In Valmiki's version of the epic, King Ravana is depicted as one of the suitors at Sita's " Swayamvara" ("lit." a ceremony of "choice of a husband"). His failure to win the bride's hand results in jealousy towards Rama, the eventual bridegroom. As the story progresses, Hanuman, for all his services to Rama, is exalted to the status of "the next creator". Towards the end of the story, during the war with Rama, Ravana realises that his adversary is none other than the God Vishnu and hastens to die at his hands to achieve salvation.Sahitya Akademi (1987), p. 38–39] Chamarasa, a Veerashaiva poet, was a rival of Kumara Vyasa in the court of Devaraya II. His eulogy of the saint Allama Prabhu, titled "Prabhulinga Lile" (1430), was later translated into Telugu and Tamil at the behest of his patron king. In the story, the saint was considered an incarnation of Hindu God Ganapathiwhile Parvatitook the form of a princess of Banavasi.Sastri (1955), p. 363]
Interaction between Kannada and Telugu literatures, a trend which had begun in the Hoysala period, increased. Translations of classics from Kannada to Telugu and vice versa became popular. Well-known bilingual poets of this period were Bhima Kavi, Piduparti Somanatha and Nilakanthacharya. In fact, so well versed in Kannada were some Telugu poets, including
Dhurjati, that they freely used many Kannada terms in their Telugu writings. It was because of this "familiarity" with Kannada, that the notable writer Srinathaeven called his Telugu, "Kannada". This process of interaction between the two languages continued into the 19th century in the form of translations by bilingual writers.Srinatha called himself "Karnatadesakataka" (Narasimhacharya 1934, pp. 27–28)]
In the late 12th century, the Kalachuris successfully rebelled against their overlords, the Western Chalukyas, and annexed the capital Kalyani. During this turbulent period, a new religious faith called
Veerashaivism(or Lingayatism) developed as a revolt against the existing social order of Hindu society. Some of the followers of this faith wrote literature called "Vachana Sahitya" ("Vachana literature") or "Sharana Sahitya" ("literature of the devotees") comprising of a unique and native form of poetry in free versecalled " Vachana".Shiva Prakash (1997), pp. 166–187] Kamath (1980), p. 108] Basavanna(or Basava, 1160), the prime minister of southern KalachuriKing Bijjala II, is generally regarded as the inspiration for this movement.Rice E.P. (1921), p. 42] Devotees gathered to discuss their mystic experiences at a centre for religious discussion called Anubhava Mantapa("hall of experience") in Kalyani. Here, they expressed their devotion to God Shiva in simple "vachana" poems. These poems were spontaneous utterances of rhythmic, epigrammatical, satirical prose emphasising the worthlessness of riches, rituals and book learning, displaying a dramatic quality reminiscent of the dialogues of Plato.Sahitya Akademi (1988), p. 1324] Sahitya Akademi (1987), p. 191]
Allama Prabhu, Devara Dasimayya, Channabasava, Prabhudeva, Siddharama (1150), and Kondaguli Kesiraja are the best known among numerous poets (called "Vachanakaras") who wrote in this genre. Akka Mahadeviwas prominent among the several women poets; in addition to her poetry, she is credited with two short writings, "Mantrogopya" and "Yogangatrividhi". Siddharama is credited with writings in "tripadi" metre and 1,379 extant poems (though he has claimed authorship of 68,000 poems).Narasimhacharya (1988), p. 20] Rice B.L. in Sastri 1955, p. 361] More than 300 poets including 33 women poets (Shiva Prakash 1997, pp. 167–168, 178, 181)] More than 200 poets including 40 or more women poets (Nagaraj in Sheldon, 2003, p. 348)]
The Veerashaiva movement experienced a setback with the assassination of King Bijjala and eviction of the "sharanas" (devotees) from Kalyani; further growth of "Vachana" poetry was curtailed until the 15th century when another wave of writings began under the patronage of the rulers of
Vijayanagara.Kamath (2001), p. 153] Chieftain Nijaguna Shivayogioriginated a new philosophy called Kaivalya, founded on the advaitha(monistic) philosophy of Adi Shankara, synthesised with an offshoot of the Veerashaiva faith. A prolific writer, Shivayogi composed devotional songs collectively known as the "Kaivalya sahitya" (or "Tattva Padagalu", literally "songs of the pathway to emancipation"). His songs were reflective, philosophical and concerned with Yoga. Shivayogi also wrote a highly respected scientific encyclopaedia called the "Vivekachintamani"; it was translated into Marathi languagein 1604 and Sanskrit language in 1652 and again in the 18th century. The encyclopaedia includes entries on 1,500 topics and covers a wide range of subjects including poetics, dance and drama, musicology and erotics. Sahitya Akademi (1988), p. 1165]
Other well-known poet saints of the Veerashaiva tradition include Muppina Sadakshari, a contemporary of Shivayogi, whose collection of songs are called the "Subodhasara", Chidananda Avadhuta of the 17th century and Sarpabhushana Shivayogi of the 18th century. So vast is this body of literature that much of it still needs to be studied.
