List of automotive superlatives


List of automotive superlatives

This page lists of the automobile industry - that is, the smallest, largest, fastest, lightest, best-selling, and other such topics.

In order to keep the entries relevant, the list (except for the Firsts section) will be limited to automobiles built after World War II. Many odd vehicles emerged in the early days of the automobile industry. There is a section for early superlatives, however.

The list will also be limited to production road cars that meet the following conditions:

# Vehicles constructed principally for the transport of people rather than other primary purposes.
# 20 or more examples must have been made by the original vehicle manufacturer and offered for commercial sale to the public in new condition - cars modified by either professional tuners or individuals are not eligible
# They must be street-legal in their intended markets and capable of passing any tests or inspections required to be granted this status
# They must have been built for retail sale to consumers for their personal use on public roads - no commercial or industrial vehicles are eligible

Engine displacement

Flat-twin

* Smallest flat-twin engine (gasoline) - convert|375|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 1948 Citroën 2CV
* Largest flat-twin engine (gasoline) - convert|4838|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 1904 Lanchester 18 [http://www.citroen.mb.ca/cItROeNeT/panhard-et-levassor/panhard-04.html]

Straight-3 (I3)

* Smallest I3 engine (gasoline) - convert|357|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 1967 Suzuki Fronte
* Smallest I3 engine (Diesel) - convert|799|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 2000 Smart Fortwo "cdi"
* Largest I3 engine (gasoline) - convert|1198|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 2002 Volkswagen Polo/SEAT Ibiza/Škoda Fabia
* Largest I3 engine (Diesel) - convert|1779|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 1984 Alfa Romeo 33 1.8 TD

Straight-4 (I4)

* Smallest I4 engine (gasoline) - convert|356|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 1963 Honda T360 "AS250E"
* Smallest I4 engine (Diesel) - convert|1248|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 2003 Fiat Nuova Panda "MultiJet"
* Largest I4 engine (gasoline) - convert|3202|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 1965 IHC Scout
* Largest I4 engine (Diesel) - convert|4100|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - Toyota Mega Cruiser "15B-FTE" Diesel

V4 engine

* Smallest V4 engine - convert|746|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 1960 ZAZ 965 "V4"
* Largest V4 engine - convert|2568|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 1930 Lancia Lambda "V4"

Flat-4

* Smallest Flat 4 engine - convert|897|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - Lloyd Arabella
* Largest Flat 4 engine - convert|2484|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - Lancia Gamma

Straight-5 (I5)

* Smallest I5 engine (gasoline) - convert|1921|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 1981 Audi 100 1.9 E
* Smallest I5 engine (Diesel) - convert|1986|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 1978 Audi 100 2.0 D
* Largest I5 engine (gasoline) - convert|3653|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 2007 GM "Atlas L5R 3700"
* Largest I5 engine (Diesel) - convert|3469|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 1990 Toyota Land Cruiser "1PZ" Diesel

Straight-6 (I6)

* Smallest I6 engine (gasoline) - convert|1087|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 1933 MG K-Type
* Smallest I6 engine (Diesel) - convert|2383|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 1979 Volvo 240 D24 engine
* Largest I6 engine (gasoline) - convert|7983|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - Bentley 8 Litre
* Largest I6 engine (Diesel) - convert|6690|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 2007 Dodge Ram 2500/3500 "Cummins B series turbodiesel"

V6 engine

* Smallest V6 engine (gasoline) - convert|1597|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 1992 Mitsubishi Lancer "6A1"
**Honorable mention: - convert|1000|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 1960s DKW F102 (a two-stroke V6) "(about 100 produced for testing, 13 fitted to road cars)" [http://www.dyna.co.za/cars/specs.htm]
* Smallest V6 engine (Diesel) - convert|2496|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 1996 Audi/VW 2.5 TDI (in multiple cars)
* Largest V6 engine (gasoline) - convert|7800|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 1966 GMC 1000-3500 series "478E 60° V6"
* Largest V6 engine (Diesel automobiles) - convert|4304|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 1982 Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme, Supreme Brougham, Calais GM "LT6"

Flat-6

* Smallest Flat 6 engine - convert|1991|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - Porsche 911
* Largest Flat 6 engine - convert|5490|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - Tucker Torpedo
**Honorable mention - convert|9651|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - Tucker Torpedo prototype, never saw production

V8 engine

* Smallest road car V8 engine (gasoline) - convert|1990|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 1975 Ferrari 208 GT4
**Honorable mention - 1,600cc (98 cu in) - 1998 Suzuki C2 (concept car)
* Smallest V8 engine (Diesel) - convert|3328|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 2000 Audi A8 "3.3 TDI"
* Largest V8 engine (gasoline) - convert|8194|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 1970 Cadillac Eldorado "500"
**Honorable mention: convert|12782|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 2006 Weineck Cobra 780 (limited edition tuner car)
* Largest V8 engine (Diesel) - convert|7275|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 1997 Ford F250 "Power Stroke"

W8 engine

** Honourable mention: convert|4000|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 2002-2004 Volkswagen Passat W8 4 Motion

V10 engine

* Smallest V10 engine - convert|4921|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - Volkswagen Touareg V10 TDI
* Largest V10 engine - convert|8381|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 2008 Dodge Viper

Flat-12

* Smallest road car Flat 12 engine - convert|4450|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - Ferrari 365 GT4 Berlinetta Boxer
* Largest Flat 12 engine - convert|5000|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - Ferrari 512 Berlinetta Boxer

V12 engine

* Smallest road car V12 engine - convert|1995|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 1948 Ferrari 166 Inter "Colombo"
** Honorable mention: - convert|1497|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 1947 Ferrari 125 S "Colombo" ("Not a production road car").
* Largest V12 engine - convert|11508|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 1960 to 1965 GMC Twin-Six "702" for commercial trucks
** Honorable mention: - convert|7467|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 1934 Packard Twelve Victoria (pre-WWII)
** Honorable mention: - convert|7730|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - TVR Cerbera Speed 12 ("Vehicle never reached production").

