- Sonny Stitt
Infobox musical artist
Name = Sonny Stitt
Img_capt = Sonny Stitt in New York City on July 6, 1976
Background = non_vocal_instrumentalist
Birth_name = Edward Stitt
February 2 1924
Died = death date and age|1982|7|22|1924|2|2
Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Tenor saxophone, Alto saxophone
Jazz, Bebop, hard bop
Billy Eckstine, Johnny Griffin, Charlie Parker, Miles Davis
Edward "Sonny" Stitt (b.
February 2, 1924, Boston, Massachusettscite news | first=John S. | last=Wilson | coauthors= | title=Sonny Stitt, Saxophonist, Is Dead; Style Likened to Charlie Parker's | date=1982 | publisher= | url =http://proquest.umi.com | work =The New York Times | pages =28 | accessdate = 2008-06-25 | language = ] – d. July 22, 1982, Washington, D.C.)cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=SONNY STITT, 58, JAZZ SAXOPHONIST, DISCIPLE OF CHARLIE (BIRD) PARKER | date=1982-07-25 | publisher= | url =http://proquest.umi.com | work =The Boston Globe | pages =1 | accessdate = 2008-06-25 | language = ] was an American jazz saxophonistof the bebop/ hard bopidiom. He was also one of the most well-documented saxophonists of his generation, recording over 100 records in his lifetime. He was nicknamed the "Lone Wolf" by jazz critic Dan Morgensternin tribute to his relentless touring and his devotion to jazz. He is considered the greatest disciple of Charlie Parker. [ [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:aifqxqy5ldse~T1 allmusic ((( Sonny Stitt > Biography ))) ] ] Although his playing was at first heavily inspired by Charlie Parkerand Lester Young, Stitt eventually developed his own style, one which influenced John Coltrane. Stitt was especially effective with blues and with ballad pieces such as "Skylark".
Stitt was born in
Boston, Massachusetts, and grew up in Saginaw, Michigan. Stitt had a musical background; his father was a college music professor, his brother was a classically trained pianist, and his mother was a piano teacher. In 1943 Stitt first met Charlie Parker, and as he often later recalled, the two men found that their styles had an extraordinary similarity that was partly coincidental and not merely due to Stitt's emulation. Stitt's earliest recordings were made in 1945 with Stan Getzand Dizzy Gillespie. He had also experienced playing in some swing bands, though he mainly played in bopbands. Stitt featured in Tiny Bradshaw's big band in the early forties. Stitt replaced Charlie Parker in Dizzy Gillespie's band in 1945.
Stitt played alto saxophone in
Billy Eckstine's big bandalongside future bop pioneers Dexter Gordonand Gene Ammonsfrom 1945 until 1949, when he started to play tenor saxophone more frequently. Later on, he notably played with Gene Ammonsand Bud Powell. Stitt spent time in a Lexington prison between 1948–49 for selling narcotics.
Stitt, when playing tenor saxophone, seemed to break free from some of the criticism that he was imitating
Charlie Parker's style, although it appears in the instance with Ammons above that the availability of the larger instrument was a factor. When alto saxophonist Gene Quillwas criticised for playing too similar to Parker once by a jazz writer he retorted: "you try imitating Charlie Parker!" Indeed, Stitt began to develop a far more distinctive sound on tenor. He played with other bop musicians Bud Powelland Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis, a fellow tenor with a distinctly tough tone in comparison to Stitt, in the 1950s and recorded a number of sides for Prestige Recordslabel as well as albums for Argo, Verve and Roost. Stitt experimented with Afro-Cuban jazzin the late 1950s, and the results can be heard on his recordings for Roost and Verve, on which he teamed up with Thad Jonesand Chick Coreafor Latin versions of such standards as "Autumn Leaves."
Miles Davisbriefly in 1960, and recordings with Davis' quintet can be found only in live settings on the tour of 1960. Concerts in Manchester and Paris are available commercially and also a number of concerts (which include sets by the earlier quintet with John Coltrane) on the record "Live at Stockholm" (Dragon), all of which featured Wynton Kelly, Jimmy Cobband Paul Chambers. However, Miles fired Stitt due to the excessive drinking habit he had developed, and replaced him with fellow tenor saxophonist Hank Mobley. Stitt, later in the 1960s paid homage to one of his main influences, Charlie Parker, on the album "Stitt Plays Bird", which features Jim Hall on guitar and at Newport in 1964 with other bebop players including J.J. Johnson.
He recorded a number of memorable records with his friend and fellow saxophonist
Gene Ammons, interrupted by Ammons' own imprisonment for narcotics possession. The records recorded by these two saxophonists are regarded by many as some of both Ammons and Stitt's best work, thus the Ammons/Stitt partnership went down in posterity as one of the best duelling partnerships in jazz, alongside Zoot Sims& Al Cohn, and Johnny Griffinwith Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis. Stitt would venture into soul jazz, and he recorded with fellow tenor saxophonist Booker Ervinin 1964 on the "Soul People" album. Stitt would also record with Duke Ellingtonalumnus Paul Gonsalvesduring the 1960s. Around that time he also appeared regularly at Ronnie Scott'sin London, a live 1964 recording with Ronnie Scott, "The Night Has A Thousand Eyes", would eventually be released, and another in 1966 with resident guitarist Ernest Ranglinand British tenor saxophonist Dick Morrissey.
In the 1970s, Stitt slowed his recording output slightly, and in 1972, he produced another classic, "Tune Up", which was and still is regarded by many jazz critics, such as
Scott Yanow, as his definitive record. Indeed, his fiery and ebullient soloing was quite reminiscent of his earlier playing. Stitt was one of the first jazz musicians to experiment with an electric saxophone (the instrument was called a Varitone), as heard on the album "Just The Way It Was - Live At The Left Bank", recorded in 1971 and released in 2000.
Stitt, joining the
Giants of Jazz(which included Art Blakey, Dizzy Gillespieand Thelonious Monk) on some albums for the Mercury Recordslabel, and recording sessions for Cobblestoneand other labels. His last recordings were made in Japan. Sadly, in 1982 Stitt suffered a heart attack, and he died on July 22.
* [http://www.vervemusicgroup.com/artist.aspx?ob=per&src=prd&aid=2810 Sonny Stitt at Verve Records]
* [http://members.tripod.com/~hardbop/stitt.html Sonny Stitt at the Hard Bop Homepage]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio3/jazz/profiles/sonny_stitt.shtml BBC - Radio 3 Jazz Profiles - Sonny Stitt]
* [http://www.ruminator.com/?p=133 Ruminator >> The Sonny Side of the Street]
* [http://www.charlesmcneal.com/WebPatterns.htm Some Stitt Transcriptions in PDF format]
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