Vaishnava Bhakti(devotional) movement involving well-known Haridasas (devotee saints) of that time made an indelible imprint on Kannada literature starting in the 15th century, inspiring a body of work called "Haridasa Sahitya" ("Haridasa literature"). Influenced by the Veerashaivism of the 12th century, this movement touched the lives of millions with its strong current of devotion. The Haridasas conveyed the message of Vedantic philosopher Madhvacharyato the common man through simple Kannada language in the form of "devaranamas" and "kirthanas" (devotional songs in praise of god).Sastri (1955), p. 365] Sahitya Akademi (1987), p. 200] The philosophy of Madhvacharya was spread by eminent disciples including Naraharitirtha, Jayatirtha, Vyasatirtha, Sripadaraya, Vadirajatirtha, Purandara Dasa, and Kanaka Dasa.Shiva Prakash (1997), pp. 192–200] Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, a prominent saint from distant Bengal, visited the region in 1510, further stimulating the devotional movement.
Purandara Dasa (1484–1564), a wandering bard, is believed to have composed 475,000 songs in the Kannada and Sanskrit languages, though only about 1,000 songs are known today. Composed in various "
ragas", and often ending with a salutation to the Hindu deity Vittala, his compositions presented the essence of the " Upanishads" and the " Puranas" in simple yet expressive language. He also devised a system by which the common man could learn Carnatic music, and codified the musical compositionforms "svaravalis", " alankaras" and " geethams". Owing to such contributions, Purandara Dasa earned the honorific "Karnataka Sangeeta Pitamaha" ("Father of Carnatic Music").Moorthy (2001), p. 67] Iyer (2006), p. 93] Shiva Prakash (1997), pp. 196–197]
Kanaka Dasa (whose birth name was Thimmappa Nayaka, 1509–1609) of Kaginele (in modern
Haveri district) was an asceticand spiritual seeker who authored important writings such as " Mohanatarangini" ("River of Delight"), the story of the Hindu god Krishna in "sangatya" metre; "Nrisimhastava", a work dealing with glory of god Narasimha; "Nalacharita", the story of Nala, noted for its narration; and "Hari Bhaktisara", a spontaneous writing on devotion in "shatpadi" metre. The latter writing, which deals with "niti" (morals), "bhakti" (devotion) and "vairagya" (renunciation) has become popular as a standard book of learning for children.Rice E.P. (1921), p. 80] Kanaka Dasa authored a unique allegorical poem titled "Ramadhanya Charitre" ("Story of Rama's Chosen Grain"), which exalts ragiover rice.Sastri (1955), p. 365] Apart from these classics, about 240 songs written by the Kanaka Dasa are available today. Shiva Prakash (1997), pp. 198–200]
The Haridasa movement returned to prominence from the 17th through 19th centuries, producing as many as 300 poets in this genre; well-known among them are
Vijaya Dasa(1682–1755), Gopala Dasa (1721–1769), Jagannatha Dasa (1728–1809), Mahipathi Dasa (1750), Helavanakatte Giriamma and others.Shiva Prakash (1997), pp. 200–201] Over time, the movement's devotional songs inspired a form of religious and didacticperforming art of the Vaishnava people called the Harikatha("Stories of Hari"). Similar developments were seen among the followers of the Veerashaiva faith who popularised the "Shivakatha" ("Stories of Shiva").Sahitya Akademi (1988), p. 1551]
With the decline of the Vijayanagara Empire, the