W12 engine

* Largest W12 engine - convert|5999|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on 2005 Audi A8 Quattro

V16 engine

* Largest V16 engine - convert|8046|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - Marmon Sixteen
** Honorable mention: convert|13600|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on 2003 Cadillac Sixteen (concept car)
* Smallest road car V16 engine - convert|7062|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - Cadillac Series 90
** Honorable mention: convert|1488|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on BRM British Racing Motors V16 "(not a production engine)"

W16 engine

* Smallest W16 engine - convert|7993|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 2005 Bugatti Veyron
* Largest W16 engine - convert|7993|cc|cuin|0|abbr=on - 2005 Bugatti Veyron

Dimensions

Overall

* Longest - convert|6650|mm|in|0|abbr=on - 2006 Ford F-350 Super Duty Crew Cab Long Bed
** Passenger car - convert|6426|mm|in|0|abbr=on - 1975 Cadillac Fleetwood Seventy-Five [http://www.mindspring.com/~dburden/wheelbase.html]
*** Honorable mention - convert|6400|mm|in|0|abbr=on - 1932 Bugatti Royale ("Few produced")
** Commercial - convert|6852|mm|in|0|abbr=on - Checker Aerocar
*** Honorable mention - convert|6680|mm|in|0|abbr=on - 2005 Mercedes-Benz (in US Dodge) Sprinter High Roof
* Widest - convert|2474|mm|in|0|abbr=on - 2002 Unimog U5000
* Highest - convert|1632|mm|in|0|abbr=on - 2006 Rolls Royce Phantom ("Highest passenger car")
* Shortest - convert|1340|mm|in|0|abbr=on - 1962 Peel P50 (3 wheels)
** Honorable mention - convert|2286|mm|in|0|abbr=on - 1956 Isetta (4 wheels)
* Lowest - convert|991|mm|in|0|abbr=on - 1967 Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale "(18 produced)"
** Honorable mention - convert|813|mm|in|0|abbr=on - Adams Brothers Probe 16 "(Only 3 produced)"

Wheelbase

* Longest wheelbase - convert|4475|mm|in|0|abbr=on - 2006 Ford F-350 Super Duty Chassis Crew Cab (truck)
** Honorable mention - convert|3900|mm|in|0|abbr=on - 1964 Mercedes-Benz 600 - longest wheelbase car
* Shortest wheelbase - convert|1270|mm|in|0|abbr=on - 1962 Peel P50
** Honorable mention - convert|1500|mm|in|0|abbr=on - 1956 Isetta

Track

* Widest Front - convert|1920|mm|in|0|abbr=on - 2002 Unimog U5000
* Widest Rear - convert|1920|mm|in|0|abbr=on - 2002 Unimog U5000
* Narrowest Front - convert|990|mm|in|0|abbr=on - Peel P50
* Narrowest Rear - convert|521|mm|in|0|abbr=on - Isetta

Weight

* Heaviest - convert|3681|kg|lb|0|abbr=on curb weight - 2006 Hummer H1 Alpha Wagon
* Lightest - convert|59|kg|lb|0|abbr=on DIN - 1962 Peel P50 (3 wheels)
** Honorable mention - convert|350|kg|lb|0|abbr=on DIN - 1956 Isetta (4 wheels)

Other

* Largest iron brake disc - convert|405|mm|in|1|abbr=on - 2004 Bentley Continental GT
* Largest carbon ceramic brake disc - convert|420|mm|in|1|abbr=on - 2006 Bentley Continental GT Diamond Series, 2007 Bentley Continental GT Speed
* Largest fuel tank - convert|290|L|usgal impgal|1|abbr=on - 1986 Lamborghini LM002
* Largest tires (height) - convert|1041|mm|in|0|abbr=on - 2006 International CXT
* Largest tires (weight) - convert|90.7|kg|lb|0|abbr=on - 2006 International CXT

Power

Most power

* Petrol/Gasoline - (naturally-aspirated) - 485 kW (660 PS/651 hp) - 2003 Enzo Ferrari V12 engine
** Honorable mention: 820 kW (1115 PS/1100 hp) - 2006 Weineck Cobra 780 (limited edition tuner car)
* Front-wheel drive: 226 kW (307 PS/303 hp) - GM LS4, 2005 Chevrolet Impala SS and Monte Carlo SS
** Honorable mention: 298 kW (400 hp) 1970 Cadillac Eldorado (400hp and 550ft/lbs measured at the crank)

*Petrol/Gasoline - (forced-induction) - 736 kW (1001 PS/987 hp) - 2005 Bugatti Veyron (quad-turbocharged W16 engine)
** Honorable mention: 879.9 kW (1196 PS/1180 hp) - 2007 SSC Ultimate Aero TT (appears that less than 20 will be produced)

*Diesel - 368 kW (500 PS/493 hp) - Audi V12 TDI in the Audi Q7

Most torque

*Petrol (naturally-aspirated) - 775 N·m (572 ft·lbf), 1997 Mercedes-Benz CLK GTR 6.9 L (5987 cc/365 in³) M120 V12 engine.
** Honorable Mention: 1760 N·m (1298.1 ft·lbf), 2006 Weineck Cobra 780 cui Limited Edition (12782 cc/780 in³) V8 engine. (Production car status is debatable.)

*Petrol (forced-induction) - 1250 N·m (922 ft·lbf), 2005 Bugatti Veyron 8.0 L (7993 cc/488 in³) quad-turbocharged W16 engine.
** Honorable Mention: 1303 N·m (961 ft·lbf), 2007 SSC Ultimate Aero TT (6345 cc/387.2 in³) twin-turbo V8 engine. (limited production of 25)
*Diesel - 1000 N·m (738 ft·lbf), Audi Q7 V12 TDI 6.0 L (5934 cc/362 in³) Twin Turbo V12

Most specific power (power to weight ratio)

* 100–200 hp — 288.75 hp/metric ton (7.64 lb/hp) — Lotus 340R, 190 hp (142 kW) and 658 kg (1451 lb)
* 200–300 hp — 657 hp/metric ton (3.35 lb/hp) — Ariel Atom 2 supercharged 300 hp (224 kW) and 456 kg (1005 lb)
* 300–400 hp — 381 hp/metric ton (5.79 lb/hp) — 2003 TVR Tuscan S 400 hp (298 kW) and 1050 kg (2315 lb)
* 400+ hp — 1045 hp/metric ton (1.91 lb/hp) - 2007 Caparo T1 V8 engine 575 hp (429 kW) and 470 kg (1036 lb)

400+ category previously listed as 949 hp/metric ton (2.33 lb/hp) — 2007 SSC Ultimate Aero TT V8 engine 1180 hp (880 kW) and 1247 kg (2750 lb).

