Demographics of Bangladesh


Demographics of Bangladesh

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Bangladesh, including population density, ethnicity, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Demographics of Bangladesh
Population: 158,570,535 (July 2011 est.)[1]
Growth rate: 1.292% (2009 est.)
Birth rate: 24.68 births/1,000
population (2009 est.)
Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000
population (2009 est.)
Life expectancy: 60.25 years
–male: 57.57 years
–female: 63.03 years (2009 est.)
Fertility rate: 2.6 children born/woman (2011 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 59.02 deaths/1,000 live births
Age structure:
0-14 years: 34.6% (male 24,957,997/female 23,533,894)
15-64 years: 61.4% (male 47,862,774/female 45,917,674)
65-over: 4% (male 2,731,578/female 2,361,435) (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
At birth: 1.04 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Under 15: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65-over: 0.94 male(s)/female
Nationality:
Nationality: noun: Bengali(s) adjective: Bangladeshi
Major ethnic: Bengali
Minor ethnic: Santhal, Chakma, Garo, Bihari, Oraon, Munda, Rohingya
Language:
Official: Bengali
Spoken: Bengali, Sylheti, Chittagonian, Urdu, Tribal languages and English

Bangladesh is largely ethnically homogeneous. Indeed, its name derives from the Bengali ethno-linguistic group, which comprises 98% of the population. Bengalis, who also predominate in the West Bengal province of India, are one of the most populous ethnic groups in the world. Variations in Bengali culture and language do exist of course. There are many dialects of Bengali spoken throughout the region. The dialect spoken by those in Chittagong and Sylhet are particularly distinctive. In 2009 the population was estimated at 156 million. Religiously, about 90% of Bangladeshis are Muslims and the remainder are mostly Hindus.

Bangladesh has the highest population density in the world, excluding a handful of city-states and small countries with populations under 10m, such as Malta and Hong Kong.

Most of the demographic statistics below are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Contents

Population

The mid-2009 estimate for total population was 156,050,883 which ranks Bangladesh 7th in the world (CIA).

Naturally there is some uncertainty about the population, especially in a developing country such as Bangladesh with high illiteracy and a large rural population. For instance, in 2005 there was not a consensus whether Bangladesh or Russia had a larger population. The UN's ESA ranked Russia 7th in the world and Bangladesh 8th. However, the CIA World Factbook ranked Bangladesh 7th and Russia 8th in the same year. The point is now moot as the population of Russia is in decline while that of Bangladesh is growing.

The baseline for population studies on Bangladesh is the official census which is conducted every 10 years, the last being in 2011.

Census[2]

Demographic evolution of the territory of Bangladesh (1900-2010).
Population of Bangladesh
Census date census population
(thousands)
adjusted population
(thousands)
1901 28 928
1911 31 555
1921 33 255
1931 35 602
1941 41 997
1951 41 932
1961 50 840
1974 71 479 76 398
1981 87 120 89 912
1991 106 313 111 455
2001 124 355 130 523
15 Mar 2011 (p) 142 319

p=provisional figure

UN estimates[3]

Total population Population aged 0-14 (%) Population aged 15-64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 37 895 41.2 54.8 3.9
1955 43 444 42.4 54.1 3.5
1960 50 102 43.6 53.1 3.3
1965 57 792 44.7 52.0 3.3
1970 66 881 44.7 51.8 3.4
1975 70 582 45.8 50.7 3.5
1980 80 624 45.0 51.4 3.6
1985 92 284 43.9 52.5 3.6
1990 105 256 42.5 53.8 3.7
1995 117 487 40.3 55.9 3.8
2000 129 592 37.3 58.7 4.0
2005 140 588 34.3 61.4 4.3
2010 148 692 31.3 64.1 4.6


Other sources

The following table lists various recent estimates of the population.

Source Year Population (millions)
US State Dept[4] 2005 144
Population Reference Bureau[5] 2005 144
World Bank[6] 2008 160
CIA World FactBook[7] 2010 156
World Population Reference[8] 2010 164

According to the OECD/World Bank population in Bangladesh increased from 1990 to 2008 with 44 million and 38 % growth in population compared to 34 % growth in India and 54 % growth in Pakistan. The annual population growth 2007-2008 was 1.4 % compared to India 1.35 %, Pakistan 2.2 %, Dem. Rep. of Congo 2.9 %, Tanzania 2.9 %, Syria 3.5 % or Yemen 4.0 %. According to the OECD/World Bank population statistics between 1990-2008 the world population growth was 27 % and 1,423 million persons.[9]

Population growth rate

Bangladesh had high rates of population growth in the 1960s and 1970s. Since then however it has seen a marked reduction in its total fertility rate. Over a period of three decades it dropped from almost 7 to 2.4 in 2005-2010[3].

Gender ratio

At birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

Urban and rural

The sprawling mega-city of Dhaka has a huge population, but the majority of the people nonetheless still live in villages in rural areas.

Urban population: 27% of total population (2009 est.)
Rate of urbanization: 3.5% annual rate of change (2005-2010 est.)