Kingdom of Mysorerose to power in the southern Karnataka region. The Mysore court was adorned by eminent writers, composers and musicians. The kings themselves were accomplished in the fine arts and made important contributions.Pranesh (2003), preface chapter p. i–iii] Kamath (2001), pp. 229–230] Narasimhacharya (1934), pp. 23–26] A unique and native form of poetic literature with dramatic representation called "Yakshagana" gained popularity in the 18th century.Kamath (1980), p. 281]
"Geetha Gopala", a well-known treatise on music, is ascribed to King
Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar(1673–1704), the earliest composer of the dynasty, who went by the honorific "Sahitya Vidyanikasha Prastharam" ("Expert in literature").Pranesh (2003), p. 20] Inspired by Jayadeva's "Geetha Govinda" in Sanskrit, it was written in "saptapadi" metre. This is the first writing to propagate the Vaishnava faith in the Kannada language.Pranesh (2003), p. 21]
Also writing in this periodNarasimhacharya (1934), p. 24] Prasad (1987), p. 16] was
Sarvajna("lit." "The all knowing")—a mendicantVeerashaiva poet who left a deep imprint on Kannada literature. His didactic "Vachanas", penned in the "tripadi" metre, constitute some of Kannada's most celebrated works. With the exception of some early poems, his works focus on his spiritual quest as a drifter.Prasad (1987), pp. 9–10] The pithy "Vachanas" contain his observations on the art of living, the purpose of life and the ways of the world.Shiva Prakash (1997), p. 191] He was not patronised by royalty, nor did he write for fame; his main aim was to instruct people about morality.Prasad (1987), pp. 5–6]
The writing of Brahmin author
Lakshmisa(or Lakshmisha), a well-known story-teller and a dramatist, is dated to the mid-16th or late 17th century.Narasimhacharya (1988), p. 59] Shiva Prakash (1997), p. 210] The "Jaimini Bharata", his version of the epic Mahabharata written in "shatpadi" metre, is one of the most popular poems of the late medieval period. A collection of stories, the poem includes the tale of the "Sita Parityaga" ("Repudiation of Sita"). The author successfully converted a religious story into a very human tale; it remains popular even in modern times.Sahitya Akademi (1988), p. 1182]
The period also saw advances in dramatic works. Though there is evidence that theatre was known from the 12th century or earlier, modern Kannada theatre is traced to the rise of "Yakshagana" (a type of field play), which appeared in the 16th century.Sahitya Akademi (1988), p. 1077] . The golden age of "Yakshagana" compositions was tied to the rule of King Kanteerava Narasaraja Wodeyar II (1673–1714). A polyglot, he authored 14 "Yakshaganas" in various languages, although all are written in the Kannada script.Pranesh (2003), p. 37–38] He is credited with the earliest "Yakshaganas" that included "sangeeta" (music), "nataka" (drama) and "natya" (dance).Pranesh (2003), p. 37]
Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar(1794–1868), the ruler of the princely stateof Mysore, was another prolific writer of the era.Pranesh (2003), p. 53] More than 40 writings are attributed to him, including a poetic romance called "Saugandika Parinaya" written in two versions, "sangatya" and a drama.Narasimhacharya (1934), p. 26] His reign signalled the shift from classical genres to modern literature which was to be complemented by the efforts of contemporary British evangelists and others.