Most specific engine output (power per unit displacement)

*Petrol/Gasoline (naturally-aspirated) piston engine - 92.1 kW (125.2 PS/123.7 hp)/litre - 2000 JDM Honda S2000 "F20C" (184 kW (250 PS/247 hp) JIS 2.0 L I4):* Honorable Mention 126.49hp/litre - Ascari A10 (625hp/466kW/634PS 4941cc V8) (Limited production, only 50 to be produced)

*Petrol/Gasoline (forced-induction) piston engine - 149 kW (203 PS/200 hp)/litre 400 hp - 2005 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution VIII FQ400 (298 kW (405 PS/400 hp) 2.0 L I4 ("The FQ400's status as a "production car" is disputed")
*Diesel (naturally-aspirated) - 33.4 kW (45.4 PS/44.7 hp)/litre (100 kW (136 PS/134 hp) DIN 3.0 L I6) - 1995 Mercedes E 300 D
*Diesel (forced-induction) - 75.2 kW (102,2 PS)/litre (150 kW (204 PS) 2.0 L I4 twin-turbo) - 2007 BMW new 2L engines
** Honorable Mention: 81.6 kW (111 PS/109.5 hp)/litre (156 kW (212 PS/209 hp) 1.9 L I4 twin-turbo) - 2003 Opel Vectra OPC Concept ("Not a production vehicle")
*Naturally-aspirated pistonless rotary engine - 140.5 kW (191.1 PS/188.8 hp) /litre - Mazda RX-8 "Renesis" (184 kW (250 PS/247 hp) JIS 1.3 L)
*Forced-induction pistonless rotary engine - 157.4 kW (214.1 PS/212.3 hp)/litre - 2003 Mazda RX-7 "13B-REW" (206 kW (280 PS/276 hp JIS 1.3 L)( Numbers based on insurance claims for lower premiums, all Japanese supercars of that era (1988 to 2003) were rated at 276hp)

Most specific torque (torque per unit displacement)

The mean effective pressure (MEP) is a useful comparison tool, giving the average cylinder pressure exerted on the piston.

*Petrol (naturally-aspirated) - MEP 14.3 bar, 114 N•m (84 ft•lbf)/litre (370 N•m (273 ft•lbf)) - 2003 BMW M3 "CSL"
*Petrol (forced-induction) - MEP 30.3 bar, 241.4 N•m (177.7 ft•lbf)/litre (482.1 N•m (355 ft•lbf)) - 2004 Mitsubishi Evo VIII "MR FQ-400"
** Honorable mention: MEP unknown, 157 N•m (115.8 ft•lbf)/litre - 156 N•m/115 ft•lbf Suzuki Forsa (Turbocharged L3 Sohc 993cc)
*Petrol (naturally-aspirated pistonless rotary engine) - MEP 21.5 bar, 170.8 N•m (126.0 ft•lbf)/litre (222 N•m (164 ft•lbf)) - 2005 Mazda RX-8
*Petrol (forced-induction pistonless rotary engine) - MEP 28.4 bar, 226.3 N•m (166.9 ft•lbf)/litre (294 N•m (217 ft•lbf)) - 1995 Mazda RX-7 "Turbo"
*Diesel - MEP unknown, 209 N•m (154.1 ft•lbf)/litre (400 N•m (294 ft•lbf)) - 2007 Fiat new 1.9 JTD Twin Stage Turbo engine ("also used on 2007 Saab 9-3 1.9 TTiD")
** Honorable mention: MEP 26.5 bar, 210.5 N•m (154.8 ft•lbf)/litre (400 N•m (294 ft•lbf)) - 2003 Opel Vectra OPC Concept ("Not a production vehicle")

Economy

* Highest USA EPA mileage - convert|48|mpgus|L/100 km mpgimp|abbr=on/convert|60|mpgus|L/100 km mpgimp|abbr=on - 2001 Honda Insight 5-speed
** Note: in 2007 the EPA changed its measurement standards, changing the rating to convert|48|mpgus|L/100 km mpgimp|abbr=on/convert|58|mpgus|L/100 km mpgimp|abbr=on
* Lowest USA EPA mileage - convert|8|mpgus|L/100 km mpgimp|abbr=on/convert|12|mpgus|L/100 km mpgimp|abbr=on - 2008 Hummer H2
* Lowest EU fuel consumption - convert|2.99|L/100 km|abbr=on - 2002 VW Lupo 1.2 TDI 5-speed
** Honorable mention: convert|0.89|L/100 km|abbr=on - 2002 Volkswagen 1-litre car ("Not a production car") [http://www.seriouswheels.com/top-vw-1-liter-car.htm]
* Highest EU fuel consumption - convert|24.1|L/100 km|abbr=on combined city/hwy 2008 Bugatti Veyron 16.4
* Longest 90% range - 1500 km (932 mi) - 2005 Mercedes E220 CDI with 6-speed manual and optional Convert|80|L|usgal impgal|0|abbr=on fuel tank, calculated by using extra-urban Euro cycle mileage of convert|4.8|L/100 km|abbr=on

Price

* Most expensive - $1,600,000 - 2006 Bugatti Veyron
* Most inexpensive - $125 - 1922 Briggs & Stratton Flyer ($1,364.22 in 2006, inflation adjusted) Note that this would be the factory price. The car is probably worth more due to its collector's value.
* Most inexpensive (not yet in production) - $2500 Tata Nano

