Kiyohide Shima


Kiyohide Shima

Infobox Military Person
name=Kiyohide Shima
lived=25 February 1890 - 7 November 1973


caption=Admiral Kiyohide Shima
nickname=
placeofbirth=Miyazaki prefecture, Japan
placeofdeath=
allegiance=Empire of Japan
branch=navy|Empire of Japan
serviceyears=1911-1945
rank=Vice Admiral
unit=
commands="Ōi"
Maizuru Naval District
IJN 5th Fleet, Takao Guard District, First Air Fleet
battles=Invasion of Tulagi
Battle of Leyte Gulf
awards=Order of the Rising Sun: Gold Rays,
Order of the Sacred Treasures: Gold and Silver Star [ [http://navalhistory.flixco.info/H/143349/8330/a0.htm Naval History via Flix] ]
relations=
laterwork=
nihongo|Kiyohide Shima|志摩清英|Shima Kiyohide|extra = 25 February 1878 - 7 November 1973 was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II.

Biography

A native of Miyazaki prefecture, Shima was a graduate of the 39th class of the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy in 1911, ranking 69th out of 148 cadets. He served as midshipman on the cruisers "Aso", "Hashidate" and battleship "Aki". As an ensign, he was assigned to "Iwami", and as a sub-lieutenant, he served on the battlecruiser "Ibuki", and cruiser "Katori".

Shima was promoted to lieutenant in 1918, and after taking courses in torpedo warfare and navigation, was assigned as Chief Communications Officer to "Kirishima". In 1921, he graduated from the Naval War College (Japan) and was promoted to lieutenant commander.

From 1925-1926 Shima was appointed aide-de-camp to HIH Prince Takamatsu Nobuhito, concurrently serving on the battleships "Nagato" and "Fusō". From 1928-1929, he was sent to the United States and Europe. On his return, he served in a number of staff positions, primarily as an instructor at various naval ordinance schools.

In 1933, he was promoted to captain, and in 1936, he received his first command, the "Ōi" . Shima became a rear admiral on 15 November 1939 and was Chief of Staff of the Maizuru Naval District.

With the start of the Pacific War, Shima was given a combat command, and led the Tulagi invasion force that occupied Tulagi in the Solomon Islands on 3 May 1942 as part of "Operation Mo".

Shima was promoted to vice admiral on 1 May 1943, and on 15 February 1944 became Commander in Chief of the IJN 5th Fleet.

During the Battle of Leyte Gulf, 23 October - 26, 1944, Shima led the "Second Striking Force" of three cruisers and seven destroyers in the Battle of Surigao Strait. Rear-Admiral Shoji Nishimura's and Vice-Admiral Shima's fleets were collectively called the “Southern Force”. Because of the strict radio silence imposed on the forces, Shima was unable to synchronize his movements with those of Nishimura's. Shima's two heavy cruisers, a light cruiser and four destroyers reached the battle after Nishimura's forces had run into a deadly trap and suffered losses. During the nighttime battle, Shima fired 16 torpedoes at two islands he mistook for American ships. Then, seeing what he thought were the wrecks of both Nishimura's battleships (actually the two halves of he wrecked "Fusō"), he ordered a retreat, "At that time, things flashed in my head were thus: ... If we continued dashing further north, it was quite clear that we should only fall into a ready trap." Retreating, his flagship, "Nachi", collided with Nishimura's flagship "Mogami", flooding the latter's steering-room. "Mogami" fell behind in the retreat and was sunk by aircraft the next morning.

After this disaster, Shima was re-assigned to command the Takao Guard District from 10 May 1945 to 30 November 1945. From 10 May until 15 June 1945, he was also final commander of the First Air Fleet. [ [http://www.axishistory.com/index.php "Axis History Factbook", Wendel, Marcus] ]

In 1959, in response to a letter from 16-year old Bill Frazer of San Fernando, California, Shima defended his actions and performance in the Battle of Surigao Strait. In particular, Shima found fault with historian James A. Field Jr who, in reference to the utter defeat of Japanese forces in the battle, referred to Shima as "the buffoon of the tragedy." [http://jcgi.pathfinder.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,937102-1,00.html "Admiral's History Lesson"] , Jan. 12, 1959, Time magazine]

References

Books

*cite book
last = D'Albas
first = Andrieu
authorlink =
year = 1965
title = Death of a Navy: Japanese Naval Action in World War II
publisher = Devin-Adair Pub
location =
id = ISBN 0-8159-5302-X

*cite book
last = Dull
first = Paul S.
authorlink =
year = 1978
chapter =
title = A Battle History of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1941-1945
publisher = Naval Institute Press
location =
id = ISBN 0-87021-097-1

*cite book
last = Field
first = James A.
authorlink =
coauthors =
year = 1947
chapter =
title = The Japanese at Leyte Gulf;: The Sho operation
publisher = Princeton University Press
location =
id = ASIN B0006AR6LA

*cite book
last = Lacroix
first = Eric
authorlink =
coauthors = Linton Wells
year = 1997
chapter =
title = Japanese Cruisers of the Pacific War
publisher = Naval Institute Press
location =
id = ISBN 0-87021-311-3

*cite book
last = Morison
first = Samuel Eliot
authorlink = Samuel Eliot Morison
coauthors =
year = 2002 (reissue)
chapter =
title = Leyte, June 1944-January 1945, "vol. 12 of "History of United States Naval Operations in World War II
publisher = University of Illinois Press
location = Champaign, Illinois, USA
id = ISBN 0-252-07063-1

*cite book
last = Sheftall
first = M.G.
coauthors =
year = 2005
title = Blossoms in the Wind: Human Legacies of the Kamikaze
publisher = NAL Caliber
location =
id = ISBN 0451214870

External links

*cite web
last = Hackett
first = Bob
authorlink =
coauthors = Sander Kingsepp
date =
year = 1998-2005
month =
url = http://www.combinedfleet.com/Okinoshima_t.htm
title = IJN Minelayer OKINOSHIMA: Tabular Record of Movement
format =
work = Combinedfleet.com
pages =
publisher =
language =
accessdate = November 20
accessyear = 2006

*cite web
last = McCarthy
first = Dudley
authorlink =
coauthors =
date =
year = 1959
month =
url = http://www.awm.gov.au/histories/chapter.asp?volume=21
title = Volume V – South–West Pacific Area – First Year: Kokoda to Wau
format =
work = Official Histories – Second World War
pages =
publisher = Australian War Memorial
language =
accessdate = November 2
accessyear = 2006

*cite web
last = Nishida
first = Hiroshi
url = http://homepage2.nifty.com/nishidah/e/px39.htm#v013
title = Imperial Japanese Navy
accessdate = 2007-08-25

Notes


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