The development of modern Kannada literature can be traced to the early 19th century when Maharaja Krishnaraja Wodeyar III and his court poets moved away from the ancient "champu" form of prose toward prose renderings of Sanskrit epics and plays. Kempu Narayana's "Mudramanjusha" ("Seal Casket", 1823) is the first modern novel written in Kannada before English influences brought even greater change.Murthy in George K.M(1992), p. 167]
In the 19th century, Western-style education, Christian missionaries who relied on the local language to spread their
gospel, and finally the arrival of the printing press, accelerated the development of modern literature. A prominent Christian missionary, Hermann Mögling, published the first-ever Kannada newspaper called "Mangalore Samachara" in 1843; he went on to publish Kannada classics as a series called "Bibliotheca Carnataca" during 1848–1853.Kamath (1980), p. 279] British officers Benjamin L. Riceand J. H. Fleet edited and published critical editions of surviving literary classics, contemporary folk ballads and inscriptions. The first Kannada-English dictionary by Ferdinand Kittelwas published in 1894.Kamath (1980), p. 280]
There was a push towards original works in prose narratives and a standardisation of prose during the late 19th century.Murthy (1992), pp. 168–169] Translations of works from English, Sanskrit and other Indian languages like Marathi and Bengali continued and accelerated. Lakshman Gadagkar's "Suryakantha" (1892) and Gulvadi Venkata Rao's (1899) "Indira Bai" signalled the move away from the highly stylised mores and aesthetics of archaic Kannada to modern prose which brought with it a profusion of new genres, including the novel, essay, literary criticism and drama. Murthy (1992), pp. 168–169] Kamath (1980), p. 281]
Navodaya – A period of awakening
At the dawn of the 20th century,
B. M. Srikantaiah('B. M. Sri'), regarded as the "Father of modern Kannada literature",Sahitya Akademi (1988), pp. 1077–78] called for a new era of writing original works in modern Kannada while moving away from archaic Kannada forms. This paradigmatic shift spawned an age of prolificacy in Kannada literature and came to be dubbed the "Navodaya" ("lit". 'A new rise') period—a period of awakening. B. M. Sri led the way with his "English Geethagalu" ("English Songs")—a collection of poems translated from English set the tone for more translations using a standardisation of a modern written idiom.Murthy (1992), pp. 170–171] Original and seminal works which drew greatly from native and folk traditions also emerged alongside the translations. Stalwarts like S. G. Narasimhachar, Panje Mangesha Rao and Hattiangadi Narayana Rao also contributed with celebrated efforts. Literary subjects now veered from discussing kings and gods to more humanistic and secular pursuits. Kannada writers experimented with several forms of western literature, the novel and the short story in particular. The novel found an early champion in Shivaram Karanthwhile another prominent writer, Masti Venkatesh Iyengar('Masti'), laid the foundation for generations of story tellers to follow with his "Kelavu Sanna Kathegalu" ("A few Short Stories", 1920) and "Sanna Kathegalu" ("Short Stories", 1924).Murthy (1992), p. 172]
The consolidation of modern drama was pioneered by
T. P. Kailasam, with his "Tollu Gatti" ("The Hollow and the Solid", 1918). Kailasam followed this with "Tali Kattoke Cooline" ("Wages for tying the Mangalsutra"), a critique on the dowry system in marriage. His plays mainly focused on problems affecting middle class Brahminfamilies: the dowry system, religious persecution, woes in the extended family system and exploitation of women.Sahitya Akademi (1988), p. 1077] Novels of the early 20th century promoted a nationalist consciousness in keeping with the political developments of the time. While Venkatachar and Galaganath translated Bankim Chandra and Harinarayana Apte respectively, Gulvadi Venkata Rao, Kerur Vasudevachar and M. S. Puttanna initiated the movement toward realistic novels with their works. Aluru Venkatarao's "Karnataka Gatha Vaibhava" had a profound influence on the movement for Karnataka's unification.
;1925–50 – The Golden harvest
While the first quarter of the 20th century was a period of experiment and innovation, the succeeding quarter was one of creative achievement. This period saw the rise of acclaimed
lyricists whose works combined native folk songs and the mystic poetry of the medieval "vachanas" and "kirthanas" with influences from modern English romantics.Murthy (1992), p. 173–175] D. R. Bendre, with his collection of 27 poems including such masterpieces as "Gari" ("Wing", 1932), "Nadaleela" (1938) and "Sakhigeetha" (1940), was perhaps the most outstanding Kannada lyricist of the period.Sahitya Akademi (1987), p. 413] His poems covered a wide range of themes including patriotism, love of nature, conjugal love, transcendental experiences and sympathy for the poor.Murthy (1992), p. 173] Govinda Painarrated the story of Christ's crucifixion in his work "Golgotha" (1931). The success of this work encouraged Pai to follow with three panegyrics in 1947; "Vaishakhi", "Prabhasa" and "Dehali", narrated the last days of the Buddha, God Krishnaand Gandhirespectively.Das (1995), p. 148] His "Hebberalu" ("Thumb", 1946) dramatises the story of Dronaand Ekalavya, characters from the epic Mahabharata.