Performance

* Quickest 0-60 mph (roughly equal to 0-100 km/h):
** 2.46 seconds - 2006 Bugatti Veyron Fact|date=June 2007
** 4 seater - 3.5 seconds - 2009 Nissan GT-R [ [http://www.edmunds.com/insideline/do/Drives/FullTests/articleId=124017 2009 Nissan GT-R - Full Test: InsideLine ] ]
** 4-door car - 4.5 seconds - 2005 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution VIII FQ400 2.0 L Fact|date=November 2007
** Pickup truck - 4.9 seconds - 2004 Dodge Ram SRT-10 Fact|date=November 2007
***Honorable mention: 1991 GMC Syclone - Car & Driver got 0-60 in 4.6 Seconds (Nov '90) and later 5.3 Seconds (Sep '91), Sport Truck (Jan '91) got 4.8 seconds, Off Road magazine (Feb '91) got 4.3 Seconds (Feb '91), and Autoweek got 5.2 seconds but quoted GMC's estimate of 4.6 seconds and cited unfavorable temperature and track conditions.
** Sport Utility Vehicle - 4.5 seconds - 2007 Jeep "Grand Cherokee SRT8" Fact|date=November 2007
* Quickest 0-200 km/h (124 mph) - 7.4 seconds - Auto Motor und Sport - 2006 Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Fact|date=November 2007
* Quickest 0-300 km/h time (185 mph) - 18.2 seconds, Auto Motor Und Sport - 2006 Bugatti Veyron 16.4
* Quickest 0-400 km/h time (248 mph) - 55 seconds - 2006 Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Fact|date=November 2007
* Quickest 0-100-0 mph:
**Sports car (2 seat) - 9.9 sec - 2006 Bugatti Veyron Fact|date=June 2007
***Honorable mention: 9.4 seconds - 2006 Ultima GTR-720 [http://www.ultimasports.co.uk/records/part6.html] - ("Note:" production numbers for GTR-720 are not available and the GTR's status as a "production car" is disputed.)
* Highest top speed:
** Sports car - 411 km/h (256 mph) - 2007 SSC Ultimate Aero TT Fact|date=November 2007
*** Honorable Mention: 407 km/h (253 mph) - Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Fact|date=November 2007
** 4-door car - 366 km/h (227 mph) - Brabus Rocket [http://www.worldcarfans.com/7061121.002/brabus-rockets-to-366km-h-world-record]
** Pickup truck/Utility - 271.44 km/h (168.66 mph) - 2006 HSV Maloo R8 Fact|date=November 2007
***Honorable mention: 360.9 km/h (225.609 mph) Estate Car - MG ZT-T (One-off modified for land speed record use)

ales

:"See also List of bestselling vehicle nameplates"
* Best-selling models:
** Best-selling car nameplate - Toyota Corolla "(more than 32,000,000 sold in nine generations since 1966)"
** Best-selling truck nameplate - Ford F-Series (1948–present) — America's bestselling vehicle for 23 consecutive years; [ [http://www.ford-trucks.com/news/idx/12/247/2005/article/01122005 "Ford's F-Series sets industry truck sales records] , Ford-trucks.com, January 4 2006] over 29,000,000 in eleven generations. [http://media.ford.com/newsroom/feature_display.cfm?release=17697 "Ford Nameplates Join Five Million Club"] , Mike O'Neill, Ford press release, May 5 2004]
** Best-selling vehicle nameplate - Toyota Corolla "(more than 32,000,000 sold in nine generations since 1966)"
** Best-selling single model - Volkswagen Beetle "(21,529,464 of the same basic design sold worldwide between 1938 and 2003)"
** Best single-year sales - 1.36 million - 2005 Toyota Corolla.
** Best single-month sales - 126,905 - July 2005 Ford F-Series [http://www.ford-trucks.com/news/idx/12/264/2005/article/FORD_FSERIES_SETS_NEW_MONTHLY_SALES_RECORD_.html]
** Best-selling coupe - Ford Mustang (1964–present) — over "8,000,000" in five generations.
** Best-selling 2-seat car - Chevrolet Corvette "(1,302,401 sold between 1953 and 2003 (1,407,858 between 1953 and 2006, not including 2006 Z06)) [http://www.corvetteactioncenter.com/specs/totalprod.html]
** Best Selling Minivan - Dodge Caravan, over 11,000,000 sold.
* Lowest-production models: "(excluding limited-production vehicles)"
** Pickup truck - avg. 223 per month, Lincoln Blackwood "(3,356 sold in 15 months)"
** Sports car - avg. 6 per month, Toyota 2000GT "(337 sold in 5 years)"
** SUV - avg. 4 per month, Lamborghini LM002 "(301 sold in 6 years)"
** Supercar - avg. 2 per month, MG XPower SV "(64 sold in 2 years)"

Firsts

Full-production vehicles are listed here. Many were preceded by racing-only cars.

Industry

* First automobile manufacturer - Benz (1871), Panhard et Levassor (1889) (followed by Peugeot in 1891)
* First standardized automobile - Benz Velo (1894) or Duryea Motor Wagon (1893)
* First mass-produced automobile - Oldsmobile Curved Dash (1901)Fact|date=October 2007
** Honorable Mention - Ford Model T, first car produced on a moving assembly line.
* First auto company technical institute - General Motors Institute (now Kettering University)
* First automotive proving ground - General Motors Milford Proving Grounds

