Pinna (anatomy)

Pinna (anatomy)

Infobox Anatomy
Latin = auricula
GraySubject = 229
GrayPage = 1034

Caption = The auricula. Lateral surface.

Caption2 =
Precursor =
System =
Artery = posterior auricular, anterior auricular
Vein =
Nerve = Trigeminal Nerve, Greater Auricular, Lesser Occipital
Lymph = To Pre & Post Auricular Nodes, Nodes of Parotid and Cervical Chains
MeshName =
MeshNumber =
DorlandsPre = a_73
DorlandsSuf = 12169627
The pinna (Latin for feather) is the visible part of the ear that resides outside of the head (this may also be referred to as the auricle or auricula).


The purpose of the pinna is to collect sound. It does so by acting as a funnel, amplifying the sound and directing it to the ear canal. While reflecting from the pinna, sound also goes through a filtering process which adds directional information to the sound (see sound localization, head-related transfer function, pinna notch). The filtering effect of the human pinna preferentially selects sounds in the frequency range of human speech.


Amplification of sound by the pinna, tympanic membrane and middle ear causes an increase in level of about 10 to 15 dB in a frequency range of 1.5 kHz to 7 kHz. This amplification is an important factor in inner ear trauma resultingfrom elevated sound levels.

Pinna Notch

The pinna works differently for low and high frequency sounds. For low frequencies, it behaves similarly to a reflector dish, directing sounds toward the ear canal. For high frequencies, however, its value is more sophisticatedly reckoned. While some of the sounds that enter the ear travel directly to the canal, others reflect off the contours of the pinna first: these enter the ear canal at a very slight delay. Such a delay translates into phase cancellation, where the frequency component whose wave period is twice the delay period is virtually eliminated. Neighboring frequencies are dropped significantly. This is known as the pinna notch, where the pinna creates a notch filtering effect.


The diagram shows the shape and location of these components:

*Anthelix (antihelix) forms a 'Y' shape where the upper parts are:
**Superior crux (to the left of the fossa triangularis in the diagram)
**Inferior crux (to the right of the fossa triangularis in the diagram)
*Antitragus is below the tragus
*Auricular sulcus is the depression behind the ear next to the head
*Concha is the hollow next to the ear canal
*Conchal angle is the angle that the back of the concha makes with the side of the head
*Crus of the helix is just above the tragus
*Cymba conchae is the narrowest end of the concha
*External auditory meatus is the opening to the ear canal
*Fossa triangularis is the depression in the fork of the anthelix
*Helix is the folded over outside edge of the ear
*Incisura anterior (auris) is between the tragus and the antitragus
*Lobe (lobule) - attached or free according to a classic single-gene dominance relationship


The developing Pinna is first noticeable around the sixth week of gestation in the human foetus, developing from six rounded protuberances (the six hillocks of Hiss) which are derived from the first and second branchial arches.These hillocks develop into the folds of the pinna and gradually shift upwards and backwards to their final position on the head. En-route accessory auricles (also known as preauricular tags - see below) may be left behind.The first three Hillocks are dervied from the 1st branchial arch and form the tragus, crus of the helix and helix respectively. Cutaneous sensation to these areas is via the trigeminal nerve, the attendant nerve of the 1st branchial arch.The final three Hillockes are derived from the 2nd branchial arch and form the antihelix, antitragus and lobule respectively. These portions of the ear are supplied by the cervical plexus and a small portion by the facial nerve. This explains why vesicles are classically seen on the Pinna in Herpes infection of the facial nerve ( Ramsay-Hunt Syndrome)


There are various visible ear abnormalities:

*Bat ear (also known as wingnut ear) — an ear that protrudes
*Cryptotia (hidden ear) — upper auricular sulcus not visible
*Cup deformity — helical rim is compressed
*Darwinian tubercle (auricular tubercle) — a projection from the helical rim
*Lop ear — the top of the helical rim folded over
*Macrotia (also known as big ears, or hypertrophy of the ears)
*Microtia (small or partially developed ears)
*Preauricular sinus (small holes usually visible from birth at the front of the ears where the pinna joins the head)
*Accessory Auricles (small pieces of skin at the front of the ears where the pinna joins the head, vestigial remnants of the developing ears migration to its final position)
*Rim kinks — a kink of the helical rim
*Selhurst's handle (also known as cup handle) — an ear that can be 50% larger than normal.
*Stahl’s bar (also known as Spock ear) — third crus (in between the superior crux and inferior crux) making the top of the ear pointed
*Zaheer's ear — having a deformed anti-tragus, which appears as a bump, as opposed to a protrusion, which would normally allow the snug insertion of earbud headphones

See also

* Earrings for pierced ears
* Ear stapling


External links


* [ drtbalu otolaryngology online]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • Pinna — can refer to: * Pinna (anatomy), the outer part of the ear also referred to as the auricle * Pinna (genus), a genus of bivalve molluscs also known as pen shells * In botany the pinnae are the divisions of a compound frond, analogous to the… …   Wikipedia

  • pinna — ► NOUN (pl. pinnae) Anatomy ▪ the external part of the ear; the auricle. ORIGIN Latin, from penna feather, wing, fin …   English terms dictionary

  • Pinna (anatomie) — Pavillon auriculaire Pavillon de l oreille, illustration extraite de Henry Gray s Anatomy of the Human Body. La pinna (mot Latin pour feuille) ou pavillon auriculaire est la partie visible de l oreille humaine, à l extérieur de la tête. R …   Wikipédia en Français

  • pinna — pin·na || pɪnÉ™ n. feather; wing; fin; external part of the ear, auricle (Anatomy) …   English contemporary dictionary

  • pinna — [ pɪnə] noun (plural pinnae ni:) 1》 Anatomy & Zoology the external part of the ear in humans and other mammals; the auricle. 2》 Botany a primary division of a pinnate leaf, especially of a fern. 3》 Zoology any of a number of animal structures… …   English new terms dictionary

  • pinna — /ˈpɪnə/ (say pinuh) noun (plural pinnae /ˈpɪni/ (say pinee) or pinnas) 1. Botany one of the primary divisions of a pinnate leaf. 2. Zoology a. a feather, wing, or winglike part. b. a flipper. 3 …   Australian-English dictionary

  • Grey's Anatomy (season 4) — infobox tvseason season name = Grey s Anatomy Season 4 caption = Promotional poster for the fourth season. dvd release date = September 9, 2008 dvd format = country = USA network = ABC first aired = September 27, 2007 last aired = May 22, 2008… …   Wikipedia

  • ear, human — ▪ anatomy Introduction       organ of hearing and equilibrium that detects and analyzes noises by transduction (or the conversion of sound waves into electrochemical impulses) and maintains the sense of balance (equilibrium).  The human ear, like …   Universalium

  • Otoplasty — Otoplasty: the pre operative front aspect (left), and the post operative front aspect (right) of an infantile otopexy (ear pinback) correction to a girl. Otoplasty (Greek ōtoûs, ear + plassein, to shape) denotes the surgical and non surgical… …   Wikipedia

  • Thylacocephala — Taxobox | name = Thylacocephala fossil range = Early Cambrian Late Cretaceous regnum = Animalia phylum = Arthropoda subphylum = Crustacea? classis = Thylacocephala classis authority = Pinna, Arduini, Pesarini and Teruzzi, 1982The Thylacocephala… …   Wikipedia

Поделиться ссылкой на выделенное

Прямая ссылка:
Нажмите правой клавишей мыши и выберите «Копировать ссылку»