K.V. Puttappa ('
Kuvempu'), who would subsequently become Kannada's first Jnanpithawardee, demonstrated great talent in writing blank verse with his "magnum opus" " Sri Ramayana Darshanam" (1949).Murthy (1992), p. 174] This work marks the beginning of modern Kannada epic poetry.Sahitya Akademi (1988), p. 1182] The work, through the use of metaphors and similes, focuses on the concept that all living creatures will eventually evolve into perfect beings.Punekar in Sahity Akademi (1992), pp. 4159–4160] Other important works of the period are Masti's "Navaratri" and P. T. Narasimhachar's "Hanathe". D. V. Gundappa's " Mankuthimmana Kagga" ("Dull Thimma's Rigmarole", 1943) harkened back to the wisdom poems of the late medieval poet Sarvajna.Sahitya Akademi (1988), p. 1057] A celebrated writer of conjugal love poems, K. S. Narasimhaswamywon critical acclaim for "Mysore Mallige" ("Mysore Jasmine", 1942), a description of the bliss of everyday marital life.Murthy (1992), p. 175]
Growth in poetic drama was inspired by B.M. Sri's "Gadayuddha Natakam" (1925), an adaptation of Ranna's medieval epic. While Kuvempu and B.M. Sri were inspired by old Kannada, Masti and later P. T. Narasimhachar ('Pu. Ti. Na') explored modern sensibilities in their "Yashodhara" (1938) and "Ahalye" (1940). The 1930s saw the emergence of
Sriranga, who joined forces with Samsaand Kailasam to pen some of the most successful plays in Kannada.Murthy (1992), p. 176] Samsa completed his trilogy about Ranadhira Kantirava, a Mysore king of yore, with his "Vijayanarasimha" (1936) and "Mantrashakti" (1938). Kailasam's mastery over wit and stage rhetoric come to the fore in his "Home Rule" (1930) and "Vaidyana Vyadi" ("A Doctors Ailment", 1940) while he explores his serious side in "Bhahishkara" (1929); with "Soole" ("Prostitute", 1945), he unleashed his contempt for outdated quasi-religious mores.Murthy (1992), p. 176] Societal ills were also examined in Bendre's "Nageya Hoge" ("Fumes of Laughter", 1936), and in Karanth's "Garbhagudi" ("Sanctum", 1932), which decried the exploitation of society in the name of religion.Murthy (1992), p. 177]
The novel came of age during this period, with Karanth ("Chomana Dudi", 1933), Masti ("Subbanna", 1928) and Kuvempu ("Subbamma Heggadathi of Kanur", 1936) leading the charge.Murthy (1992), p. 178] Significantly, writers chose to carry on from where Puttanna, Gulvadi and Kerur had left off at the turn of the century rather than continue with popular translations in the style of Venkatachar and Galaganath. Aesthetic concerns replaced the didactic and a sense of form developed.Murthy (1992), p. 177]
Devudu Narasimha Shastridistinguished himself with his "Antaranga" (1931) and " Mayura" (1928); the former was a much acclaimed work which delved into the psychology of the protagonist, while the latter was a historical novel tracing the emergence of the Kadambadynasty. Another high point of this period is Karanth's "Marali Mannige" (1942), the saga of three generations of a family, reflecting the social, cultural and economic developments of over a hundred years.Murthy (1992), p. 178–179] Literary criticism, which had its beginnings in the first quarter-century, also made significant progress. B.M. Sri's "Kannada Sahitya Charitre" (1947), Gundappa's "Sahitya Shakti" (1950), Masti's "Adikavi Valmiki" (1935), Bendre's "Sahitya Hagu Vimarshe" ("Literature and Criticism", 1932) and Krishna Shastry's "Samskrita Nataka" (1937) are particularly notable. The essay, another form adopted from western literature, was richly served by A N Murthy Rao ("Hagaluganasugalu", 1937), Gorur Ramaswamy Iyengar's ('Gorur') humorous "Halliya Chitragalu" (1930) and Karanth's "Hucchu manassina Hattu mukhagalu" (1948).Murthy (1992), p. 179]
Late Navodaya and the rise of the progressives
As the "Navodaya" period waxed, the "
Pragatishila" (progressives) movement led by novelist A. N. Krishna Rao('Anakru') gained momentum in the early 1940s.Murthy (1992), p. 183] This left-leaning school contended that literature must be an instrument of social revolution and considered the "Navodaya" to be the product of aesthetes, too puritanical to be of any social relevance. This movement drew both established and young writers into its fold and, while it produced no poetry or drama of special merit, its contributions to short story and novel forms were appreciable. "Pragatishila" was credited with broadening readers' horizons; works produced during this period dealt extensively with subjects of everyday life, rural themes and the common man. The language was less inhibited and made generous use of colloquialism and slang. Anakru himself was a prolific writer of novels but the best works of this school are attributed to T. R. Subba Rao('Ta Ra Su'), Basavaraju Kattimani and Niranjana. [The Growth of the Novel in India 1950-1980, P. K. Rajan, p. 112, 1989, ISBN 8170172594] T. R. Subba Rao initially wrote short stories, although he later turned his talents to novels, which were popular. His early novels, "Purushavatara" and "Munjavininda Munjavu", told the stories of the underprivileged, the downtrodden and the outcast.Sahitya Akademi (1992), p. 4185] Best known among his novels—some of whose plots are centred on his native Chitradurga—are "Masanada Hoovu" ("Flower from a cemetery"), a story about the plight of prostitutes, and historical novel "Hamsa Gite" ("Swan Song"), a story about a dedicated musician of the late 18th century during annexation of Chitradurga by Tipu sultan.
