Education in Indonesia


Education in Indonesia

Infobox Education
country name = Indonesia
agency

agency = Ministry of National Education
leader titles =
leader names = Professor Bambang Sudibyo
budget = US $4.18 billion
budget year = 2006
primary languages = Indonesian
system type = Curriculum
established events = Competency-based curriculum
established dates = October 14, 2004
literacy year = 2005
literacy total = 90.4
literacy men = 94.0
literacy women = 86.8
enroll total =
enroll primary = 31.8 million
enroll secondary = 18.6 million
enroll post-secondary =
attain secondary =
attain post-secondary =
footnotes =

Education in Indonesia is the responsibility of the Ministry of National Education of Indonesia ("Departemen Pendidikan Nasional Republik Indonesia"/Depdiknas). Education in Indonesia was previously the responsibility of the Ministry of Education and Culture of Indonesia ("Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia"/Depdikbud). In Indonesia, every citizen has to have nine years of education, six years at elementary level and three in middle school.

Law No. 20/2003

Based on the correct constitution, education is defined as a planned effort to establish a study environment and education process so that the student may actively develop his/her own potential to gain the religious and spiritual level, consciousness, personality, intelligence, behaviour and creativity to him/herself, other citizens and for the nation. The constitution also noted that education in Indonesia is divided into two major parts, formal and non-formal. A formal education is divided again into three levels, primary, secondary and tertiary education.

Current structure

Primary education

Early childhood

From birth until the age of 5, Indonesian children do not generally have access to formal education. From the age of 5 to 6 or 7, they attend kindergarten" (Taman Kanak-kanak)". This education is not compulsory for Indonesian citizens, as the aim of this is to prepare them for primary school. The majority of kindergartens are private schools, with more than forty-nine thousand kindergartens, 99.35% of the total kindergartens in Indonesia, privately operated Kindergarten statistics between 2004-2005 http://www.depdiknas.go.id/statistik/thn04-05/TK_0405.htm] . The kindergarten years are usually divided into "Class A" and "Class B" students spending a year in each class.

Elementary School

Children ages 7-12 attend "Sekolah Dasar" (SD) (literally Elementary School). This level of education is compulsory for all Indonesian citizens, based on the national constitution. In contrast to the majority of privately run kindergartens, most elementary schools are government operated public schools, accounting for 93% of all elementary schools in IndonesiaElementary school statistics between 2004-2005 http://www.depdiknas.go.id/statistik/thn04-05/SD_0405.htm] . Similar to education systems in the U.S. and Australia, students must study for six years to complete this level. Some schools offer an accelerated learning program, where students who perform well can finish elementary school in five years.

Middle School

Middle School, generally known by the abbreviation "SMP" ("Sekolah Menengah Pertama") is part of primary education in Indonesia. After graduating from elementary school, students attend Middle School for three years from the age of 13-15. After three years of schooling and graduation, students may move on to High School or College, or cease formal education. There are around 22,000 schools in Indonesia with a balanced ownership between public and private sectorMiddle school statistics between 2004-2005 http://www.depdiknas.go.id/statistik/thn04-05/SMP_0405.htm] .

High School

In Indonesia, generally known as by the abberviation "SMA" ("Sekolah Menegah Atas").Based on the national constitution, Indonesian citizens do not have to attend high school as the citizens only require nine years of education. This is also reflected by the number of high schools in Indonesia, with just slightly below 9,000 schoolsHigh school statistics between 2004-2005 http://www.depdiknas.go.id/statistik/thn04-05/SMA_0405.htm] .

Tertiary education

After graduation from High school or college, students may attend a university.

History

The Dutch introduced a system of formal education for the local population of Indonesia, although this was restricted to certain privileged children. The system they introduced was roughly similar to the current structure, with the following levels:
*ELS ("Dutch: Europeesche Lagere School") - Primary School
*MULO ("Dutch: Meer Uitgebreid Lager Onderwijs") - Middle School
*AMS ("Dutch: Algeme(e)ne Middelbare School") - High School or College

By the 1930s, the Dutch had introduced limited formal education to nearly every province of the Dutch East Indies.

References

ee also

*List of schools in Indonesia
*List of universities in Indonesia

External links

*nl icon [http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basisonderwijs_%28Nederlands-Indi%C3%AB%29 Primary education in the Dutch East Indies]

Life in Indonesia


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