Engine types

* V4 engine
** First V4 - 1922 Lancia Lambda
*** Honorable mention - 1903 Marmon "(few produced)"
* Straight-6
** First 6-cylinder - 1903 Napier & Son "(few produced)"
* V6 engine
** First V6 - 1950 Lancia Aurelia
*** Honorable mention - 1904 Marmon "(few produced)"
* Straight-8
** First I8 - 1919 Isotta-Fraschini Tipo 8
*** Honorable mention - 1903 CGV (first eight-cylinder design; none built) [Georgano, G. N. "Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886-1930". (London: Grange-Universal, 1990), p.42.]
*** Honorable mention - 1920 Duesenberg Model A
* V8 engine
** First V8 - 1904 Marmon "(few produced)"
*** Honorable mention - 1905 Rolls-Royce V-8 [Georgano, p.43.] "(three produced, one sold, none surviving)"
** First commercially successful V8 - 1910 de Dion CJ [Wise, David Burgess, "De Dion: The Aristocrat and the Toymaker", in Ward, Ian, executive editor. "The World of Automobiles" (London: Orbis Publishing, 1974), Volume 5, p.514] [de Dion]
** First OHV V8 - 1949 Oldsmobile/Cadillac (Not the same engine, but both released the same year)
*** Honorable Mention- Chevrolet produced a crude overhead valve V8 in 1917, in which the valve gear was completely exposed. It only lasted through 1918 and then disappeared.
* V10 engine
** First V10 (road car) - 1992 Dodge Viper (Previously V10s were only used in race cars and trucks)
** First V10 sedan - 2002 Volkswagen Phaeton
** First V10 wagon - 2007 BMW M5 Touring
* V12 engine
** First V12 - 1916 Packard "Double-Six"
*W12 engine
** First W12 - 2001 Audi A8 (5998 cc W12 engine - four banks - two banks per cylinder head, with two cylinder heads)
*V16 engine
** First V16 - 1930 Cadillac V-16
*** Honorable mention - 1931 Marmon and 1932 Peerless
*W16 engine
** First W16 - Bugatti Veyron 16.4
*** Jimenez Novia (used a 4.1 L W16 based on four I4 Yamaha motorcycle engines.)
*W18 engine
**No production cars yet are known to use a W-18 configuration, however Bugatti has experimented with both three-bank and four-bank designs for various concept cars.

Engine technologies

* First carburetor - 1896 Daimler
* First overhead cam engine - 1898 Wilkinson
* First variable displacement engine - 1905 Sturtevant 38/45 six
** Honorable mention - 1917 Enger Twin-Unit Twelve
* First DOHC engine - 1921 Ballot
** Honorable mention - 1913 Peugeot (DOHC four-valve Grand Prix car)
* First Diesel-engined production car — 1935 Citroen Rosalie.
* Multi-valve engines
** First 3-valve engine - 1924 Bugatti Type 35 "(Type 18 had a 3-valve in 1912, but only 6 or 7 were made. The Type 35 used the engine from the 1922 Type 29 racing car.)"
** First 4-valve engine - 1913 Peugeot Grand Prix
*** Honorable mentions - An SOHC 4-valve engine appeared in 1910's Bugatti Type 13 racing car, while a 4-valve straight-4 was also developed by Bugatti in 1914. The Linthwaite-Hussey Motor Company of Los Angeles manufactured and advertised a four-valve straight-4 engine in 1916.
** First 5-valve engine - 1989 Oettinger - Germany 5V "Peugeot had a triple overhead cam 5-valve Grand Prix car in 1921)."
** First 6-valve engine - 1985 Maserati Biturbo 2.0L V6 36V 261 hp (prototype)
** First 3-valve Diesel - 1989 Citroën XM
** First 4-valve Diesel - 1993 Mercedes-Benz C-Class ("OM604 engine")
** First multi-valve turbocharged engine - 1980 Maserati Biturbo "AM452"

* First carburetor air filter - 1915 Packard Twin Six
** Honorable mention - 1922 Rickenbacker had a modern dry element
* First crankcase ventilation - 1926 Cadillac V8 engine
* First automatic choke - 1932 Oldsmobile
* First four-barrel carburetor - 1941 Buick
* Fuel injection
** First FI engine - 1910 Adams-Farwell Diesel
** First non-Diesel FI engine - 1952 Goliath GP 700 / Gutbrod Superior 600
** First gasoline direct injection - 1952 Goliath GP 700 / Gotbrud Superior 600
** First electronic fuel injection - 1968 Bosch D-Jetronic - Volkswagen Type 3/Type 4
** First Diesel direct injection engine - 1986 Fiat Croma Turbo D i.d.
** First electronic gasoline direct injection - 1996 Mitsubishi Galant/Legnum "4G93" GDI I4
** First common rail diesel direct injection engine - 1997 Alfa Romeo 156 JTD
* First supercharged car - 1921 Mercedes 6/25/40 hp
** Honorable mention - 1906 Chadwick "(6 produced)"
* First turbocharged car - 1962 Oldsmobile F-85 "Turbo Jetfire"
** Honorable mention - 1962 Chevrolet Corvair "flat-6"
* First turbocharged diesel car - 1978 Mercedes-Benz 300SD
** Honorable mention - 1978 Peugeot 604
* First variable-nozzle turbocharger - 1989 Shelby CSX-VNT/Garrett Systems
** Honorable mention - 2006 Porsche 911 Turbo/BorgWarner
* First quad-turbocharged car - Bugatti EB110
* First supercharged and turbocharged car - 1985 Lancia Delta S4 (Homologation special, 200 road cars produced for Group B regulations)
** Honorable mention - 1989 Nissan March Superturbo "MA09ERT"
* First point ignition - 1910 Cadillac Model Thirty/Delco
* First electronic ignition - 1960 General Motors/Delco
* First alternator - 1960 Chrysler Corporation, Plymouth Valiant
* First flat-engine - 1905 Knox
* First square engine - 1906 Premier
* First engine with removable cylinder head - 1908 Ford Model T
* First counterbalanced crankshaft - 1908 Mercer Type 35
* First split-plane crankshaft - 1923 Cadillac V8 engine
* Variable valve timing
** First VVT engine - 1980 Alfa Romeo Spider 2.0 L
** First electronic VVT - 1987 Nissan 300ZX "VG30DE" NVCS V6
* First gas turbine car - 1950 Rover JET 1 "(Experimental only; no gas turbine car ever reached real production)"
* Wankel engines
** First Wankel engine - 1964 NSU Spider
** First 2-rotor Wankel - 1967 Mazda Cosmo "(60 preproduction examples were produced and registered earlyer)"
*** Honorable mention - 1967 NSU Ro 80 the first real mass production 2-rotor Wankel prodution started 2 month after Mazda Cosmo but in much larger numbers
** First 3-rotor Wankel engine - 1991 Mazda Cosmo
*** Honorable mentions - 1969 Mercedes-Benz C111 and 1970 Felix Wankel-refitted Mercedes-Benz 300SL "(Not production cars)"
** First turbo Wankel engine - 1982 Mazda Luce/Cosmo
** First front-wheel drive car with Wankel engine - 1966 NSU Ro 80
* First Miller cycle engine - 1996 Mazda Millenia
* First Atkinson cycle engine - 2004 Toyota Prius and Ford Escape Hybrid
* First Hydrogen vehicle - BMW Hydrogen 7 (Germany)
* First California ULEV emissions compliant - 1995 Honda Accord
* First sleeve valve - 1909 Daimler (used Charles Knight 1903 design) [Georgano, p.43.]

