Logging


Logging

Logging is the process in which trees are cut down for forest management and timber.

Use of the term logging in forestry

In forestry the term logging is sometimes used in a narrow sense concerning the logistics of moving wood from the stump to somewhere outside the forest, usually a mill. In common usage however the term may be used to indicate a range of forestry or silviculture activities. For example the practice of the removal of valuable trees from the forest has been called selective logging sometimes confused with selection cut. [ [http://www.na.fs.fed.us/stewardship/newsltr/newsletter/04fall_stewardship.pdf] Just Say No to High Grading ] Illegal logging refers to what in forestry might be called timber theft. [ [http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/forestry/420-136/420-136.html] ] An example of illegal logging is cedar theft, [ [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26842098/ Guilty pleas in cedar tree theft] , msnbc.com, September 23, 2008] which is most common in the American Pacific Northwest.Fact|date=October 2008 Timber theft in all forms is quite rare in the United States.Fact|date=September 2008 In common usage what is sometimes called clearcut logging is not is necessarily considered a type of logging but a harvest or silviculture method and is simply called clearcutting or block cutting. In the forest products industry logging companies may be referred as logging contractors.

Logging usually refers to above-ground forestry logging. Submerged forests exist on land that has been flooded to create artificial dams and reservoirs. Such trees are logged using underwater logging or by the lowering of the reservoirs in question. Ootsa Lake and Williston Lake in British Columbia, Canada, are notable examples where timber recovery has been needed to remove vast inundated forests.

Logging methods

The above operations can be carried out by different methods, of which the following three are considered industrial methods: ;Tree-length logging:Trees are felled and then delimbed and topped at the stump. The log is then transported to the landing, where it is bucked and loaded on a truck. This leaves the slash (and the nutrients it contains) in the cut area where it must be further treated if wildland fires are of concern.

Full-tree logging:Trees are felled and transported to the roadside with top and limbs intact. The trees are then delimbed, topped, and bucked at the landing. This method requires that slash be treated at the landing. In areas with access to cogeneration facilities, the slash can be chipped and used for the production of clean electricity or heat. Full-tree harvesting also refers to utilization of the entire tree including branches and tops. [ [http://www.ceres.ca.gov/snep/pubs/web/PDF/VII_C44.PDF ceres.ca.gov] ] This technique removes both nutrients and soil cover from the site and so can be harmful to the long term health of the area if no further action is taken, however, depending on the species, many of the limbs are often broken off in handling so the end result may not be as different from tree-length logging as it might seem.

;Cut-to-length logging:Big trees are felled, delimbed, bucked, and sorted (pulpwood, sawlog, etc.) at the stump area, leaving limbs and tops in the forest. Harvesters fell the tree, delimb and buck it, and place the resulting logs in bunks to be brought to the landing by the forwarder. This method is usable for smaller timber on ground flat enough that forwarders can operate, but does not work well on steep slopes.

Logging and safety

Logging is a dangerous occupation. In the United States, it has consistently been one of the most hazardous industries, having a fatality rate over 21 times higher than the rate for all workers in the US. [cite web|url= http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/logging |title=NIOSH Logging Safety |accessdate=2008-01-21|publisher=United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health] Loggers work with heavy, moving weights and the use of tools such as chainsaws and heavy equipment on uneven and sometimes unstable terrain. Loggers also deal with severe environmental conditions such as inclement weather and severe heat or cold. An injured logger is often far from professional emergency treatment.

Traditionally, the cry of "Timber!" developed as a warning alerting fellow workers in an area that a tree is being felled, so they should be alert to avoid being struck. The term "widowmaker" for timber that is neither standing nor fallen to the ground demonstrates another emphasis on situational awareness as a safety principle.

The risks experienced in logging operations can be somewhat reduced, where conditions permit, by the use of mechanical tree harvesters and forwarders.

Logging and the environment

The many impacts of logging on the environment can be divided into two broad categories, the timber harvest itself, that is, the removal of trees from the forest, and secondly the impact caused by logging operations such as falling or dragging trees and operation of machinery in the forest.Logging is defined as the removal of particular trees to be utilized for timber. It is this process that provides the wood to shelter people throughout the globe. Unfortunately, there are very little restrictions enforced about the quantity of trees that are logged or the methods to go about this process. Due to the lack of policies, logging continues to contribute to an immense amount of ecological damage. Politicians continue to claim that there is insufficient evidence about the problems induced by logging. As a result, various studies and experiments have been performed in an effort to prove the environmental hazards imposed by logging.

ee also

*Sawmill
*Log scaler
*Log bucking
*Cable logging
*Illegal logging
*Logging wheels
*Shovel logging
*Skyline logging
*Salvage logging
*Underwater logging
*Deforestation

References

* Costa, F., & Magnusson, W. (2002). Selective logging effects on abundance, diversity, and composition of tropical understory herbs. Ecological Applications, 12, 807-819.

* Pinard, M. A., & Putz, F. E. (1996). Retaining forest biomass by reducing logging damage. Biotropica, 28, 278-295.

* Shukla, J., Sellers, P., & Nobre, C. (1990). Amazon deforestation and climate change. Science, 247, 1322-1325.

* Sokal, R. R., Gurevitch, J., & Brown, K. A. (2004). Long-term impacts of logging on forest diversity in Madagascar. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 6045-6049.

* Putz, F., Sist, P., & Frederickson, T. (2008). Reduced-impact logging: challenges and opportunities [Abstract] . Forest Ecology & Management, 256, 1427-1433.

External links

* [http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/logging/ National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health - Logging Safety Page]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • logging — log‧ging [ˈlɒgɪŋ ǁ ˈlɒː , ˈlɑː ] noun [uncountable] the work of cutting down trees in a forest in order to sell the wood: • Commercial logging is banned in 40 of the country s 73 provinces. • a Brazilian logging company * * * logging UK US… …   Financial and business terms

  • logging — The cutting of, or commercial dealing in, tree trunks that have been cut down and stripped of all branches. Dictionary from West s Encyclopedia of American Law. 2005. logging The cutting of, or commercial deal …   Law dictionary

  • logging in — A colloquial term for the process of making the initial record of the names of individuals who have been brought to the police station upon their arrest. Dictionary from West s Encyclopedia of American Law. 2005. logging in …   Law dictionary

  • logging — logging; pre·logging; …   English syllables

  • Logging — Log ging, n. The business of felling trees, cutting them into logs, and transporting the logs to sawmills or to market. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • logging — ☆ logging [lôg′iŋ ] n. the occupation of cutting down trees, cutting them into logs, and transporting the logs to a sawmill …   English World dictionary

  • logging — /law ging, log ing/, n. 1. the process, work, or business of cutting down trees and transporting the logs to sawmills. 2. Naut. a deduction from the pay of a sailor, made as a fine or forfeit and recorded in the logbook of the ship. [1700 10,… …   Universalium

  • Logging — Historique (informatique) Pour les articles homonymes, voir Historique. En informatique, le concept d historique des événements ou de logging désigne l enregistrement séquentiel dans un fichier ou une base de données de tous les événements… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • logging — {{11}}logging (n.1) act of felling timber, 1706, verbal noun from LOG (Cf. log) (v.1). {{12}}logging (n.2) act of recording in a log, 1941, verbal noun from LOG (Cf. log) (v.2) …   Etymology dictionary

  • logging — [[t]lɒ̱gɪŋ, AM lɔ͟ːg [/t]] N UNCOUNT: oft N n Logging is the activity of cutting down trees in order to sell the wood. Logging companies would have to leave a central area of the forest before the end of the year …   English dictionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.