- Viet Minh
The Việt Minh audio|Viet Minh.ogg|pronunciation (abbreviated from "Việt Nam Ðộc Lập Ðồng Minh Hội", English "League for the Independence of Vietnam") was a
national liberationmovement formed by Hồ Chí Minh in 1941to seek independencefor Vietnamfrom Franceas well as to oppose the Japanese occupation.
World War II
World War II, Japan occupied French Indochina. As well as fighting the Vichy French, the Việt Minh started a campaign against the Japanese. Due to their opposition to the Japanese, the Việt Minh received funding from the Americans and the Chinese, though the Chinese Nationalists would imprison Hồ Chí Minh for more than a year during the fight against the Japanese military dictatorshipbecause Ho was a follower of the communistideology. When Japan surrendered in August 1945, the Japanese handed over control of some public buildings in Hanoito the Việt Minh, now led by Hồ Chí Minh, also known as Uncle Ho, after turning in the Vietnamese nationalist leaders of the Việt Minh to the French colonialists. After the nationalist organizations proclaimed the independence of Việt Nam, Hồ proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnamon September 2, 1945.
First Indochina War
However, within days the Chinese
Kuomintang(Nationalist) Army arrived in Vietnam to supervise the repatriation of the Japanese Imperial Army. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam therefore existed only in theory and effectively controlled no territory. A few months later, the Chinese, Vietnamese and French came to a three way understanding. The French gave up certain rights in China, the Việt Minh agreed to the return of the French in exchange for promises of independence within the French Unionand the Chinese agreed to leave. Negotiations between the French and Việt Minh broke down quickly. What followed was nearly ten years of war against France. This was known as the First Indochina Waror, to the Vietnamese, the French War.
Jean-Etienne Valluyquickly pushed the Việt Minh out of Hanoi. His French infantry with armored units went through Hanoi, fighting small battles against isolated Việt Minh groups. The French encircled the Việt Minh base, Việt Bắc in 1947, but failed to defeat the Việt Minh forces, and had to retreat soon after that. The campaign is now widely considered as a Việt Minh victory over the well-equipped force of the French.
The Việt Minh continued fighting against the French until 1949, when the border of China and Viet Nam was linked together as the result of the campaign called Chiến dịch Biên giới (
Borderland Campaign). The newly Communist People's Republic of Chinagave the Việt Minh both sheltered bases and heavy weapons with which to fight the French. With the additional weapons, the Việt Minh were able to take control over many ruralareas of the country. Soon after that, they began to advance towards the French occupied areas.
Following their defeat at the Battle of Điện Biên Phủ, the French began negotiations to leave Vietnam. As a result of peace accords worked out at the Geneva Conference in
Geneva, Switzerland, Vietnam was divided into North Vietnamand South Vietnamat the 17th Parallel as a temporary measure until unifying electionswould take place in 1956. Transfer of civil administration of North Vietnam to the Việt Minh was given on October 11, 1954. Hồ Chí Minh was appointed Prime Ministerof North Vietnam, which would be run as a socialist state. Ngô Đình Diệm, who was previously appointed Prime Minister of South Vietnam by EmperorBảo Đại, eventually assumed control of South Vietnam. In the words of U.S. President Eisenhower:
It was generally conceded that had an election been held, Hồ Chí Minh would have been elected Premier. Unhappily, the situation was exacerbated by the almost total lack of leadership displayed by the Vietnamese Chief of State, Bảo Đại, who, while nominally the head of that nation, chose to spend the bulk of his time in the spas of Europe rather than in his own land leading his armies against those of Communism. [cite book
last = Eisenhower
first = Dwight
title = Mandate for Change, 1953-1956
year = 1963
publisher = Doubleday
location = Garden City, NY
pages = 337-38]
South Vietnam and its chief supporter, the United States, were not signatories to the 1954 agreement but did agree to respect its conditions. However, later South Vietnam, with the backing of the United States, refused to hold unifying elections, claiming that Hồ Chí Minh could not be trusted due to his affiliation with
The "Việt Nam Ðộc Lập Ðồng Minh Hội" is not to be confused with the "Việt Nam Cách Mạng Ðồng Minh Hội" (
League for the Vietnamese Revolution, abbreviated as "Việt Cách") which was founded by Nguyễn Hai Than and Hồ Ngoc Lam, and which later joined the Vietnamese National Coalitionin 1946.
History of Vietnam
Communist Party of Vietnam
* [http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/vietnam.htm Collection of Official Documents on Vietnam History]
* [http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/vietdec.htm Vietnamese Declaration of Independence]
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