Hybrid vehicles

* First gas-electric hybrid - 1899 Lohner-Porsche Mixte ("about 300 produced")
* First modern hybrid car - 1904 Auto-Mixte (Belgium)
* First modern hybrid car - 1994 Audi 80 Duo(Germany)
* First hybrid bus - 1997 Hino (Japan)
* First all-wheel drive hybrid - 2004 Ford Escape Hybrid
* First hybrid SUV - 2004 Ford Escape Hybrid
* First hybrid luxury car - 2005 Lexus RX 400h (introduced January 2004)
* First hybrid pickup truck - 2005 Chevrolet Silverado/GMC Sierra Hybrid
* First rear-wheel drive hybrid car - 2007 Lexus GS450h (on sale March 16, 2006 in Japan)
* First three-cylinder hybrid - 1999 Honda Insight
* First four-cylinder hybrid - 1994 Audi 80 Duo (Germany)
* First six-cylinder hybrid - 2005 Lexus RX 400h (introduced January 2004)
* First eight-cylinder hybrid - 2007 Lexus LS 600h L

Body

* First sedan — 1911 Speedwell Motor Car Company
* First motorized truck — October 1896 Daimler
* First production closed-body car - 1910 Cadillac Model Thirty
* First monocoque - 1924 Lancia Lambda
** Honorable mentions - 1917 Ruler Four "(few produced)", 1934 Citroën Traction Avant, 1914 Cornelian race car
* First shatter-resistant windshield glass - 1926 Cadillac
* First coupé convertible - 1934 Peugeot 401 D Eclipse
* First Pickup / Utility (Ute) - 1924 Holden Coupé utility
* First safety windshield - 1948 Tucker Torpedo ("popout safety glass")
* First fiberglass body - 1952 Woodill Wildfire (low production)
* First MPV - 1956 Fiat 600 Multipla
* First retractable hardtop - 1934 Pourtout Lancia Belna Eclipse-coachbuilt
** Honorable mention -first production models- 1934 Peugeot 401d éclipse and Peugot 601d éclipse
* First hatchback - 1953 Aston Martin DB2/4
** Honorable mentions - 1958 Austin A40 Farina, 1962 Innocenti Combinata, and 1965 Renault 16
* First fiberglass monocoque - 1956 Berkeley SA322
** Honorable mention - 1959 Lotus Elite
*
*First SUV - 1916 Ford Model T
** Honorable mention - 1957 Moskvitch 410 (first crossover SUV/XUV)
* First all-aluminium body - 1932 Riley Kestrel
** Honorable mention - 1947 Land Rover (used Birmabright, an aluminum alloy)
** First all-aluminum space frame - 1990 Honda NSX
* First carbon fiber monocoque - 1993 McLaren F1
* First stress-bearing engine acting like a structural member - 1995 Ferrari F50
* First aerodynamic design - 1921 Rumpler "Tropfenwagen"
* First body made of recycled material - 1954 Trabant P70
* First tricar - 1902 [Georgano, p.68.]
* First cyclecar - 1910 GN/1910 Bédélia [Georgano, p.75.]
* First production station wagon (estate) - 1923 The Star
**Honorable mention - 1919 Stoughton Wagon Company, which put wagon bodies on Model T chassis [Georgano, p.94.]

Transmission

* Manual transmissions
** First synchronized transmission - 1929 Cadillac
** First overdrive - 1934 Chrysler Airflow
** First modern cone synchromesh transmission - 1952 Porsche 356
** First 5-speed manual - 1948 Lancia Ardea
*** Honorable mention - 1953 Ferrari 212
*** Honorable mention - 1953 Alfa Romeo 1900 Super Sprint
** First 6-speed manual - 1967 Alfa Romeo 33 Stradale
*** Honorable mention - 1986 Porsche 959
*** Honorable mention - 1957 Moskvitch 410/411 (three forward gears with high and low selection)
** First 8-speed manual - 1960 Moskvitch 410/411
*** Honorable mention - 1931 Maybach Doppelschnellgang - fitted to various marques (four forward gears with high and low selection)
* Automatic transmissions
** First automatic transmission - May 1939 Oldsmobile Hydra-Matic (also the first 4-speed automatic)
*** Honorable mention - 1934 REO (a pair of self-shifting manuals)
*** Honorable mention - 1937 Oldsmobile Automatic Safety Transmission
** First torque converter automatic - 1948 Buick Dynaflow
*** Honorable mention - 1949 Packard Ultramatic (torque converter automatic)
*** Honorable mention - 1946 Chrysler Presto-Matic (torque converter manual)
** First non-planetary automatic - 1968 Honda Hondamatic
** First 5-speed automatic - 1991 BMW E34 5-Series and E36 320i/325i ZF 5HP18
** First 6-speed automatic - 2002 BMW E65 7-Series ZF 6HP26
*** Honorable mention - 1999 Jeep Grand Cherokee 45RFE had an automatic transmission with 3 planetary gearsets capable of six speeds, but only 5 were used, and the company advertised it as a 4-speed.
** First 7-speed automatic - 2003 Mercedes-Benz 7G-Tronic
** First 8-speed automatic - 2007 Lexus LS 460
* First limited slip differential - 1956 Studebaker
* First continuously variable transmission - 1958 DAF 600 "A-Type"-