Marked as its influence had been, the "Pragatishila" wave was already in decline by the close of the 1950s. Legendary writers of the previous era continued to produce notable works in the "Navodaya" style. In poetry, Bendre's "Naku Tanti" ("Four Strings", 1964) and Kuvempu's "Aniketana" (1964) stand out. V.K. Gokak brought out the innate insufficiencies of the more advanced western cultures in "Indilla Nale" (1965).Murthy (1992), pp. 179–180] "Navodaya"-style novels continued to be successful with such noteworthy works as Karanth's "Mookajjiya Kanasugalu" ("Mookajji's visions", 1968), where Karanth explored the origins of man's faith in the mother goddess and the stages of evolution of civilisation. Kuvempu's "Malegallali Madumagalu" ("The Bride of the Hills", 1967) is about loving relationships that exist in every level of society.Murthy (1992), p. 180]
Masti's two classic novels of this era were "Channabasavanayaka" (1950), which describe the defeat of Bidanur's chief Channabasava Nayaka (on Karnataka's coast) by
Haider Aliin the late 18th century, and "Chickavirarajendra" (1950), which describes the fall of the tiny kingdom of Coorg(ruled by King Chikka Virarajendra) to the British East India Company.Murthy (1992) p. 181] The common theme in both works is the despotism and tyranny of the incumbent native rulers resulting in the intervention of a foreign power appearing on the scene to restore order, but with its own imperialistic intentions.Sahitya Akademi (1987), p. 689] S. L. Bhyrappa, a charismatic young writer, first came to attention in the 1960s with his first novel "Dharmasri", although it was his "Vamsavriksha" ("Family Tree", 1966) that put him in the spotlight as one of Kannada's most popular novelists. It is a story of a respected scholar, Srinivasa Srotri, his family and their long-held values. The protagonist's young and widowed daughter-in-law wishes to re-marry, putting his family tradition at risk.Sahitya Akademi (1987), p. 429] Bhyrappa's best novel of the period was "Grihabhanga" ("Breaking of a Home", 1970), a story of a woman surviving under tragic circumstances. The characters in the story are rustic and often use vulgar language.Murthy (1992), p. 182] His other important novel is "Parva", a major work in Kannada fiction acclaimed as an admirable attempt at recreating life on the sub-continent during the time of the epic Mahabharata.Sahitya Akademi (1987), p. 430]
In the 1950s, even as the "Pragatishila" merged back into the "Navodaya" mainstream, a new modernist school of writing called "Navya" emerged. Though formally inaugurated by
V. K. Gokakwith his "Navya Kavitegalu" ("Modern Poems", 1950), it was Gopalakrishna Adigawho best exemplified the ethos of the movement. Poetry and, later, the short story became the most effective vehicles of the movement. With the passing of the Gandhian era and its influences, a new era in which to express modern sensibilities had arrived. The "Navya" writers questioned the time-honoured standards of plot of the "Navodaya"; life was seen not as a pursuit of already existing values, but as an introspective search for them, occasionally narrated in stream of consciousness technique. Events and details were increasingly treated metaphorically and the short story grew closer to poetry. [Sahitya Akademi (1992), p. 4049] [Handbook of Twentieth-Century Literatures of India, Nalini Natarajan, Emmanuel Sampath Nelson, p. 170, 1996, ISBN 0313287783] Gopalakrishna Adiga is considered the father of this form of expression with his "Nadedu Banda Dari" ("The Path Traversed", 1952) where he sought inspiration from T. S. Eliotand W. H. Auden. His other well-known poems include "Gondalapura" ("Pandemonium", 1954) and "Bhoota" (1959).Murthy (1992), p. 184] G. S. Shivarudrappamade his mark in the Navya period with "Mumbai Jataka" ("A Horoscope of Bombay", 1966), which takes a closer look at urbanised society in Mumbai. A protégé of Kuvempu, Shivarudrappa's fame came the peak of popularity of romantic poems with his "Samagma" ("Songs of Equanimity", 1951), poems distinguished by an idealistic bent. He continued to write poems in the same vein, although in his later poems there is a gradual shift to social issues with a streak of admiration for god's creation.Sahitya Akademi (1992), p. 4031] His critical essay, "Anuranana" (1980), is about the Vachana poets of the 12th century, their tradition, style and influence on later poets.
