Santri


Santri

The "Santri" are a cultural 'stream' of people within the population of Javanese who practice a more orthodox version of Islam, in contrast to the "abangan" classes.

The American sociologist, Clifford Geertz, identified three main cultural streams ("aliran" in Indonesian) in Javanese society. Namely, the "santri", "abangan", and "priyayi". [cite book
last = McDonald
first = Hamish
title = Suharto's Indonesia
publisher = Fontana
date = 1980
location = Melbourne
pages = pp. 9-10
isbn = ISBN 0-00-635721-0
; Geertz, Clifford (1960) "The Religion of Java" Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1976 p/b edition ISBN 0-226-28519-3 - Part Two pp121 - 215 'The Santri Variant'
] Members of the "Santri" class are more likely to be urban dwellers, and tend to be oriented to the mosque, the Qur'an, and perhaps to Islamic canon law (Sharia). In contrast, the "abangan" tend to be from village backgrounds and absorb both Hindu and Muslim elements, forming a culture of animist and folk traditions. [cite book
last = McDonald
first = Hamish
title = Suharto's Indonesia
publisher = Fontana
date = 1980
location = Melbourne
pages = pp. 9-10
isbn = ISBN 0-00-635721-0
] The "santri" are sometimes referred to as "Puthihan" (the white ones) as distinct from the 'red' "abangan". The "priyayi" stream are the traditional bureaucratic elite and were strongly driven by hierarchical Hindu-Javanese tradition. Initially court officials in pre-colonial kingdoms, the stream moved into the colonial civil service, and then on to administrators of the modern Indonesian republic. [cite book
last = McDonald
first = Hamish
title = Suharto's Indonesia
publisher = Fontana
date = 1980
location = Melbourne
pages = pp. 9-10
isbn = ISBN 0-00-635721-0
]

The "santri" played a the key role in Indonesian Nationalist movements, and formed the strongest opposition to President Suharto's New Order army-based administration. [cite book
last = McDonald
first = Hamish
title = Suharto's Indonesia
publisher = Fontana
date = 1980
location = Melbourne
pages = pp. 9-10
isbn = ISBN 0-00-635721-0
] In contrast, the "abangan" have tended to follow the prevailing political wind; they supported Sukarno's overt nationalism, while during Suharto's subsequent presidency, they loyally voted for his Golkar party. [cite book
last = McDonald
first = Hamish
title = Suharto's Indonesia
publisher = Fontana
date = 1980
location = Melbourne
pages = pp. 9-10
isbn = ISBN 0-00-635721-0
] Poorer "abangan" areas became strongholds of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) in start opposition to the orthodox Muslim "santri". The cultural divisions descended into bloody conflict in the 165/66 when "santri" were opposed to communists, many of whom were from "abangan" streams. An estimated 500,000 suspected communists were killed during the transition to the New Order, and bitter political and social rivalries remain. [cite book
last = McDonald
first = Hamish
title = Suharto's Indonesia
publisher = Fontana
date = 1980
location = Melbourne
pages = pp. 9-10
isbn = ISBN 0-00-635721-0
]

Notes

References

* Magnis-Suseno, F. 1981, "Javanese Ethics and World-View: The Javanese Idea of the Good Life", PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta, 1997, pp. 15-18, viewed 29 Nov 2006 ISBN 979-605-406-X
* cite book
last = Friend
first = Theodore
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Indonesian Destinies
publisher = Belknap Press, Harvard University Press
date =
location = Cambridge, Massachusetts and London
id = ISBN 0-674-01137-6


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