Layout

* First FR layout car - 1895 Panhard et Levassor
* First RR car - 1896 Hertel
* First front-wheel drive - 1924 Tracta (Gregoire-Tracta)
** Honorable mention - 1900 Pennington
* First transverse front-wheel drive - 1931 DKW F1Fact|date=February 2007
** Honorable mention - 1904 - 1909 Christie "(seven race cars built)"
** First transverse FWD I5 - 1993 Volvo 850
** First transverse FWD I6 - 1970 Austin Kimberley and Austin Tasman
*** Honorable mention - 1959 Saab Monster "(Not a production vehicle)"
** First transverse FWD V8 - 1985 Cadillac DeVille
*** Honorable mention - 1986 Lancia Thema 8.32
** First transverse all-wheel drive - 1968 Austin Ant (never entered production)
* First four-wheel drive vehicle - 1910 Caldwell Vale or 1911 Four Wheel Drive
* First all-wheel drive car - 1966 Jensen FF
** Honorable mention - 1901 Lohner-Porsche ,Hybrid with electric 4WD
** Honorable mention - 1981 Audi Quattro"(first mass-production car with permanent all wheel drive)"
* First FR transaxle - 1950 Lancia Aurelia "(the 1914 Stutz Bearcat featured a primitive transaxle)"
* First MR car - 1921 Rumpler Tropfenwagen
* First MR AWD car - 1984 Ford RS200 (Homologation special, 200 road cars produced for Group B regulations.)
** Honorable mention - 1990 Panther Solo 2 (Only between 16-25 Produced)
** Honorable mention - 1983 Honda Acty4WD (Kei car)

uspension

* First torsion bar suspension - 1921 Leyland
* First front independent suspension - 1911 Morgan three wheeler
* First hydraulic shock absorbers - 1933 Hudson (Monroe)
* First coil spring/shock absorber suspension - 1934 Cadillac, Chrysler, and Hudson
* First four wheel brakes - 1909 Argyll (developed by Arrol-Johnson) [Georgano, p.58.]
* First MacPherson strut suspension - 1949 Ford Vedette
* First Chapman strut suspension - 1958 Lotus Elite
* First air suspension - 1958 Cadillac Brougham
** Honorable mentions - 1909 Cowey and 1933 Stout-Scarab (Firestone)
* First self-levelling suspension - 1955 Citroën DS
** Honorable mention - 1954 Citroën Traction Avant 15HHydropneumatic
* First electronically-controlled suspension - 1985 Nissan Maxima (Japan-market model)
* First fully active suspension - 1990 Nissan Infiniti Q45, 1991 Toyota Soarer [http://www.toyotaimportsforum.co.uk/soarer/z30soarer_changes.htm]
** Honorable mention - 1983 Lotus 92 ("raced at the Long Beach Grand Prix, began road development in 1987 but never applied to a road car [http://www.gglotus.org/ggtech/activesusp/activesuspn.htm] ")
** Honorable mention - 1991 Toyota Celica (300 experimental vehicles produced)
* First active anti-roll bars - 1994 Citroen Xantia Activa (Active Roll Stabilization)
* First active differential - 1995 Nissan Skyline GT-R Vspec - Active LSD
** Honorable mention - 1986 Porsche 959 "PSK" ("limited production of 200 vehicles")

Brakes

* First four wheel brakes - 1909 Argyll (developed by Arrol-Johnson) [Georgano, p.58.]
** Honorable mention - 1922 Austin 7 [Georgano, p.142 cap.]
* First power brakes - 1919 Hispano-Suiza H6 (mechanically assisted)
** Honorable mention - 1921 Duesenberg Model A
* First four wheel power brakes - 1919 Hispano-Suiza H6 [Georgano, p.181.]
* First vacuum-assist power brakes - 1928 Pierce-Arrow
* First hydraulic power brakes - 1921 Duesenberg Model A [Georgano, p.186.]
* First standard disc brakes - 1949 Crosley Hot Shot
** Honorable mentions - 1955 Citroën DS, 1956 HRG twincam (used helicopter disc brakes), Triumph TR3, Girling "(Jaguar pioneered disc brakes at Le Mans in 1953)"
* First antilock braking system - 1966 Jensen FF (Dunlop Maxaret system, previously used in aviation)
** First electrical antilock braking system - 1969 Lincoln Continental Mark III
*** Honorable mention - 1970 Cadillac (rear only)
** First electronic antilock braking system - 1978 Mercedes-Benz S-Class
* First electric parking brake - 2002 BMW E65/E66
* First diagonally split, dual brake circuits - 1962 Saab 95/96
* First asbestos-free brake pads - 1983 Saab Automobile
* First electro-hydraulic brakes - 2002 Mercedes-Benz E-Class
* First regenerative brakes - 1997 Toyota Prius

Driver-aids

* First standard rear-view mirror - 1912 MarmonFact|date=October 2007
* First power steering - 1951 Imperial
* First cruise control - 1957 Imperial
** Honorable mention - Peerless had a centrifugal governor speed control system in the 1910s
* First traction control - 1987 Bosch Mercedes-Benz S-Class/BMW 7-Series
* First drive-by-wire throttle - 1988 BMW 750iL
* First electrochromic rear-view mirror - 1989 Lexus LS
* First dynamic stability control system/Electronic Stability Program - 1996 BMW 7-Series/Mercedes-Benz CL-Class
* First adaptive cruise control - 1997 Toyota Celsior
* First heads-up display - 1988 Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme
* First factory GPS navigation - 1990 Mazda Cosmo, 1991 Toyota Soarer
* First night vision - 2000 Cadillac DeVille
* First power door locks - 1914 Scripps-Booth
* First integrated car dynamics control system: 2005 Toyota Crown Majesta ("Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management")
* First self parking - 2004 Toyota Prius [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/3198619.stm]
** Honorable mention - 2007 Lexus LS 460 (first available in American market)

Passive Restraint

* First car to come standard with safety belts - 1958 Saab GT 750 ( [http://www.trollhattansaab.net/archives/2005/02/saab_innovation.html] [http://www.trollhattansaab.net/page/5] )

Active restraint

* First airbags - 1974 Oldsmobile Toronado
* First car to come standard with dual airbags - 1988 Porsche 944 Turbo
* First six-airbag system - 1994 Audi A8
* First head airbags - 1997 BMW 7-Series

Tires

* First use of pneumatic tires - 1895 Peugeot L'Eclair (Michelin)
* First standard pneumatic tires - 1896 Bollée Voiturette
* First radial-ply tires - 1949 Michelin "X" "(patented in 1946)
* First self-repairing tires - 1950 Goodyear
* First run flat tire - 1974 Mini 1275GT (Dunlop Denovo; optional)

