- Portuguese verb conjugation
Portuguese verbs display a high degree of
inflection. A typical regular verb has over fifty different forms, expressing up to six different grammatical tenses and three moods. Two forms are peculiar to Portuguese within the Romance languages:
* The personal
infinitive, a non-finite form which does not show tense, but is inflected for person and number.
* The future subjunctive, nowadays archaic in related languages such as Spanish, but still active in Portuguese.
It has also several verbal periphrases.
Portuguese verbs have the following properties.
:1. Two numbers—singular, plural:2. Three persons—first, second, third:3. Three aspects—perfective, imperfective, progressive*:4. Two voices—active, passive*:5. Six (or five) tenses—present, preterite, imperfect, pluperfect, future, and conditional.:6. Three (or four) moods—indicative, subjunctive, imperative (and conditional, according to some authors)
Classes with an asterisk are entirely periphrastic. The passive voice can be constructed in two different ways. The pluperfect, the future, and the conditional of the indicative mood are often replaced with other tenses or verbal periphrases in the spoken language.
Basic tenses and moods
Conjugation is demonstrated here with the important
irregular verb"fazer" "to do". The Portuguese names of the tenses ("tempos") and moods ("modos") are given along with their English translations.
# or "hemos" (archaic)
# or "heis" (archaic)
Conditional and future
There are few irregular verbs for these tenses(only "dizer", "fazer", "trazer", and their compounds - also"haver", "ter", "ser", "ir", "pôr", "estar", etc. - for the Subjunctive Future Imperfect).The Indicative Future Imperfect, Conditional and SubjunctiveFuture Imperfect tenses are formed byadding to the infinitive of the verb the Indicative Present inflections of the
auxiliary verb"haver" (dropping the "h" and "av"), the2nd/3rd conjugation endings of the Preterit Imperfect and the PersonalInfinitive endings, respectively. Thus, for the majorityof the verbs, the Simple Personal Infinitive coincides with Subjunctive FutureImperfect.
The affirmative imperative for second person pronouns "tu" and "vós" is obtained from the present indicative, by deletion of the final "-s" (in some cases, an accent mark must be added to the vowel which precedes it). For other persons, and for negative clauses, the present subjunctive takes the role of imperative.
Present inflections pronunciation
In this tense, the stress fluctuates between the root and thetermination. As a rule of thumb, the last radical vowel (the one thatcan be stressed) will retain its original pronunciation when unstressed(atonic) and change into [a] , [e] (Subjunctive or Indicative 1st pers sing)/ [ɛ] (Infinitive), or [o] (Subjunctive or Indicative 1st pers sing)/ [ɔ] (Infinitive) - dependingon the vowel in question - in case it is stressed (is in a tonic syllable).Other vowels ("u", "i") and nasalized sounds will probably stayunchanged.Examples: See the conjugation of "comer" [-u-] above, in the IndicativePresent Simple. The "o" will assume three values [u] , [o] and [ɔ] .Compare with "absorver" [-ɔ-] .It will be conjugated as [ɐ·ˈbsoɾ·vu] , [ɐ·ˈbsɔɾ·vɨʃ] , [ɐ·ˈbsɔɾ·vɨ] , [ɐ·bsɔɾ·ˈve·muʃ] , [ɐ·bsɔɾ·ˈvɐjʃ] , [ɐ·ˈbsɔɾ·vɐ̃j] .The value [u] is not assumed in this case.This also has repercussions in the Imperative, for its inflections areconstructed from the Indicative Present Simple.
Portuguese personal pronouns and possessives
* [http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Portuguese:Variation_of_the_Portuguese_Verbs Wikibooks: Variation of the Portuguese Verbs]
* [http://www.verbomatic.com/ Verbomatic] Free Online Multi-language verb conjugation
* [http://www.orbilat.com/Languages/Portuguese/Grammar/Portuguese-Verb-Conjugation-Simple_Tenses.html Conjugation paradigm for Portuguese regular verbs] , at Orbis Latinus
* [http://www.inf.ufrgs.br/~emiliano/conver/geral_i.html ConVer — Paradigm of the Portuguese verb conjugation]
* [http://www.geocities.com/email_theguy/newportweb/portuguese_verbregulars.htm Portuguese: Regular Verb Endings] , at the Portuguese Online Homepage
* [http://lxconjugator.di.fc.ul.pt/ LX-Conjugator] Online conjugator with support for pronominal conjugation (up to three clitics)
* [http://www.priberam.pt/dlpo/dlpo.aspx Priberam] free online dictionary and conjugator
* [http://www.verbix.com/languages/portuguese.shtml Verbix] free online verb conjugator
* [http://www.verbs-online.com/portuguese-verbs/portuguese-verbs.htm Verbs-online.com] Online verb conjugation trainer
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