- Yuri Feodorovich Orlov
name = Yuri Orlov Юрий Орлов
box_width = 300px
image_width = 300px
caption = Yuri Orlov makes speech at the Cornell University,2005
August 13, 1924
ethnicity = Russian
known_for = nuclear
physicist, dissident, human rightsactivist.
Carter-Menil Human Rights Prize(1986), Nicholson Medal for Humanitarian Service(1995), Andrei Sakharov Prize(2006)
Yuri Feodorovich Orlov ( _ru. Юрий Орлов, born
August 13, 1924) is a prominent nuclear physicist, a former Soviet dissident, and a human rightsactivist.
During his childhood, in the 1930s, Orlov witnessed the destruction of his home village by
Stalinist collectivisation in the USSR.
World War IIhe worked at the Moscow Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, from which he was fired in 1956 for his human rightsactivism. He was sent into "soft exile" in Armenia, where in the early 1970s he led Particle acceleratorprojects at the YerevanPhysics Institute.
Upon his return to Moscow in 1973 he worked at the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism and Propagation of Radio Waves in suburban Troitsk, whilst at the same time publicly supporting
Andrei Sakharovand Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. In 1976, to the further displeasure of the authorities, he founded the Moscow Helsinki Groupto monitor Soviet adherence to the 1975 Helsinki human rights accords.
Arrested in 1977, Orlov was incarcerated in the
Siberian Gulagfor almost ten years. In July 1983, the Austrian Chancellor Bruno Kreiskysent a letter asking for the release of Orlov to Austria, but it was intentionally left without an answerAbout letter of Bruno Kreisky to Yuri Andropov. [http://psi.ece.jhu.edu/~kaplan/IRUSS/BUK/GBARC/pdfs/dis80/lett83-1.pdf] to the Soviet leader Yuri Andropov] .
Orlov was freed in 1986, only to be stripped of his Soviet citizenship and deported to the
United Statesas a part of the exchange for a Soviet spy.
Since December 1986 Orlov has pursued his physics research at
A member of the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Orlov studies particle acceleratordesign, beam interaction analysis and quantum mechanics. He has authored numerous research papers, articles on human rights, and an autobiography, "Dangerous Thoughts" (1991).
In 1995 the
American Physical Societyawarded him the Nicholson Medal for Humanitarian Service.
In 2005 Orlov participated in "
They Chose Freedom", a four-part television documentary on the history of the Soviet dissident movement. In 2005 he was named the first recipient of the 2006 Andrei Sakharov Prize, awarded biennially by the American Physical Societyto honor scientists for exceptional work in promoting human rights.2006 Andrei Sakharov Prize Recipient. http://www.aps.org/programs/honors/prizes/prizerecipient.cfm?name=Yuri%20Orlov] . ] Lauren Gold. First Andrei Sakharov Prize for human rights goes to Cornell physicist and former Soviet gulag prisoner Yuri Orlov.- Chronicle Online, Nov.14, 2005.http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/Nov05/Orlov.award.ed.lg.html ] .
He is a member of the
Human Rights WatchAsia Advisory and Academic Freedom Committees, and member of the Honorary 25th Anniversary Committee, Global Rights.
*Орлов Ю.Ф. Опасные мысли: Мемуары из рус. жизни. - М.: Аргументы и факты, 1992. - 349 с., 4 л. портр. http://maiskoechtivo.pstu.ru/2006/4/4.htm (in Russian)
*Y.F. Orlov. Dangerous Thoughts. Memoirs of a Russian Life“ - William Morrow in May 1991, ISBN 0-688-10471-1
*Yu.Orlov, W.M.Morse, Semertzidis. Resonance method of electric-dipole-moment measurements in storage rings, PRL, 96 (2006) 214802; http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ex/0605022
* [http://www.aps.org/praw/nicholso/95winner.cfm APS Nicholson Medal Citation and biographical background]
* [http://www.aps.org/praw/sakharov/06winner.cfm APS Sakharov Prize Citation and biographical background]
* [http://www.people.cornell.edu/pages/yfo1/ Yuri Orlov Cornell University Homepage]
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