K. S. Narasimhaswamy remained prominent through this era, writing such landmark poems as "Silalate" ("The Sculptured Creeper", 1958) and "Gadiyaradangadiya Munde" ("Before the Clock Shop").Murthy (1992), p. 665]
Chandrashekhara Kambar, Chandrashekar Patil, P. Lankesh, and K. S. Nissar Ahmedare among the best-known later generation Navya poets.Murthy (1992), p. 185]
Outstanding playwrights from this period are
Girish Karnad, P. Lankesh, Chandrashekhara Kambara and Chandrashekar Patil. Karnad's "Tughlaq" (1964) portrays violence caused by idealism gone astray. Considered an important creation in Kannada theatre, the play depicts the 14th-century Sultanof Delhi, Mohammad Tughlaqin contrasting styles, a tyrannical and whimsical ruler and at the same time, an idealist who sought the best for his subjects.Sahitya Akademi (1992), p. 4403] Most plays written by Karnad have either history or mythology as their theme, with a focus on their relevance to modern society.
The most acclaimed novel of the era was "Samaskara" by
U.R.Anantha Murthy(1965). The novel details the search for new values and identity by the protagonist, a Brahmin, who had sexual intercourse with the untouchable mistress of his heretic adversary.Murthy (1992), p. 187] Another notable work is the "Swarupa" (1966) by Poornachandra Tejaswi. Anantha Murthy's "Prasne" (1963) contains his best collection of short stories including "Ghatashraddha", which describes the tragedy that befell a young pregnant widow, from the point of view of a boy. His collection "Mouni" (1973) includes the stories "Navilugulu" ("Peacocks") and "Clip Joint".Sahitya Akademi (1987), p. 165]
The Navya movement was not without its critics. The doubt, dilemmas and indecision in every turn of the plot resulted in increasingly sophisticated and complex narrations, which some readers found uninteresting. It was derided as an intellectual exercise of the middle class intelligentsia; in its extreme sophistication, it was thought to have lost its touch with realities of life. This led to a gradual waning of the Navya school as it was supplanted by emerging waves of "Navyottara", "Bandaya" (protest) and "
Dalit" schools. [Sahitya Akademi (1992), p. 4049]
From the early 1970s, a segment of writers including many "Navya" writers started to write novels and stories that were anti-"Navya". This genre was called "Navyottara" and sought to fulfil a more socially responsible role. The best-known authors in this form of writing were
Poornachandra Tejaswiand Devanur Mahadeva. Tejaswi moved from writing poetry to writing novels, going on to win "most creative novel of the year" for his "Karvalo" in 1980 and "Chidambara Rahasya" in 1985 from the Sahitya Akademi.Sahitya Akademi (1992), p 4308] Sahitya Akademi (1992), p 4309]
Modernisation and westernisation continue to inform sensibilities and spawn new literary techniques and genres. The most striking developments in recent times have been the rise of the prose form to a position of predominance—a position earlier held by poetry—and the prodigious growth in dramatic literature. More recently "Bandaya" (Rebellion) and
Dalitliterature, in some ways a throwback to the "Pragatishila" days, have come to the fore. Mahadeva's "Marikondavaru" ("Those who sold themselves") and "Mudala Seemeli Kole Gile Ityadi" ("Murder in the Eastern Region") are examples of this trend.Murthy (1992), p 189]
Kannada writers have been presented with seven Jnanpith awards, fifty-one
Sahitya Akademiawards and numerous other national and international awards over the last half of the 20th century.cite web|url=http://jnanpith.net/laureates/index.html|title=Awardees detail for the Jnanpith Award|work=Official website of Bharatiya Jnanpith|publisher=Bharatiya Jnanpith|accessdate=2008-02-13] cite web |url=http://www.sahitya-akademi.org/sahitya-akademi/awa10307.htm#kannada|author=|title=Sahitya Akademi–India's National Akademi of Letters|work=Awards and fellowships|accessdate=2007-04-09 |publisher=Sahitya Akademi] cite web |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=kEj-2a7pmVMC&pg=PA143&dq=Jnanpith+award&sig=a7bf0Dec-Nws_pTdK2YCNvUcYa4|title=Students' Britannica India|work=Jnanpith Award |publisher=Popular Prakashan