Vital statistics

Births and deaths [3]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 1 963 000 852 000 1 111 000 48.3 20.9 27.4 6.36 165.0
1955-1960 2 252 000 921 000 1 332 000 48.2 19.7 28.5 6.62 156.5
1960-1965 2 560 000 994 000 1 566 000 47.5 18.4 29.1 6.80 151.2
1965-1970 2 950 000 1 090 000 1 860 000 47.3 17.5 29.8 6.91 144.4
1970-1975 3 193 000 1 847 000 1 346 000 46.5 26.9 29.6 6.91 175.6
1975-1980 3 381 000 1 153 000 2 229 000 44.7 15.2 29.5 6.65 138.3
1980-1985 3 670 000 1 151 000 2 519 000 42.4 13.3 29.1 5.99 122.5
1985-1990 3 767 000 1 115 000 2 652 000 38.1 11.3 26.8 5.02 104.4
1990-1995 3 709 000 1 057 000 2 653 000 33.3 9.5 23.8 4.10 90.6
1995-2000 3 598 000 986 000 2 612 000 29.1 8.0 21.1 3.41 73.8
2000-2005 3 432 000 934 000 2 498 000 25.4 6.9 18.5 2.87 59.3
2005-2010 3 107 000 905 000 2 202 000 21.5 6.3 15.2 2.38 49.0
  • CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Health

Life expectancy at birth

Total population: 60.25 years
country comparison to the world: 183
Male: 57.57 years
Female: 63.03 years (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS

Adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
county comparison to the world: 102
People living with HIV/AIDS: 12,000 (2007 est.)
county comparison to the world: 85
Deaths: fewer than 500 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8s

Major infectious diseases

Degree of risk: high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria are high risks in some locations
Water contact disease: leptospirosis
Animal contact disease: rabies (2005)

Ethnic groups

The vast majority (about 98.5%) of Bangladeshis, as the nation's name would imply, hail from the Bengali ethno-linguistic group. This group also spans the neighboring Indian province of West Bengal. Minority ethnic groups include Meitei, Khasi, Santhals, Chakma, Garo (tribe), Biharis, Oraons, Mundas and Rohingyas.

Biharis are Urdu-speaking, non-Bengalis who emigrated from the state of Bihar and other parts of northern India during the 1947 partition. They are concentrated in the Dhaka and Rangpur areas and number some 300,000.[10][11] In the 1971 independence war many of them sided with Pakistan, as they stood to lose their positions in the upper levels of society.[12] Hundreds of thousands went to Pakistan and those that remained were interned in refugee camps. Their population declined from about 1 million in 1971 to 600,000 in the late 1980s.[12] Refugees International has called them a "neglected and stateless" people as they are denied citizenship by the governments of Bangladesh and Pakistan.[13] As nearly 40 years has passed, two generations of Biharis have been born in the these camps. Biharis were granted Bangladeshi citizenhip and voting rights in 2008.[14]

Bangladesh's tribal population was enumerated at 897,828 in the 1981 census.[12] These tribes are concentrated in the Chittagong Hill Tracts and around Mymensingh, Sylhet, and Rajshahi. They are of Sino-Tibetan descent and differ markedly in their social customs, religion, language and level of development. The speak Tibeto-Burman languages and most are Buddhist or Hindu.[12] The four largest tribes are Chakmas, Marmas, Tipperas and Mros. Smaller groups include the Santals in Rajshahi and Dinajpur, and Khasis, Garos, and Khajons in Mymensingh and Sylhet regions.[12]

There are small communities of Meitei people in the Sylhet district, which is close to the Meitei homeland across the border in Manipur, India.

There is a small population of Rohingya refugees from Myanmar near the border in the southeast. There are 28,000 living in two UN refugee camps in Cox's Bazaar as well as some 200,000 "unregistered people of concern" living outside of the camps.[15] The refugee crisis originated in the early 1990s when the first wave numbering some 250,000 of the predominantly Muslim ethnic group fled persecution from their home in Rakhaine—Myanmar's western-most state. Bangladesh seeks to repatriate the refugees back to Myanmar.[16]

Language

  • Official language: Bengali (also known as Bangla)
  • Dialects: Chittagonian and Sylheti (both also regarded as languages in their own right)
  • Tribal languages: Khasi-Jainta, Bishnupriya Manipuri, Arakanese, Chakma, Garo, Ho, Kokborok and Kurukh
  • Other languages: English (spoken and known widely in upper-class & politics), Arabic ( sometimes spoken and known by many Muslims, due to Islam being the primary religion), Urdu (understood by some, and spoken by Biharis)'

Religion

See also: Islam in Bangladesh, Hinduism in Bangladesh, Buddhism in Bangladesh, Christianity in Bangladesh
Bangladesh religions.png

According to the 2001 census, the religious profile of the population is: Islam 89.7%, Hinduism 9.2%, Buddhism 0.7%, Christianity 0.3% and others (such as Animists and non-religious) 0.1%.[17] The majority of the Muslims are Sunni consisting of 95% of the Muslim population, and the remaining are Shi'a and other sects.[citation needed]

Hindus constituted 18.5% of the population in 1961, but their population declined significantly during the Bangladesh Liberation War due to the 1971 Bangladesh atrocities carried out by the Pakistan Army. As a result, millions of Hindus fled to India and their population in Bangladesh fell to 13.5% by 1974. Since then, the Hindu population has not grown as much as the Muslim population.

