- Party for the Liberation of the Hutu People
The Party for the Liberation of the Hutu People (also known as PALIPEHUTU, the acronym of its french name "Parti pour la liberation du peuple hutu") is a rebel group in
Burundiwhich fought in the Burundi Civil Warfor the Hutuethnic group. The armed wing of PALIPEHUTU is the National Forces of Liberation (FNL or "Forces nationales de liberation"). The FNL is led by Agathon Rwasaand is estimated to have around 3,000 combatants. [http://www.issafrica.org/dynamic/administration/file_manager/file_links/REPORT%20%20BURUNDI%20_ENG%20_.PDF?link_id=&slink_id=3832&link_type=&slink_type=13&tmpl_id=3 AU Peace & Security Council Report] , " Peace and Security Council", 2006-11-09]
A dissident wing is led by Jean Bosco Sindayigaya ]
PALIPEHUTU was founded in 1980 in refugee camps in
Tanzania, where Hutus had fled following persecution by the Tutsi-led government. [http://www.pcr.uu.se/database/conflictSummary.php?bcID=11 Burundi Conflict Database] , " Uppsala University" ] PALIPEHUTU advocated armed struggle and established its armed wing, the FNL, in 1985. The National Liberation Front(FROLINA) split from PALIPEHUTU in 1990, and the armed wing PALIPEHUTU-FNL, led by Cossan Kaburasplit from the political wing of PALIPEHUTU in 1991. The political wing of PALIPEHUTU was renamed the Party for the Liberation of People-Agakizaand is led by Etienne Karatasi. In 2002 PALIPEHUTU-FNL split into two factions, one led by Kabura and one by Agathon Rwasa.
Generally, PALIPEHUTU's support comes more from the central region of
Muramvyaand Lake Tanganyika, whereas the main Hutu political party CNDDderives its support from the southern Bururiregion. [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/palipehutu.htm PALIPEHUTU & FNL] , " Global Security" ]
During the civil war, PALIPEHUTU-FNL was linked to the killing of Monsignor
Michael Courtney[ [http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/ACOS-64CRA3?OpenDocument Assassination of Apostolic Nuncio blamed on FNL/Palipehutu] , " Relief Web", 2003-12-30] , the Catholic Church's chief representative in Burundi, the Titanic Express massacreand the Gatumbamassacre in which over 150 Banyamulenge Congoleserefugees were killed.
PALIPEHUTU also fought in the
Second Congo Waralongside the Congolese army, the Army for the Liberation of Rwandaand the Mai-Maiagainst the Burundian army. ]
Following the Gatumba massacre, the
Great Lakes Peace Initiativedeclared PALIPEHUTU-FNL to be a terrorist organisation, and the South African President, Thabo Mbekicalled on the International Criminal Courtto prosecute. [ [http://www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/anctoday/2004/at33.htm Young lions of the African Century] , " African National Congress", 2004-08-26]
PALIPEHUTU-FNL was the last Hutu rebel group to sign an agreement with the Burundi government, which it did in September 2006 [ [http://www.ippmedia.com/ipp/guardian/2006/09/08/74034.html At last Burundi, Palipehutu-FNL sign ceasefire] , "
IPP Media", 2006-09-08]
The party's emblem a bent bow and an arrow placed between a hoe and a hammer. The party's flag is red with a the centre inscribed the emblem of the party in black. Red symbolizes the suffering endured by the people of Burundi. The bent bow and the arrow symbolize the struggle for the fundamental rights and liberties. The hoe and the hammer, whose handles converges, symbolize the commitment in unity to agricultural and industrial development, respectively. Green symbolizes the hope to set up peace, justice and democracy in Burundi. [ [http://fotw.net/flags/bi%7D.html#pali Political flags of Burundi] ]
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