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*cite book | last = Pollock | first = Sheldon | authorlink = Sheldon Pollock | chapter = [http://www.columbia.edu/cu/mealac/faculty/pollock/mss_cult.pdf Literary Culture and Manuscript Culture in Precolonial India] | editor = Simon Elliot et al (ed.) | title = Literary Cultures and the Material Book | year = 2007 | place = London | publisher = British Library | pages = pp. 77–94 | isbn = 0712306846 |url =
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*cite book |last= Venkatachala Sastry|first= T. V.|title= Sabdamanidarpanam of Kesiraja|origyear=1897|year=2001|publisher= Kannada Sahitya Parishad|location= Bangalore|year = 1994
*cite encyclopedia | last = Zvelebil | first = Kamil V. | authorlink = Kamil Zvelebil
title = Dravidian Languages | encyclopedia = Encyclopaedia Britannica| date = 2008
url = http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-74974/Dravidian-languages| accessdate = 2008-04-08
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См. также в других словарях:
Kannada literature — ▪ Indian literature also spelled Kannaḍa, also called Kanarese, the literature written in Kannada, which, like the other languages of South India, is of the Dravidian family. The earliest records in Kannada are inscriptions dating from … Universalium
Kannada literature in the Vijayanagara Empire — refers to the body of literature composed in the Kannada language of South India during the ascendancy of the Vijayanagar Empire which lasted from the 14th through the 16th century. The Vijayanagara empire was established in 1336 by Harihara I… … Wikipedia
Kannada literature in the Western Chalukya Empire — The Western Chalukya Empire (973 ndash;1200), in what is now southern India, produced a large body of literature in the Kannada language. This dynasty, which ruled most of the western Deccan, South India, is sometimes called the Kalyani Chalukya… … Wikipedia
Medieval Kannada literature — covered a wide range of subjects and genres which can broadly be classified under the Jain, Virashaiva, Vaishnava and secular traditions. These include writings from the 7th century rise of the Badami Chalukya empire to the 16th century,… … Wikipedia
Modern Kannada literature — refers to the body of literature written in the Kannada language, a language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Karnataka. The Kannada script is the writing system used in Kannada literature. In the last forty years, eight modern Kannada… … Wikipedia
Extinct Kannada literature — refers to a body of literature written in the Kannada language and script during the period immediately preceding the extant Kavirajamarga dated to 850 CE. Important writings contemporary to Kavirajamarga are also considered here. While no works… … Wikipedia
Kannada Sahitya Parishat — Kannada Saahithya Parishath (Kannada: ಕನ್ನಡ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ ಪರಿಷತ್ತು) is an Indian non profit organisation that promotes the Kannada language. Its headquarters are in the city of Bangalore, in the state of Karnataka, India. It strives to promote Kannada… … Wikipedia
Kannada poetry — is poetry written in the Kannada language (ಕನ್ನಡ) spoken in Karnataka (ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ) state of India (ಭಾರತ). Karnataka is the land that gave birth to seven Jnanapeeth award winners, the highest honour bestowed for Indian literature. From the period of… … Wikipedia
Kannada (disambiguation) — Kannada may refer to:* Kannada language (an Indian language) * Kannada script (script used for writing in Kannada language) * Kannada literature (literature in Kannada language) * Kannada poetry (Poetry in Kannada language) * Kannada grammar… … Wikipedia
Kannada Sahitya Sammelana — (Kannada Literature Conference) is the premier gathering of writers, poets and kannadigas. It used to be inaugurated by prominent writers and poets from the first time it was held in 1915 to 1948. Since then it has been ingurated by the Chief… … Wikipedia