Genetics

Bangladesh has the world's highest frequency of the M form of mitochondrial DNA. This genetic variant spans many continents, and is the single most common mtDNA haplogroup in Asia.[18] In Bangladesh it represents about 83% of maternal lineages.[19]

Education

Literacy

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 43.1%
Male: 53.9%
Female: 31.8% (2003 est.)

Education expenditures

2.7% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 151

See also

References

  1. ^ The World Factbook, CIA, accessed on Aug 15, 2011.
  2. ^ 2011 Population & Housing Census: Preliminary Results
  3. ^ a b c Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
  4. ^ "Background Note: Bangladesh". U.S. Department of State. 2005-08. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3452.htm. 
  5. ^ "Country Profiles: Bangladesh". Population Reference Bureau. http://www.prb.org/TemplateTop.cfm?Section=PRB_Country_Profiles&template=/customsource/countryprofile/countryprofiledisplay.cfm&Country=395. Retrieved 2006-07-28. 
  6. ^ "World Development Indicators". World Bank. http://econ.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/DATASTATISTICS/0,,contentMDK:20394872~menuPK:1192714~pagePK:64133150~piPK:64133175~theSitePK:239419,00.html. 
  7. ^ "CIA World Factbook 2010". CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bg.html. 
  8. ^ "World Population Highlights: Key Findings From PRB's 2010 World Population Data Sheet". World Population Reference. http://www.prb.org/Publications/PopulationBulletins/2010/worldpopulationhighlights2010.aspx. 
  9. ^ CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Population 1971-2008 (pdf pages 83-85) IEA (OECD/ World Bank) original population ref e.g. in IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2010 page 57)
  10. ^ "Socio-economic Problems of the Urdu Speaking Residents at Mohammadpur". Democracy Watch. http://www.dwatch-bd.org/ggtp/Research%20Reports/research3.pdf. Retrieved 12 April 2011. 
  11. ^ Persoob, Tasmia. "The Forgotten Community: Camp Based Urdu Speaking People in Bangladesh". Jahangirnagar University. http://akira-foundation.org/Documents/fellow%20product%20%28Tasmia%29.pdf. Retrieved 12 April 2011. 
  12. ^ a b c d e Ethnic and Linguistic Diversity, Bangladesh: A Country Study, Edited by James Heitzman and Robert Worden, Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1989.
  13. ^ Refugees of Nowhere: The Stateless Biharis of Bangladesh, Refugees International, 2006-02-15
  14. ^ "Citizenship for Bihari refugees". BBC News. 2008-05-19. 7407757. http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/south_asia/7407757.stm. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
  15. ^ 2010 Regional Operations Profile - South-East Asia, UNHCR, 2010.
  16. ^ Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh refuse repatriation, AFP, Dec 30, 2009.
  17. ^ [1] Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics (BANBEIS)
  18. ^ Ghezzi et al. (2005), Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup K is associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease in Italians, European Journal of Human Genetics (2005) 13, 748–752.
  19. ^ Mait Metspalu et al., Most of the extant mtDNA boundaries in South and Southwest Asia were likely shaped during the initial settlement of Eurasia by anatomically modern humans. BMC Genetics, 2004

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Demographics of South Asia — may refer to: Demographics of Bangladesh Demographics of India Demographics of Pakistan Demographics of Sri Lanka Ethnic groups of South Asia This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the same title. If an …   Wikipedia

  • Bangladesh — This article is about the People s Republic of Bangladesh. For other uses, see Bangladesh (disambiguation). Coordinates: 23°N 90°E / 23°N 90°E …   Wikipedia

  • Demographics of present-day nations and states — This is a list of Demographics by country articles, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. The entries are listed below. compactTOC2 NOTOC A… …   Wikipedia

  • Demographics of Hong Kong — Demographics and Culture of Hong Kong Demographics …   Wikipedia

  • Demographics of Malaysia — Indicator Rank Measure Economy GDP (PPP) per capita 56th $13,315 Unemployment rate …   Wikipedia

  • Demographics of Kazakhstan — Population of Kazakhstan (in millions) from 1950 2009. Population: 16,500,000 (April, 2011) Density: 5.94/km2 Growth rate …   Wikipedia

  • Demographics of Kyrgyzstan — Population of Kyrgyzstan (in millions) from 1950 2009 Population: 5,362,800 (2009 est.) Density: 27.4/km2; 71/sq mi Growth rate …   Wikipedia

  • Demographics of Mongolia — Demographics of Mongolia, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. This article is about the demographic features of the population of Mongolia, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the… …   Wikipedia

  • Demographics of Turkey — Demographics of Republic of Turkey 1961–2007 Population: 72,586,256[1] (2009 est.) Growth rate: 1.45% (2009 est …   Wikipedia

  • Demographics of Lebanon — Indicator Rank Measure Economy GDP (PPP) per capita 51th $15,557 Unemployment rate …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.