Lighting

* First electrical lighting - 1898 Columbia electric
* First standard lights - 1904 "Prest-O-Lite" acetylene
* First standard electrical lights - 1908 Peerless
* First integrated electrical and lighting system - 1912 Cadillac Model 1912 Delco
* First "dipping" headlights - 1915 Guide Lamp Company
* First dual-beam headlight - 1924 Bilux
* First retractable headlights - 1936 CordFact|date=October 2007
* First directional headlamps - 1930s Tatra
** Honorable mention - 1948 Tucker Torpedo (originally designed with swivel lights, but replaced with third "cyclops light" turned on when cornering).
* First fog lights - 1938 Cadillac
* First auto-dimming headlights - 1952 Cadillac "Autronic Eye"
* First auto-on/off headlights - 1964 Cadillac "Twilight Sentinel"
* First headlight wipers - 1970 Saab (95, 96, 99) [http://www.saabmuseum.com/innovations/index.html]
* First modern U.S.-market car with sealed beam headlights - 1984 Lincoln Mark VIIFact|date=October 2007
* First AC HID lights - 1991 BMW 7-series
* First DC HID lights - 1997 Lincoln Mark VIII
* First neon lights - 1997 Lincoln Mark VIII
* First all-LED tail lights - 1998 Maserati 3200 GT
* First bi-xenon HID headlamps - 2000 Mercedes-Benz CL-Class
* First all-LED headlights - 2007 Audi R8 (road car)

Electrical system

* First magneto - 1897 Lanchester [Georgano, p.49.]
* First twin-spark engine - 1921 Bentley 3 Litre
* First electric self-starter - Arnold (copy of the Benz Velo) before 1900. [Georgano, p.25.]
**Honorable mention - 1912 Cadillac (all models) [ [http://forums.detnews.com/joyrides/story/index.cfm?id=394 "Detroit News"] ]
* First electric windows - 1938 Buick Y
* First combination key and ignition switch - 1949 Chrysler
* First AC alternator - 1960 Valiant
* First sealed battery - 1971 Pontiac "Freedom Battery"
* First multiplexed wiring - 1987 Cadillac Allanté
* First integrated car systems control - 1987 Toyota Soarer ("Electro Multi Vision") [http://autospeed.drive.com.au/cms/A_1718/article.html]
* First built-in 110V AC inverter - 2000 Toyota Avalon

Climate control

* First windshield defroster - 1928 Studebaker
* First windshield washer - 1937 Studebaker
* First air conditioning - 1938 Studebaker Commander
** Honorable mention - 1939 Packard and 1941 Cadillac
* First rear window defogger - 1948 Cadillac
* First heated seats - 1966 Cadillac
** Honorable mention (first electrically heated) - 1972 Saab 99
* First automatic climate control - 1964 Cadillac
* First digital climate control - 1975 Rolls-Royce Camargue
* First ventilated seats - 1998 Saab 9-5

In-car electronics and entertainment

* First original-equipment radio - 1923 Springfield
* First navigation system - August 1981 Honda Accord (analog, dealer-installed) [http://world.honda.com/history/challenge/1981navigationsystem/index.html]
** First navigation system with acoustic output - 1989 Infiniti Q45
** First digital navigation system - 1990 Acura Legend
** First GPS navigation system - 1990 Mazda Eunos Cosmo
*** Honorable mention - 1990 Pioneer Electronics/Trimble (aftermarket)
* First active audio volume control - 1990 Chevrolet Corvette Bose/Delco Gold Series
* First telematics assist system - 1996 "tie" 1997-model Cadillac Seville (OnStar) and Lincoln Continental (Motorola RESCU)
* First DVD navigation system - 1996 Matsushita/Pioneer Electronics (aftermarket)
* First in-car PC - 1997 Microsoft Auto PC (aftermarket)
* First Bluetooth-capable audio system - 2000 Chrysler
* First THX-certified stereo system - 2003 Lincoln LS
* First in-car karaoke machine - 2003 Geely BL
* First active noise cancellation - 2005 Acura RL
* First digital television reception - 2004 E60 BMW 5 series

Other

* First steering wheel - 1899 Packard
* First speedometer - 1901 Oldsmobile
* First tilt-away steering wheel - 1912 Peerless
* First dash-mounted fuel tank gauge - 1914 Studebaker
* First tilt-away steering column - 1928 Buick
* First turn signals - 1939 Buick
* First split folding rear seats - 1961 Renault 4 ("Fiat patented the system in 1978")
* First tilt/telescope steering wheel - 1965 Cadillac
* First four wheel steering - 1985 Nissan Skyline HICAS
** Honorable mention - 1938 Mercedes 170VL (miltitary truck only)
* First composite wheels - 1989 Shelby CSX
* First capless fuel filler - 2005 Ford GT
* First active exhaust - 1991 Mitsubishi 3000GT
* First front moveable air dam - 1991 Mitsubishi 3000GT

American types

* First standardized American automobile - Duryea Motor Wagon (1896)
* First American electric car - Detroit Electric (1907)
* First American hybrid SUV - Ford Escape Hybrid
* First Chinese-made vehicle sold in America - 2006 Miles ZX40

Pre-War

* Best-selling pre-war vehicle - Ford Model-T "(15,000,000 sold between 1908 and 1928)"
* Least-expensive full-featured automobile - 1927 Ford Model-T "($300 is about $3500 in inflation-adjusted 2005 dollars)"
* Largest vehicle - Bugatti Royale - 21 ft (6.4 m) long, 180 in (4.57 m) or 170 in (4.32 m) wheelbase depending on model
* Largest pre-war Straight-4 - 21495 cc (1312 in3) - 1912 Benz 82/200
* Largest pre-war Straight-6 - 21112 cc (1288 in3) - 1905 Panhard et Levassor 50 CV
* Largest pre-war Straight-8 - 12763 cc (779 in³) - 1929 Bugatti Royale production car; the prototype had a 14726 cc engine
* Largest pre-war V12 - 11310 cc (690 in³) - 1933 Hispano-Suiza Type 68bis

ee also

* Units of measurement
** International System of Units
** United States customary units
** Imperial units
* Power
* Torque
* Mass

References


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